Abstract

We have developed a practical solution to implement the direct locking method for the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) stabilization of femtosecond laser pulses and achieved 24-hour CEP stabilization without realignment of any optical components. The direct locking method realizes the CEP stabilization in the time domain by directly quenching the beat signal from an f-to-2f interferometer and, thereby, locking every pulse to a same CEP. We have accomplished the long-term CEP stabilization using commercially available standard feedback electronics, and maintained the CEP stabilization with low jitter without using any frequency-analyzing components, greatly facilitating the accessibility of the CEP stabilization.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421,611-615 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317,769-775 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82,3568-3571 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288,635-639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, " 87Sr Lattice Clock with Inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,083002 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, H. Takamiya, K. Nishijima, T. Homma, H. Takahashi, K. Okubo, S. Nakamura, and Y. Koyamada, "Carrier-envelope-phase stabilized chirped-pulse amplification system scalable to higher pulse energies," Opt. Express 12,2070-2080 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. -H. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses with a relativistic intensity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,031113 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Gagnon, I. Thomann, A. Paul, A. L. Lytle, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, "Long-term carrier-envelope phase stability from a grating-based, chirped pulse amplifier," Opt. Lett. 31,1866-1868 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Li, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, P. Ranitovic, C. M. Maharjan, C. L. Cocke, Z. Chang, and G. G. Paulus, "Precision control of carrier-envelope phase in grating based chirped pulse amplifiers," Opt. Express 14,11468-11476 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. S. Lee, J. H. Sung, and C. H. Nam, T. J. Yu, and K. -H. Hong, "Novel method for carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 13,2969-2976 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. J. Yu, K. -H. Hong, H. G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, "Pricise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique," Opt. Express 15,8203-8211 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. -h. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, T. J. Yu, and C. H. Nam "Implementation of the direct locking method for long-term carrier-envelope phase stabilization of a kHz femtosecond laser," in preparation.
  14. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B,  69,327-332, (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. -H. Hong, T. J. Yu, Y. S. Lee, C. H. Nam, and R. S. Windeler, "Measurement of the shot-to-shot carrierenvelope phase slip of femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 42,101-105 (2003).
  16. J. H. Sung, J. Y. Park, T. Imran, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, "Generation of 0.2-TW5.5-fs optical pulses at 1 kHz using a differentially pumped hollow-fiber chirped-mirror compressor," Appl. Phys. B 82,5-8 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. H. Sung, K. -H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, "High-power femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser at 1 kHz with a long cavity femtosecond oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 7,135-138 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Xu, Ch. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, "Route to phase control of ultrashort light pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 2008-2010, (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Bechhoefer, "Feedback for physicists: A tutorial essay on control," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77,783-836 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317,769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, " 87Sr Lattice Clock with Inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yu, K. -H. Hong, H. G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, "Pricise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique," Opt. Express 15,8203-8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

K. -H. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses with a relativistic intensity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,031113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gagnon, I. Thomann, A. Paul, A. L. Lytle, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, "Long-term carrier-envelope phase stability from a grating-based, chirped pulse amplifier," Opt. Lett. 31,1866-1868 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, P. Ranitovic, C. M. Maharjan, C. L. Cocke, Z. Chang, and G. G. Paulus, "Precision control of carrier-envelope phase in grating based chirped pulse amplifiers," Opt. Express 14,11468-11476 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

Y. S. Lee, J. H. Sung, and C. H. Nam, T. J. Yu, and K. -H. Hong, "Novel method for carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 13,2969-2976 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Sung, J. Y. Park, T. Imran, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, "Generation of 0.2-TW5.5-fs optical pulses at 1 kHz using a differentially pumped hollow-fiber chirped-mirror compressor," Appl. Phys. B 82,5-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bechhoefer, "Feedback for physicists: A tutorial essay on control," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77,783-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

J. H. Sung, K. -H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, "High-power femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser at 1 kHz with a long cavity femtosecond oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 7,135-138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421,611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. -H. Hong, T. J. Yu, Y. S. Lee, C. H. Nam, and R. S. Windeler, "Measurement of the shot-to-shot carrierenvelope phase slip of femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 42,101-105 (2003).

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288,635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B,  69,327-332, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82,3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apolonski, A.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317,769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421,611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bechhoefer, J.

J. Bechhoefer, "Feedback for physicists: A tutorial essay on control," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77,783-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blatt, S.

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, " 87Sr Lattice Clock with Inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, M. M.

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, " 87Sr Lattice Clock with Inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317,769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

Choi, H. G.

Choi, I. W.

Cocke, C. L.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288,635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288,635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B,  69,327-332, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foreman, S. M.

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, " 87Sr Lattice Clock with Inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, E.

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421,611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317,769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421,611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288,635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421,611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Xu, Ch. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, "Route to phase control of ultrashort light pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 2008-2010, (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T.W.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82,3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421,611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421,611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82,3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Homma, T.

Hong, K. -H.

T. J. Yu, K. -H. Hong, H. G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, "Pricise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique," Opt. Express 15,8203-8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. -H. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses with a relativistic intensity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,031113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Lee, J. H. Sung, and C. H. Nam, T. J. Yu, and K. -H. Hong, "Novel method for carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 13,2969-2976 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. -H. Hong, T. J. Yu, Y. S. Lee, C. H. Nam, and R. S. Windeler, "Measurement of the shot-to-shot carrierenvelope phase slip of femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 42,101-105 (2003).

J. H. Sung, K. -H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, "High-power femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser at 1 kHz with a long cavity femtosecond oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 7,135-138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hou, B.

K. -H. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses with a relativistic intensity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,031113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ido, T.

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, " 87Sr Lattice Clock with Inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imran, T.

J. H. Sung, J. Y. Park, T. Imran, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, "Generation of 0.2-TW5.5-fs optical pulses at 1 kHz using a differentially pumped hollow-fiber chirped-mirror compressor," Appl. Phys. B 82,5-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288,635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kakehata, M.

Kapteyn, H. C.

Keller, U.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B,  69,327-332, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317,769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. E.

Kim, J.

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317,769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, D. K.

Kobayashi, Y.

Koyamada, Y.

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317,769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421,611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Xu, Ch. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, "Route to phase control of ultrashort light pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 2008-2010, (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

T. J. Yu, K. -H. Hong, H. G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, "Pricise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique," Opt. Express 15,8203-8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. -H. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses with a relativistic intensity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,031113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

J. H. Sung, J. Y. Park, T. Imran, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, "Generation of 0.2-TW5.5-fs optical pulses at 1 kHz using a differentially pumped hollow-fiber chirped-mirror compressor," Appl. Phys. B 82,5-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Lee, J. H. Sung, and C. H. Nam, T. J. Yu, and K. -H. Hong, "Novel method for carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 13,2969-2976 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. -H. Hong, T. J. Yu, Y. S. Lee, C. H. Nam, and R. S. Windeler, "Measurement of the shot-to-shot carrierenvelope phase slip of femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 42,101-105 (2003).

Li, C.

Ludlow, A. D.

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, " 87Sr Lattice Clock with Inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lytle, A. L.

Maharjan, C. M.

Mashiko, H.

Moon, E.

Mourou, G. A.

K. -H. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses with a relativistic intensity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,031113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

Nakamura, C. M.

Nakamura, S.

Nam, C. H.

T. J. Yu, K. -H. Hong, H. G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, "Pricise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique," Opt. Express 15,8203-8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Sung, J. Y. Park, T. Imran, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, "Generation of 0.2-TW5.5-fs optical pulses at 1 kHz using a differentially pumped hollow-fiber chirped-mirror compressor," Appl. Phys. B 82,5-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Lee, J. H. Sung, and C. H. Nam, T. J. Yu, and K. -H. Hong, "Novel method for carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 13,2969-2976 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. -H. Hong, T. J. Yu, Y. S. Lee, C. H. Nam, and R. S. Windeler, "Measurement of the shot-to-shot carrierenvelope phase slip of femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 42,101-105 (2003).

J. H. Sung, K. -H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, "High-power femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser at 1 kHz with a long cavity femtosecond oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 7,135-138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nees, J. A.

K. -H. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses with a relativistic intensity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,031113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishijima, K.

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okubo, K.

Park, J. Y.

J. H. Sung, J. Y. Park, T. Imran, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, "Generation of 0.2-TW5.5-fs optical pulses at 1 kHz using a differentially pumped hollow-fiber chirped-mirror compressor," Appl. Phys. B 82,5-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paul, A.

Paulus, G. G.

Pervak, V.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317,769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poppe, A.

Power, E.

K. -H. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses with a relativistic intensity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,031113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ranitovic, P.

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288,635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichert, J.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82,3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sandhu, A. S.

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421,611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, Ch.

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B,  69,327-332, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B,  69,327-332, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288,635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sung, J. H.

T. J. Yu, K. -H. Hong, H. G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, "Pricise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique," Opt. Express 15,8203-8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Sung, J. Y. Park, T. Imran, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, "Generation of 0.2-TW5.5-fs optical pulses at 1 kHz using a differentially pumped hollow-fiber chirped-mirror compressor," Appl. Phys. B 82,5-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Lee, J. H. Sung, and C. H. Nam, T. J. Yu, and K. -H. Hong, "Novel method for carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 13,2969-2976 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Sung, K. -H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, "High-power femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser at 1 kHz with a long cavity femtosecond oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 7,135-138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B,  69,327-332, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takada, H.

Takahashi, H.

Takamiya, H.

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B,  69,327-332, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thomann, I.

Torizuka, K.

Udem, Th.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421,611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82,3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317,769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421,611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

K. -H. Hong, T. J. Yu, Y. S. Lee, C. H. Nam, and R. S. Windeler, "Measurement of the shot-to-shot carrierenvelope phase slip of femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 42,101-105 (2003).

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288,635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, L.

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317,769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421,611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, " 87Sr Lattice Clock with Inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, T. J.

Zelevinsky, T.

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, " 87Sr Lattice Clock with Inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B,  69,327-332, (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Sung, J. Y. Park, T. Imran, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, "Generation of 0.2-TW5.5-fs optical pulses at 1 kHz using a differentially pumped hollow-fiber chirped-mirror compressor," Appl. Phys. B 82,5-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. -H. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses with a relativistic intensity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,031113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Kor. (2)

K. -H. Hong, T. J. Yu, Y. S. Lee, C. H. Nam, and R. S. Windeler, "Measurement of the shot-to-shot carrierenvelope phase slip of femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 42,101-105 (2003).

J. H. Sung, K. -H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, "High-power femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser at 1 kHz with a long cavity femtosecond oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 7,135-138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421,611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, " 87Sr Lattice Clock with Inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82,3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. Bechhoefer, "Feedback for physicists: A tutorial essay on control," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77,783-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288,635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317,769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. -h. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, T. J. Yu, and C. H. Nam "Implementation of the direct locking method for long-term carrier-envelope phase stabilization of a kHz femtosecond laser," in preparation.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the direct locking setup for CEP stabilization. (AOM: acoustooptic modulator, PID: analog PID controller, PCF: photonic crystal fiber, DB: dichroic beam splitter, SHG: second-harmonic generation crystal, HWP: half-wave plate, BPF: band-pass filter, PBS: polarizing beam splitter at 532 nm, APD: avalanche photodiode, BPD: balanced PIN photodiode)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Monitoring the beat signal, using APD in Fig. 1 and an oscilloscope, to match the time delay between f and 2f signals in the f-to-2f interferometer. The beat signal changed from (a) to (b) to (c) as the time delay became better matched.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Quenching of the beating signal using standard feedback electronics. (a) Pure beating signal monitored by the BPD in the f-to-2f interferometer. Feedback signals obtained using only the ‘P’ function of the PID controller (b) and using the ‘P’ and ‘I’ functions (c).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

CEP jitter measured with different observation duration. The stabilized beat signals measured for 100 us (a), 1 ms (b), and 10 ms (c). (d) Change of the accumulated CEP jitter with different observation duration.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

24-hour CEP stabilization achieved by employing the double feedback loop. (a) Performance of the CEP stabilization obtained by controlling only AOM. (b) Optimization of the cutoff frequency in the ‘I’ feedback. (c) Continuous CEP stabilization for 24 hours. Feedback signals to AOM (black) and to PZT (gray) are shown during the 24-hour CEP stabilization.

Equations (1)

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V out = P ( ε + I ε d t + D d ε d t ) + V off ,

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