Abstract

We propose and demonstrate weak-microcavity organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays with improved light-extraction and viewing-angle characteristics. A single pair of low- and high-index layers is inserted between indium tin oxide (ITO) and a glass substrate. The electroluminescent (EL) efficiencies of discrete red, green, and blue weak-microcavity OLEDs are enhanced by 56%, 107%, and 26%, respectively, with improved color purity. Moreover, full-color 128×160 passive-matrix bottom-emitting OLED displays are fabricated by employing low-index layers of two thicknesses. As a display, the EL efficiency of white color was 27% higher than that of a conventional OLED display.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58,3730-3740 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. -K. Wei and I-L. Su, "Method to evaluate the enhancement of luminance efficiency in planar OLED light emitting devices for microlens array," Opt. Express 12, 5777-5782 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. F. Madigan, M. -H. Lu, and J. C. Strurm, "Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650-1652 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243-1245 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic liget-rmitting diodes," Adv. Mater 14, 1393-1396 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, "Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1149-1152 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, J. Huh, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C. -O Cho, H. Jeon, Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, and Y. -H. Lee, "Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals," Adv. Mater 15, 1214-1218 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode," Opt. Express 13, 5864-5870 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. -C. Kim, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -J. Lee, Y. -H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, "Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173502 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Control of emission characteristics in organic thin-film electroluminescent diodes using an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032-2034 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Tsutsui, N. Takada, S. Saito and E. Ogino, "Sharply directed emission in organic electroluminescent diodes with an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1868-1870 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R.E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, "Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633-2635 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Tokito, T. Tsutsui and Y. Taga, "Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 2407-2411 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Taflove and S. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, Boston, 2005).

2006 (1)

Y. -C. Kim, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -J. Lee, Y. -H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, "Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, J. Huh, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C. -O Cho, H. Jeon, Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, and Y. -H. Lee, "Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals," Adv. Mater 15, 1214-1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic liget-rmitting diodes," Adv. Mater 14, 1393-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, "Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1149-1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

C. F. Madigan, M. -H. Lu, and J. C. Strurm, "Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650-1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243-1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Tokito, T. Tsutsui and Y. Taga, "Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 2407-2411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58,3730-3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R.E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, "Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633-2635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Tsutsui, N. Takada, S. Saito and E. Ogino, "Sharply directed emission in organic electroluminescent diodes with an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1868-1870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Control of emission characteristics in organic thin-film electroluminescent diodes using an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032-2034 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic liget-rmitting diodes," Adv. Mater 14, 1393-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58,3730-3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58,3730-3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. -O

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C. -O Cho, H. Jeon, Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, and Y. -H. Lee, "Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals," Adv. Mater 15, 1214-1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. -H.

Y. -C. Kim, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -J. Lee, Y. -H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, "Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode," Opt. Express 13, 5864-5870 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, J. Huh, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Y. -C. Kim, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -J. Lee, Y. -H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, "Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode," Opt. Express 13, 5864-5870 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, J. Huh, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C. -O Cho, H. Jeon, Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, and Y. -H. Lee, "Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals," Adv. Mater 15, 1214-1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R.E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58,3730-3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garbuzov, D. Z.

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58,3730-3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gu, G.

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58,3730-3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hobson, P. A.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic liget-rmitting diodes," Adv. Mater 14, 1393-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huh, J.

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, J. Huh, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C. -O Cho, H. Jeon, Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, and Y. -H. Lee, "Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals," Adv. Mater 15, 1214-1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. H.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R.E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, K.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, "Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1149-1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khalfin, V. B.

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58,3730-3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. -H.

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode," Opt. Express 13, 5864-5870 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, J. Huh, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. -H.

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode," Opt. Express 13, 5864-5870 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, J. Huh, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C. -O Cho, H. Jeon, Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, and Y. -H. Lee, "Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals," Adv. Mater 15, 1214-1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C. -O Cho, H. Jeon, Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, and Y. -H. Lee, "Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals," Adv. Mater 15, 1214-1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. -C.

Y. -C. Kim, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -J. Lee, Y. -H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, "Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode," Opt. Express 13, 5864-5870 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, J. Huh, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. -H.

Y. -C. Kim, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -J. Lee, Y. -H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, "Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode," Opt. Express 13, 5864-5870 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, J. Huh, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C. -O Cho, H. Jeon, Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, and Y. -H. Lee, "Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals," Adv. Mater 15, 1214-1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. -J.

Y. -C. Kim, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -J. Lee, Y. -H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, "Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode," Opt. Express 13, 5864-5870 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, J. Huh, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C. -O Cho, H. Jeon, Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, and Y. -H. Lee, "Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals," Adv. Mater 15, 1214-1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M. -H.

C. F. Madigan, M. -H. Lu, and J. C. Strurm, "Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650-1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lupton, J. M.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Madigan, C. F.

C. F. Madigan, M. -H. Lu, and J. C. Strurm, "Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650-1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matterson, B. J.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Möller, S.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Noda, K.

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, "Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633-2635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ogino, E.

T. Tsutsui, N. Takada, S. Saito and E. Ogino, "Sharply directed emission in organic electroluminescent diodes with an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1868-1870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L. J.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R.E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Safonov, A. F.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sage, I.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic liget-rmitting diodes," Adv. Mater 14, 1393-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

T. Tsutsui, N. Takada, S. Saito and E. Ogino, "Sharply directed emission in organic electroluminescent diodes with an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1868-1870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Control of emission characteristics in organic thin-film electroluminescent diodes using an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032-2034 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Salt, M. G.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R.E.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R.E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. -W.

Y. -C. Kim, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -J. Lee, Y. -H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, "Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode," Opt. Express 13, 5864-5870 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, Y.-W.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C. -O Cho, H. Jeon, Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, and Y. -H. Lee, "Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals," Adv. Mater 15, 1214-1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Strurm, J. C.

C. F. Madigan, M. -H. Lu, and J. C. Strurm, "Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650-1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Su, I-L.

Sumioka, K.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243-1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taga, Y.

S. Tokito, T. Tsutsui and Y. Taga, "Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 2407-2411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, "Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633-2635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takada, N.

T. Tsutsui, N. Takada, S. Saito and E. Ogino, "Sharply directed emission in organic electroluminescent diodes with an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1868-1870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Control of emission characteristics in organic thin-film electroluminescent diodes using an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032-2034 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tokito, S.

S. Tokito, T. Tsutsui and Y. Taga, "Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 2407-2411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, "Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633-2635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, "Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1149-1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243-1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, T. Tsutsui and Y. Taga, "Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 2407-2411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsutsui, N. Takada, S. Saito and E. Ogino, "Sharply directed emission in organic electroluminescent diodes with an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1868-1870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Control of emission characteristics in organic thin-film electroluminescent diodes using an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032-2034 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wasey, J. A. E.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic liget-rmitting diodes," Adv. Mater 14, 1393-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wedge, S.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic liget-rmitting diodes," Adv. Mater 14, 1393-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wei, M. -K.

Yahiro, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, "Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1149-1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, T.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243-1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yokogawa, H.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, "Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1149-1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, "Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1149-1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater (2)

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C. -O Cho, H. Jeon, Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, and Y. -H. Lee, "Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals," Adv. Mater 15, 1214-1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic liget-rmitting diodes," Adv. Mater 14, 1393-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, "Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1149-1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

Y. -J. Lee, S. -H. Kim, J. Huh, G. -H. Kim, Y. -H. Lee, S. -H. Cho, Y. -C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Madigan, M. -H. Lu, and J. C. Strurm, "Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650-1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243-1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. -C. Kim, S. -H. Cho, Y. -W. Song, Y. -J. Lee, Y. -H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, "Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Control of emission characteristics in organic thin-film electroluminescent diodes using an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032-2034 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsutsui, N. Takada, S. Saito and E. Ogino, "Sharply directed emission in organic electroluminescent diodes with an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1868-1870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R.E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, "Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633-2635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Tokito, T. Tsutsui and Y. Taga, "Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 2407-2411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S. R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58,3730-3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Taflove and S. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, Boston, 2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic representation of a weak-microcavity OLED.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Relative extraction efficiency (T H=60 nm and T ITO=60 nm). The shaded area represents the thickness span tested in the real experiments (shown in Fig. 3). (b) CIE 1931 color coordinates of the WMOLEDs as a function of T L.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Measured extraction efficiencies as a function of T L. The dashed lines represent the results of the FDTD computation. Design B is denoted by dashed circles. (b) CIE color coordinates of the fabricated WMOLEDs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

EL efficiency—current density characteristics of the WMOLEDs at design B. The solid and dashed lines represent the WMOLEDs and conventional OLEDs, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Comparison of EL spectra measured at the normal direction. The solid lines represent the spectra of the WMOLEDs and the dashed lines represent those of the conventional OLEDs. (b)–(d) Viewing-angle characteristics of red, green, and blue WMOLEDs.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Angular-radiation patterns of WMOLEDs.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a). Schematic representation of a fabricated full-color passive-matrix bottom-emitting WMOLED display. (b) Comparison of 128×160 displays based on conventional OLEDs (left) and WMOLEDs (right)

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Two optimal WMOLED designs expressed in optical thicknesses. Note the two different values of the lowindex layers for the blue pixels (design A: T L=60nm, design B: T L=120nm). For the red and green pixels, the T L values are fixed at 200 and 120 nm, respectively. T ITO=T H=60 nm.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Chemical name of each organic layer and its thickness.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Comparison of current efficiencies and CIE 1931 coordinates at 100 mA/cm2.

Equations (1)

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i n i d i = ( 2 m 1 ) λ 4

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