Abstract

The noise performance of an infrared injection photon detector with very high internal gain was investigated at a wavelength of 1.55 µm. The devices showed sub-Poissonian shot noise with Fano factors around 0.55 at 0.7 V at room temperature. Optical to electrical conversion factors of 3000 electrons per absorbed photon were recorded at 0.7 V. The change in noise-equivalent power with respect to bias voltage was evaluated. The optical to electrical conversion factor and Fano factor were measured under increasing illumination and compared to theoretical expectations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. J. Edwards, "Sub-Poissonian electronic and photonic noise generation in semiconductor junctions," Aust. J. Phys. 53, 179-192 (2000).
  2. G. Kiesslich, H. Sprekeler, A. Wacker, and E. Scholl, "Positive correlations in tunnelling through coupled quantum dots," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, S37-S39 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. A. Maione, M. Macucci, G. Iannaccone, G. Basso, B. Pellegrini, M. Lazzarino, L. Sorba, and F. Beltram, "Probing Pauli blocking with shot noise in resonant tunneling diodes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 75, 125327 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Y. Aleshkin, L. Reggiani, N. V. Alkeev, V. E. Lyubchenko, C. N. Ironside, J. M. L. Figueiredo, and C. R. Stanley, "Giant suppression of shot noise in double barrier resonant diode: a signature of coherent transport," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, L35-L38 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Wacker E. Schöll A. Nauen F. Hohls R. J. Haug G. Kiesslich, "Shot noise in tunneling through a quantum dot array," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 1293-1296 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, "Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).
  7. R. J. Mcintyre, "Multiplication Noise in Uniform Avalanche Diodes," IEEE Tran. Electron Dev. 13, 164-168 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Z. Xie, D. Kuhl, E. H. Bottcher, S. Y. Ren, and D. Bimberg, "Wide-Band Frequency-Response Measurements of Photodetectors using Low-Level Photocurrent Noise Detection," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8641-8646 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. L. Goh, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, and J. P. R. David, "Excess noise measurement in In0.53Ga0.47As," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2412-2414 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. S. Lau, C. H. Tan, B. K. Ng, K. F. Li, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, "Excess noise measurement in avalanche photodiodes using a transimpedance amplifier front-end," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1941-1946 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. G. Memis, S. C. Kong, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "A photon detector with very high gain at low bias and at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171112 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. G. Memis, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "On the Source of Jitter in a Room Temperature Nano-Injection Photon Detector at 1.55 μm," IEEE Electron Device Lett. (to be published)
  13. S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, "Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267-1288 (2004).
  14. F. Z. Xie, D. Kuhl, E. H. Bottcher, S. Y. Ren, and D. Bimberg, "Wide-band frequency response measurements of photodetectors using low-level photocurrent noise detection," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8641 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. L. Voss, K. G. Köprülü, S.-K. Choi, S. Dugan1, P. Kumar, "4 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1369-1379 (2004).

2007

I. A. Maione, M. Macucci, G. Iannaccone, G. Basso, B. Pellegrini, M. Lazzarino, L. Sorba, and F. Beltram, "Probing Pauli blocking with shot noise in resonant tunneling diodes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 75, 125327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Memis, S. C. Kong, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "A photon detector with very high gain at low bias and at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171112 (2007)
[CrossRef]

2006

K. S. Lau, C. H. Tan, B. K. Ng, K. F. Li, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, "Excess noise measurement in avalanche photodiodes using a transimpedance amplifier front-end," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1941-1946 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. L. Goh, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, and J. P. R. David, "Excess noise measurement in In0.53Ga0.47As," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2412-2414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, "Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

G. Kiesslich, H. Sprekeler, A. Wacker, and E. Scholl, "Positive correlations in tunnelling through coupled quantum dots," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, S37-S39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Voss, K. G. Köprülü, S.-K. Choi, S. Dugan1, P. Kumar, "4 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1369-1379 (2004).

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, "Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267-1288 (2004).

2003

V. Y. Aleshkin, L. Reggiani, N. V. Alkeev, V. E. Lyubchenko, C. N. Ironside, J. M. L. Figueiredo, and C. R. Stanley, "Giant suppression of shot noise in double barrier resonant diode: a signature of coherent transport," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, L35-L38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Wacker E. Schöll A. Nauen F. Hohls R. J. Haug G. Kiesslich, "Shot noise in tunneling through a quantum dot array," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 1293-1296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. J. Edwards, "Sub-Poissonian electronic and photonic noise generation in semiconductor junctions," Aust. J. Phys. 53, 179-192 (2000).

1993

F. Z. Xie, D. Kuhl, E. H. Bottcher, S. Y. Ren, and D. Bimberg, "Wide-Band Frequency-Response Measurements of Photodetectors using Low-Level Photocurrent Noise Detection," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8641-8646 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Xie, D. Kuhl, E. H. Bottcher, S. Y. Ren, and D. Bimberg, "Wide-band frequency response measurements of photodetectors using low-level photocurrent noise detection," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8641 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1966

R. J. Mcintyre, "Multiplication Noise in Uniform Avalanche Diodes," IEEE Tran. Electron Dev. 13, 164-168 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Adesida, I.

O. G. Memis, S. C. Kong, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "A photon detector with very high gain at low bias and at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171112 (2007)
[CrossRef]

O. G. Memis, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "On the Source of Jitter in a Room Temperature Nano-Injection Photon Detector at 1.55 μm," IEEE Electron Device Lett. (to be published)

Aleshkin, V. Y.

V. Y. Aleshkin, L. Reggiani, N. V. Alkeev, V. E. Lyubchenko, C. N. Ironside, J. M. L. Figueiredo, and C. R. Stanley, "Giant suppression of shot noise in double barrier resonant diode: a signature of coherent transport," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, L35-L38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alkeev, N. V.

V. Y. Aleshkin, L. Reggiani, N. V. Alkeev, V. E. Lyubchenko, C. N. Ironside, J. M. L. Figueiredo, and C. R. Stanley, "Giant suppression of shot noise in double barrier resonant diode: a signature of coherent transport," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, L35-L38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Basso, G.

I. A. Maione, M. Macucci, G. Iannaccone, G. Basso, B. Pellegrini, M. Lazzarino, L. Sorba, and F. Beltram, "Probing Pauli blocking with shot noise in resonant tunneling diodes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 75, 125327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beltram, F.

I. A. Maione, M. Macucci, G. Iannaccone, G. Basso, B. Pellegrini, M. Lazzarino, L. Sorba, and F. Beltram, "Probing Pauli blocking with shot noise in resonant tunneling diodes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 75, 125327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

F. Z. Xie, D. Kuhl, E. H. Bottcher, S. Y. Ren, and D. Bimberg, "Wide-Band Frequency-Response Measurements of Photodetectors using Low-Level Photocurrent Noise Detection," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8641-8646 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Xie, D. Kuhl, E. H. Bottcher, S. Y. Ren, and D. Bimberg, "Wide-band frequency response measurements of photodetectors using low-level photocurrent noise detection," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8641 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bottcher, E. H.

F. Z. Xie, D. Kuhl, E. H. Bottcher, S. Y. Ren, and D. Bimberg, "Wide-band frequency response measurements of photodetectors using low-level photocurrent noise detection," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8641 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Xie, D. Kuhl, E. H. Bottcher, S. Y. Ren, and D. Bimberg, "Wide-Band Frequency-Response Measurements of Photodetectors using Low-Level Photocurrent Noise Detection," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8641-8646 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.-K.

P. L. Voss, K. G. Köprülü, S.-K. Choi, S. Dugan1, P. Kumar, "4 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1369-1379 (2004).

Cova, S.

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, "Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267-1288 (2004).

David, J. P. R.

K. S. Lau, C. H. Tan, B. K. Ng, K. F. Li, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, "Excess noise measurement in avalanche photodiodes using a transimpedance amplifier front-end," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1941-1946 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Goh, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, and J. P. R. David, "Excess noise measurement in In0.53Ga0.47As," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2412-2414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dugan, S.

P. L. Voss, K. G. Köprülü, S.-K. Choi, S. Dugan1, P. Kumar, "4 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1369-1379 (2004).

Edwards, P. J.

P. J. Edwards, "Sub-Poissonian electronic and photonic noise generation in semiconductor junctions," Aust. J. Phys. 53, 179-192 (2000).

Figueiredo, J. M. L.

V. Y. Aleshkin, L. Reggiani, N. V. Alkeev, V. E. Lyubchenko, C. N. Ironside, J. M. L. Figueiredo, and C. R. Stanley, "Giant suppression of shot noise in double barrier resonant diode: a signature of coherent transport," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, L35-L38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ghioni, M.

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, "Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267-1288 (2004).

Gisin, N.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, "Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

Goh, Y. L.

Y. L. Goh, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, and J. P. R. David, "Excess noise measurement in In0.53Ga0.47As," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2412-2414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guinnard, O.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, "Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

Iannaccone, G.

I. A. Maione, M. Macucci, G. Iannaccone, G. Basso, B. Pellegrini, M. Lazzarino, L. Sorba, and F. Beltram, "Probing Pauli blocking with shot noise in resonant tunneling diodes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 75, 125327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ironside, C. N.

V. Y. Aleshkin, L. Reggiani, N. V. Alkeev, V. E. Lyubchenko, C. N. Ironside, J. M. L. Figueiredo, and C. R. Stanley, "Giant suppression of shot noise in double barrier resonant diode: a signature of coherent transport," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, L35-L38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jin, N.

O. G. Memis, S. C. Kong, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "A photon detector with very high gain at low bias and at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171112 (2007)
[CrossRef]

O. G. Memis, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "On the Source of Jitter in a Room Temperature Nano-Injection Photon Detector at 1.55 μm," IEEE Electron Device Lett. (to be published)

Katsnelson, A.

O. G. Memis, S. C. Kong, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "A photon detector with very high gain at low bias and at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171112 (2007)
[CrossRef]

O. G. Memis, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "On the Source of Jitter in a Room Temperature Nano-Injection Photon Detector at 1.55 μm," IEEE Electron Device Lett. (to be published)

Kiesslich, G.

G. Kiesslich, H. Sprekeler, A. Wacker, and E. Scholl, "Positive correlations in tunnelling through coupled quantum dots," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, S37-S39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kong, S. C.

O. G. Memis, S. C. Kong, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "A photon detector with very high gain at low bias and at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171112 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Köprülü, K. G.

P. L. Voss, K. G. Köprülü, S.-K. Choi, S. Dugan1, P. Kumar, "4 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1369-1379 (2004).

Kuhl, D.

F. Z. Xie, D. Kuhl, E. H. Bottcher, S. Y. Ren, and D. Bimberg, "Wide-band frequency response measurements of photodetectors using low-level photocurrent noise detection," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8641 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Xie, D. Kuhl, E. H. Bottcher, S. Y. Ren, and D. Bimberg, "Wide-Band Frequency-Response Measurements of Photodetectors using Low-Level Photocurrent Noise Detection," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8641-8646 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. S.

K. S. Lau, C. H. Tan, B. K. Ng, K. F. Li, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, "Excess noise measurement in avalanche photodiodes using a transimpedance amplifier front-end," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1941-1946 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lazzarino, M.

I. A. Maione, M. Macucci, G. Iannaccone, G. Basso, B. Pellegrini, M. Lazzarino, L. Sorba, and F. Beltram, "Probing Pauli blocking with shot noise in resonant tunneling diodes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 75, 125327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, K. F.

K. S. Lau, C. H. Tan, B. K. Ng, K. F. Li, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, "Excess noise measurement in avalanche photodiodes using a transimpedance amplifier front-end," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1941-1946 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lotito, A.

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, "Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267-1288 (2004).

Lyubchenko, V. E.

V. Y. Aleshkin, L. Reggiani, N. V. Alkeev, V. E. Lyubchenko, C. N. Ironside, J. M. L. Figueiredo, and C. R. Stanley, "Giant suppression of shot noise in double barrier resonant diode: a signature of coherent transport," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, L35-L38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Macucci, M.

I. A. Maione, M. Macucci, G. Iannaccone, G. Basso, B. Pellegrini, M. Lazzarino, L. Sorba, and F. Beltram, "Probing Pauli blocking with shot noise in resonant tunneling diodes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 75, 125327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maione, I. A.

I. A. Maione, M. Macucci, G. Iannaccone, G. Basso, B. Pellegrini, M. Lazzarino, L. Sorba, and F. Beltram, "Probing Pauli blocking with shot noise in resonant tunneling diodes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 75, 125327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mcintyre, R. J.

R. J. Mcintyre, "Multiplication Noise in Uniform Avalanche Diodes," IEEE Tran. Electron Dev. 13, 164-168 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Memis, O. G.

O. G. Memis, S. C. Kong, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "A photon detector with very high gain at low bias and at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171112 (2007)
[CrossRef]

O. G. Memis, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "On the Source of Jitter in a Room Temperature Nano-Injection Photon Detector at 1.55 μm," IEEE Electron Device Lett. (to be published)

Mohseni, H.

O. G. Memis, S. C. Kong, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "A photon detector with very high gain at low bias and at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171112 (2007)
[CrossRef]

O. G. Memis, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "On the Source of Jitter in a Room Temperature Nano-Injection Photon Detector at 1.55 μm," IEEE Electron Device Lett. (to be published)

Ng, B. K.

K. S. Lau, C. H. Tan, B. K. Ng, K. F. Li, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, "Excess noise measurement in avalanche photodiodes using a transimpedance amplifier front-end," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1941-1946 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J. S.

Y. L. Goh, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, and J. P. R. David, "Excess noise measurement in In0.53Ga0.47As," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2412-2414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W. K.

Y. L. Goh, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, and J. P. R. David, "Excess noise measurement in In0.53Ga0.47As," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2412-2414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrini, B.

I. A. Maione, M. Macucci, G. Iannaccone, G. Basso, B. Pellegrini, M. Lazzarino, L. Sorba, and F. Beltram, "Probing Pauli blocking with shot noise in resonant tunneling diodes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 75, 125327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rech, I.

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, "Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267-1288 (2004).

Rees, G. J.

K. S. Lau, C. H. Tan, B. K. Ng, K. F. Li, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, "Excess noise measurement in avalanche photodiodes using a transimpedance amplifier front-end," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1941-1946 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reggiani, L.

V. Y. Aleshkin, L. Reggiani, N. V. Alkeev, V. E. Lyubchenko, C. N. Ironside, J. M. L. Figueiredo, and C. R. Stanley, "Giant suppression of shot noise in double barrier resonant diode: a signature of coherent transport," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, L35-L38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S. Y.

F. Z. Xie, D. Kuhl, E. H. Bottcher, S. Y. Ren, and D. Bimberg, "Wide-Band Frequency-Response Measurements of Photodetectors using Low-Level Photocurrent Noise Detection," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8641-8646 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Xie, D. Kuhl, E. H. Bottcher, S. Y. Ren, and D. Bimberg, "Wide-band frequency response measurements of photodetectors using low-level photocurrent noise detection," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8641 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, "Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

Scholl, E.

G. Kiesslich, H. Sprekeler, A. Wacker, and E. Scholl, "Positive correlations in tunnelling through coupled quantum dots," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, S37-S39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sorba, L.

I. A. Maione, M. Macucci, G. Iannaccone, G. Basso, B. Pellegrini, M. Lazzarino, L. Sorba, and F. Beltram, "Probing Pauli blocking with shot noise in resonant tunneling diodes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 75, 125327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sprekeler, H.

G. Kiesslich, H. Sprekeler, A. Wacker, and E. Scholl, "Positive correlations in tunnelling through coupled quantum dots," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, S37-S39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, C. R.

V. Y. Aleshkin, L. Reggiani, N. V. Alkeev, V. E. Lyubchenko, C. N. Ironside, J. M. L. Figueiredo, and C. R. Stanley, "Giant suppression of shot noise in double barrier resonant diode: a signature of coherent transport," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, L35-L38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stucki, D.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, "Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

Tan, C. H.

K. S. Lau, C. H. Tan, B. K. Ng, K. F. Li, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, "Excess noise measurement in avalanche photodiodes using a transimpedance amplifier front-end," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1941-1946 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Goh, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, and J. P. R. David, "Excess noise measurement in In0.53Ga0.47As," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2412-2414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tozer, R. C.

K. S. Lau, C. H. Tan, B. K. Ng, K. F. Li, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, "Excess noise measurement in avalanche photodiodes using a transimpedance amplifier front-end," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1941-1946 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Voss, P. L.

P. L. Voss, K. G. Köprülü, S.-K. Choi, S. Dugan1, P. Kumar, "4 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1369-1379 (2004).

Wacker, A.

G. Kiesslich, H. Sprekeler, A. Wacker, and E. Scholl, "Positive correlations in tunnelling through coupled quantum dots," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, S37-S39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wegmuller, M.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, "Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

Xie, F. Z.

F. Z. Xie, D. Kuhl, E. H. Bottcher, S. Y. Ren, and D. Bimberg, "Wide-Band Frequency-Response Measurements of Photodetectors using Low-Level Photocurrent Noise Detection," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8641-8646 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Xie, D. Kuhl, E. H. Bottcher, S. Y. Ren, and D. Bimberg, "Wide-band frequency response measurements of photodetectors using low-level photocurrent noise detection," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8641 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

O. G. Memis, S. C. Kong, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "A photon detector with very high gain at low bias and at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171112 (2007)
[CrossRef]

O. G. Memis, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "On the Source of Jitter in a Room Temperature Nano-Injection Photon Detector at 1.55 μm," IEEE Electron Device Lett. (to be published)

Zappa, F.

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, "Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267-1288 (2004).

Zbinden, H.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, "Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

Zhang, S.

O. G. Memis, S. C. Kong, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "A photon detector with very high gain at low bias and at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171112 (2007)
[CrossRef]

O. G. Memis, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "On the Source of Jitter in a Room Temperature Nano-Injection Photon Detector at 1.55 μm," IEEE Electron Device Lett. (to be published)

Appl. Phys. Lett.

O. G. Memis, S. C. Kong, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "A photon detector with very high gain at low bias and at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171112 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Aust. J. Phys.

P. J. Edwards, "Sub-Poissonian electronic and photonic noise generation in semiconductor junctions," Aust. J. Phys. 53, 179-192 (2000).

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

O. G. Memis, A. Katsnelson, H. Mohseni, M. Yan, S. Zhang, N. Jin, and I. Adesida, "On the Source of Jitter in a Room Temperature Nano-Injection Photon Detector at 1.55 μm," IEEE Electron Device Lett. (to be published)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y. L. Goh, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, and J. P. R. David, "Excess noise measurement in In0.53Ga0.47As," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2412-2414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Tran. Electron Dev.

R. J. Mcintyre, "Multiplication Noise in Uniform Avalanche Diodes," IEEE Tran. Electron Dev. 13, 164-168 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

F. Z. Xie, D. Kuhl, E. H. Bottcher, S. Y. Ren, and D. Bimberg, "Wide-Band Frequency-Response Measurements of Photodetectors using Low-Level Photocurrent Noise Detection," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8641-8646 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Xie, D. Kuhl, E. H. Bottcher, S. Y. Ren, and D. Bimberg, "Wide-band frequency response measurements of photodetectors using low-level photocurrent noise detection," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8641 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

P. L. Voss, K. G. Köprülü, S.-K. Choi, S. Dugan1, P. Kumar, "4 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1369-1379 (2004).

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, "Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267-1288 (2004).

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, "Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

Meas. Sci. Technol.

K. S. Lau, C. H. Tan, B. K. Ng, K. F. Li, R. C. Tozer, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, "Excess noise measurement in avalanche photodiodes using a transimpedance amplifier front-end," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1941-1946 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

I. A. Maione, M. Macucci, G. Iannaccone, G. Basso, B. Pellegrini, M. Lazzarino, L. Sorba, and F. Beltram, "Probing Pauli blocking with shot noise in resonant tunneling diodes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 75, 125327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C

A. Wacker E. Schöll A. Nauen F. Hohls R. J. Haug G. Kiesslich, "Shot noise in tunneling through a quantum dot array," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 1293-1296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

V. Y. Aleshkin, L. Reggiani, N. V. Alkeev, V. E. Lyubchenko, C. N. Ironside, J. M. L. Figueiredo, and C. R. Stanley, "Giant suppression of shot noise in double barrier resonant diode: a signature of coherent transport," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, L35-L38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Kiesslich, H. Sprekeler, A. Wacker, and E. Scholl, "Positive correlations in tunnelling through coupled quantum dots," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, S37-S39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). The device cross section, showing the electric field distribution at room temperature at 0.7 V bias. The bottom image shows zooms in the central region and labels the different layers of the device. (b). The electric field strength (V/m) along the central axis (r=0) of the device at 0.7 V at room temperature.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The current-voltage plots at different optical illumination levels. (star) dark-current, (diamond) current at 7 pW, (circle) current at 70 pW.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fano factor versus bias voltage. The device shows Fano factors less than 1, which indicates that the shot noise of the device has lower variance than Poissonian shot noise. At low voltages, the measured noise and corresponding Fano factor get affected by the noise floor of the setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical-electrical conversion factor and Fano factor versus optical intensity, measured at 0.7 V at room temperature. Due to carrier shielding and device saturation, optical to electrical conversion factors decrease at high optical intensities. Since the gain is assumed to be the equal to optical to electrical conversion factor in the calculation of Fano factor, the gain is underestimated and Fano factor is overestimated.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Noise equivalent power and optical conversion factor versus bias voltage. The device shows optical to electrical conversion factors reaching 5000 at bias voltages less than 1.2 V. Noise equivalent power of the device is 4.5 fW/Hz0.5 at the optimal bias voltage ~0.7 V.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ = I n 2 I shot 2 = I n 2 2 q I DC Δ f
F = I n 2 2 q M 2 I int Δ f
R = q E ph ( 1 r ) ( 1 e α L ) η c M
P NEP = I n , meas η c M ,

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