Abstract

We investigate the variations of modal properties of 12-fold quasi-photonic crystal microcavities sustaining whispering-gallery (WG) mode with different central post sizes both in simulations and experiments. We realize our design by a series of dry- and wet-etching processes. WG mode lasing actions are obtained with high quality (Q) factor of 8,400 from microcavity with effective post size 420 nm in diameter. Loss and thermal behaviors are analyzed by measured Q factors, thresholds, and rolling-off effects from light-in light-out curves of microcavities with increased post size. By finite-element simulations, we also address the heat sink improvement due to presence of larger central post that is observed in measurements.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. Painter, P. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. G. Park, J. K. Hwang, J. Huh, H. Y. Ryu, S. K. Kim, J. S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of Modified Single-Defect Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1353-1365 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425, 944-947 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, "Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express 15, 7506-7514 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, G. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "High quality-factor whispering-gallery mode in the photonic crystal hexagonal disk cavity," Opt. Express 12, 1708-1719 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. G. Park, S. K. Kim, S. H. Kwon, G. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-Mode Operation of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser With Central Post," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1327-1329 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Whispering gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, and R. Watanabe, "Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2-10 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 878-880 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. K. Seo, K. Y. Jeong, J. K. Yang, Y. H. Lee, H. G. Park, and S. B. Kim, "Low threshold current single-cell hexapole mode photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171122 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, and F. M. Tsai, "Octagonal Quasi-Photonic Crystal Single-Defect Microcavity With Whispering Gallery Mode and Condensed Device Size," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 710-712 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, F. M. Tsai, and T. C. Lu, "Investigation of whispering-gallery mode dependence on cavity geometry in quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231111 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, I. K. Hwang, Y. H. Lee, and S. B Kim, "Photonic quasicrystal single-cell cavity mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Nozaki and T. Baba, "Quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4875-4877 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, "Complete photonic bahdgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals," Nature (London) 404, 740-743 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Nozaki, A. Nakagawa, D. Sano, and T. Baba, "Ultralow Threshold and Single-Mode Lasing in Microgear Lasers and Its Fusion With Quasi-Periodic Photonic Crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 9, 1355-1360 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. R. Cao, P. T. Lee, S. J. Choi, R. Shafiiha, S. J. Choi, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers," J. Vac. Soc. Technol. B 20, 618-621 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. O. Painter and K. Srinivansan, "Polarization properties of dipolelike defect modes in photonic crystal microcavities," Opt. Lett. 27, 339-341 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, F. M. Tsai, and T. C. Lu, "Investigation of whispering gallery mode dependence on geometry of quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231111 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. T. Lee, J. R. Cao, S. J. Choi, Z. J. Wei, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Operation of photonic crystal membrane lasers above room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3311-3313 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, A. Liem, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, T. Peschel, V. Guyenot, and A. Tünnermann, "Thermo-optical properties of air-clad photonic crystal fiber lasers in high power operation," Opt. Express 11, 2982-2990 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, "Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express 15, 7506-7514 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Seo, K. Y. Jeong, J. K. Yang, Y. H. Lee, H. G. Park, and S. B. Kim, "Low threshold current single-cell hexapole mode photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, and F. M. Tsai, "Octagonal Quasi-Photonic Crystal Single-Defect Microcavity With Whispering Gallery Mode and Condensed Device Size," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 710-712 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, F. M. Tsai, and T. C. Lu, "Investigation of whispering-gallery mode dependence on cavity geometry in quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, F. M. Tsai, and T. C. Lu, "Investigation of whispering gallery mode dependence on geometry of quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, I. K. Hwang, Y. H. Lee, and S. B Kim, "Photonic quasicrystal single-cell cavity mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Nozaki and T. Baba, "Quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4875-4877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, G. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "High quality-factor whispering-gallery mode in the photonic crystal hexagonal disk cavity," Opt. Express 12, 1708-1719 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, A. Liem, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, T. Peschel, V. Guyenot, and A. Tünnermann, "Thermo-optical properties of air-clad photonic crystal fiber lasers in high power operation," Opt. Express 11, 2982-2990 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Park, S. K. Kim, S. H. Kwon, G. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-Mode Operation of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser With Central Post," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1327-1329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nozaki, A. Nakagawa, D. Sano, and T. Baba, "Ultralow Threshold and Single-Mode Lasing in Microgear Lasers and Its Fusion With Quasi-Periodic Photonic Crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 9, 1355-1360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. R. Cao, P. T. Lee, S. J. Choi, R. Shafiiha, S. J. Choi, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers," J. Vac. Soc. Technol. B 20, 618-621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter and K. Srinivansan, "Polarization properties of dipolelike defect modes in photonic crystal microcavities," Opt. Lett. 27, 339-341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Lee, J. R. Cao, S. J. Choi, Z. J. Wei, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Operation of photonic crystal membrane lasers above room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3311-3313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Park, J. K. Hwang, J. Huh, H. Y. Ryu, S. K. Kim, J. S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of Modified Single-Defect Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1353-1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, "Complete photonic bahdgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals," Nature (London) 404, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

O. Painter, P. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, and R. Watanabe, "Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2-10 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 878-880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Whispering gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, "Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express 15, 7506-7514 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nozaki and T. Baba, "Quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4875-4877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, A. Nakagawa, D. Sano, and T. Baba, "Ultralow Threshold and Single-Mode Lasing in Microgear Lasers and Its Fusion With Quasi-Periodic Photonic Crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 9, 1355-1360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, and R. Watanabe, "Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2-10 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 878-880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, "Complete photonic bahdgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals," Nature (London) 404, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, J. R.

J. R. Cao, P. T. Lee, S. J. Choi, R. Shafiiha, S. J. Choi, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers," J. Vac. Soc. Technol. B 20, 618-621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Lee, J. R. Cao, S. J. Choi, Z. J. Wei, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Operation of photonic crystal membrane lasers above room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3311-3313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, M. D. B.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, "Complete photonic bahdgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals," Nature (London) 404, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. J.

J. R. Cao, P. T. Lee, S. J. Choi, R. Shafiiha, S. J. Choi, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers," J. Vac. Soc. Technol. B 20, 618-621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Cao, P. T. Lee, S. J. Choi, R. Shafiiha, S. J. Choi, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers," J. Vac. Soc. Technol. B 20, 618-621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Lee, J. R. Cao, S. J. Choi, Z. J. Wei, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Operation of photonic crystal membrane lasers above room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3311-3313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

P. T. Lee, J. R. Cao, S. J. Choi, Z. J. Wei, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Operation of photonic crystal membrane lasers above room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3311-3313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Cao, P. T. Lee, S. J. Choi, R. Shafiiha, S. J. Choi, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers," J. Vac. Soc. Technol. B 20, 618-621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, P. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, M.

T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, and R. Watanabe, "Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2-10 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 878-880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guyenot, V.

Huh, J.

H. G. Park, J. K. Hwang, J. Huh, H. Y. Ryu, S. K. Kim, J. S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of Modified Single-Defect Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1353-1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, I. K.

S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, I. K. Hwang, Y. H. Lee, and S. B Kim, "Photonic quasicrystal single-cell cavity mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J. K.

H. G. Park, J. K. Hwang, J. Huh, H. Y. Ryu, S. K. Kim, J. S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of Modified Single-Defect Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1353-1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, K. Y.

M. K. Seo, K. Y. Jeong, J. K. Yang, Y. H. Lee, H. G. Park, and S. B. Kim, "Low threshold current single-cell hexapole mode photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ju, Y. G.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kihara, M.

T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, and R. Watanabe, "Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2-10 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 878-880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. H.

H. Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, G. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "High quality-factor whispering-gallery mode in the photonic crystal hexagonal disk cavity," Opt. Express 12, 1708-1719 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Park, S. K. Kim, S. H. Kwon, G. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-Mode Operation of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser With Central Post," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1327-1329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I.

O. Painter, P. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. S.

H. G. Park, J. K. Hwang, J. Huh, H. Y. Ryu, S. K. Kim, J. S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of Modified Single-Defect Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1353-1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. B

S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, I. K. Hwang, Y. H. Lee, and S. B Kim, "Photonic quasicrystal single-cell cavity mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. B.

M. K. Seo, K. Y. Jeong, J. K. Yang, Y. H. Lee, H. G. Park, and S. B. Kim, "Low threshold current single-cell hexapole mode photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Park, S. K. Kim, S. H. Kwon, G. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-Mode Operation of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser With Central Post," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1327-1329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, I. K. Hwang, Y. H. Lee, and S. B Kim, "Photonic quasicrystal single-cell cavity mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Park, S. K. Kim, S. H. Kwon, G. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-Mode Operation of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser With Central Post," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1327-1329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. K.

S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, I. K. Hwang, Y. H. Lee, and S. B Kim, "Photonic quasicrystal single-cell cavity mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Park, S. K. Kim, S. H. Kwon, G. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-Mode Operation of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser With Central Post," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1327-1329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Park, J. K. Hwang, J. Huh, H. Y. Ryu, S. K. Kim, J. S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of Modified Single-Defect Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1353-1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kita, S.

Kwon, S. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Park, S. K. Kim, S. H. Kwon, G. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-Mode Operation of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser With Central Post," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1327-1329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, I. K. Hwang, Y. H. Lee, and S. B Kim, "Photonic quasicrystal single-cell cavity mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P. K.

O. Painter, P. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, P. T.

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, and F. M. Tsai, "Octagonal Quasi-Photonic Crystal Single-Defect Microcavity With Whispering Gallery Mode and Condensed Device Size," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 710-712 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, F. M. Tsai, and T. C. Lu, "Investigation of whispering-gallery mode dependence on cavity geometry in quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, F. M. Tsai, and T. C. Lu, "Investigation of whispering gallery mode dependence on geometry of quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Cao, P. T. Lee, S. J. Choi, R. Shafiiha, S. J. Choi, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers," J. Vac. Soc. Technol. B 20, 618-621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Lee, J. R. Cao, S. J. Choi, Z. J. Wei, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Operation of photonic crystal membrane lasers above room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3311-3313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

M. K. Seo, K. Y. Jeong, J. K. Yang, Y. H. Lee, H. G. Park, and S. B. Kim, "Low threshold current single-cell hexapole mode photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, I. K. Hwang, Y. H. Lee, and S. B Kim, "Photonic quasicrystal single-cell cavity mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, G. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "High quality-factor whispering-gallery mode in the photonic crystal hexagonal disk cavity," Opt. Express 12, 1708-1719 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Park, S. K. Kim, S. H. Kwon, G. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-Mode Operation of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser With Central Post," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1327-1329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Park, J. K. Hwang, J. Huh, H. Y. Ryu, S. K. Kim, J. S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of Modified Single-Defect Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1353-1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Whispering gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

Logan, R. A.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Whispering gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, F. M. Tsai, and T. C. Lu, "Investigation of whispering-gallery mode dependence on cavity geometry in quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, F. M. Tsai, and T. C. Lu, "Investigation of whispering gallery mode dependence on geometry of quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. W.

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, and F. M. Tsai, "Octagonal Quasi-Photonic Crystal Single-Defect Microcavity With Whispering Gallery Mode and Condensed Device Size," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 710-712 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, F. M. Tsai, and T. C. Lu, "Investigation of whispering-gallery mode dependence on cavity geometry in quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, F. M. Tsai, and T. C. Lu, "Investigation of whispering gallery mode dependence on geometry of quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Whispering gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, A.

K. Nozaki, A. Nakagawa, D. Sano, and T. Baba, "Ultralow Threshold and Single-Mode Lasing in Microgear Lasers and Its Fusion With Quasi-Periodic Photonic Crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 9, 1355-1360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Netti, M. C.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, "Complete photonic bahdgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals," Nature (London) 404, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noda, S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nolte, S.

Notomi, M.

Nozaki, K.

K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, "Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express 15, 7506-7514 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nozaki and T. Baba, "Quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4875-4877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, A. Nakagawa, D. Sano, and T. Baba, "Ultralow Threshold and Single-Mode Lasing in Microgear Lasers and Its Fusion With Quasi-Periodic Photonic Crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 9, 1355-1360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O???Brien, J. D.

J. R. Cao, P. T. Lee, S. J. Choi, R. Shafiiha, S. J. Choi, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers," J. Vac. Soc. Technol. B 20, 618-621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Lee, J. R. Cao, S. J. Choi, Z. J. Wei, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Operation of photonic crystal membrane lasers above room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3311-3313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, P. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Painter, O.

O. Painter and K. Srinivansan, "Polarization properties of dipolelike defect modes in photonic crystal microcavities," Opt. Lett. 27, 339-341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, P. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H. G.

M. K. Seo, K. Y. Jeong, J. K. Yang, Y. H. Lee, H. G. Park, and S. B. Kim, "Low threshold current single-cell hexapole mode photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Park, S. K. Kim, S. H. Kwon, G. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-Mode Operation of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser With Central Post," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1327-1329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Park, J. K. Hwang, J. Huh, H. Y. Ryu, S. K. Kim, J. S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of Modified Single-Defect Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1353-1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Parker, G. J.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, "Complete photonic bahdgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals," Nature (London) 404, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearton, S. L.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Whispering gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, T.

Ryu, H. Y.

H. Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, G. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "High quality-factor whispering-gallery mode in the photonic crystal hexagonal disk cavity," Opt. Express 12, 1708-1719 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Park, S. K. Kim, S. H. Kwon, G. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-Mode Operation of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser With Central Post," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1327-1329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Park, J. K. Hwang, J. Huh, H. Y. Ryu, S. K. Kim, J. S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of Modified Single-Defect Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1353-1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, A.

T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, and R. Watanabe, "Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2-10 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 878-880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sano, D.

K. Nozaki, A. Nakagawa, D. Sano, and T. Baba, "Ultralow Threshold and Single-Mode Lasing in Microgear Lasers and Its Fusion With Quasi-Periodic Photonic Crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 9, 1355-1360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

O. Painter, P. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreiber, T.

Seo, M. K.

M. K. Seo, K. Y. Jeong, J. K. Yang, Y. H. Lee, H. G. Park, and S. B. Kim, "Low threshold current single-cell hexapole mode photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

J. R. Cao, P. T. Lee, S. J. Choi, R. Shafiiha, S. J. Choi, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers," J. Vac. Soc. Technol. B 20, 618-621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Whispering gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Song, B. S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivansan, K.

Tsai, F. M.

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, and F. M. Tsai, "Octagonal Quasi-Photonic Crystal Single-Defect Microcavity With Whispering Gallery Mode and Condensed Device Size," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 710-712 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, F. M. Tsai, and T. C. Lu, "Investigation of whispering-gallery mode dependence on cavity geometry in quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, F. M. Tsai, and T. C. Lu, "Investigation of whispering gallery mode dependence on geometry of quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Watanabe, R.

T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, and R. Watanabe, "Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2-10 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 878-880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Z. J.

P. T. Lee, J. R. Cao, S. J. Choi, Z. J. Wei, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Operation of photonic crystal membrane lasers above room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3311-3313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. K.

M. K. Seo, K. Y. Jeong, J. K. Yang, Y. H. Lee, H. G. Park, and S. B. Kim, "Low threshold current single-cell hexapole mode photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

O. Painter, P. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zellmer, H.

Zoorob, M. E.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, "Complete photonic bahdgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals," Nature (London) 404, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Whispering gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, F. M. Tsai, and T. C. Lu, "Investigation of whispering-gallery mode dependence on cavity geometry in quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, I. K. Hwang, Y. H. Lee, and S. B Kim, "Photonic quasicrystal single-cell cavity mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki and T. Baba, "Quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4875-4877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Seo, K. Y. Jeong, J. K. Yang, Y. H. Lee, H. G. Park, and S. B. Kim, "Low threshold current single-cell hexapole mode photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, F. M. Tsai, and T. C. Lu, "Investigation of whispering gallery mode dependence on geometry of quasiperiodic photonic crystal microcavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Lee, J. R. Cao, S. J. Choi, Z. J. Wei, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Operation of photonic crystal membrane lasers above room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3311-3313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. G. Park, J. K. Hwang, J. Huh, H. Y. Ryu, S. K. Kim, J. S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of Modified Single-Defect Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1353-1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron.

K. Nozaki, A. Nakagawa, D. Sano, and T. Baba, "Ultralow Threshold and Single-Mode Lasing in Microgear Lasers and Its Fusion With Quasi-Periodic Photonic Crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 9, 1355-1360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, and F. M. Tsai, "Octagonal Quasi-Photonic Crystal Single-Defect Microcavity With Whispering Gallery Mode and Condensed Device Size," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 710-712 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, and R. Watanabe, "Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2-10 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 878-880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Park, S. K. Kim, S. H. Kwon, G. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-Mode Operation of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser With Central Post," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1327-1329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Soc. Technol. B

J. R. Cao, P. T. Lee, S. J. Choi, R. Shafiiha, S. J. Choi, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Nanofabrication of photonic crystal membrane lasers," J. Vac. Soc. Technol. B 20, 618-621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, "Complete photonic bahdgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals," Nature (London) 404, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

O. Painter, P. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1:
Fig. 1:

(a) Scheme of 12-fold QPC D2 microcavity with the central post. The microcavity design and the WG6, 1 mode profile in electrical field with significant zero-field distribution region are also shown in the insets. (b) (Left) The plot of simulated defect mode frequency versus r/a ratio. The PS denotes the phase-shifting mode [16]. (Top) The mode profile in magnetic field and (Right) simulated Q factor of each defect mode. The highest Q factor of 38,000 from WG6, 1 mode is obtained.

Fig. 2:
Fig. 2:

(a) The relationship between the central post diameter and Q factor and wavelength of WG6, 1 mode. The Q factor dramatically degrades when the post size is larger than 1.6a in diameter. The insets indicate the energy flows in x-z plane. (b) Fourier-transformed electric fields in x-y plane when the central post sizes are 0.8a and 2.4a, which show the extra leaky components induced by larger central post.

Fig. 3:
Fig. 3:

(a) Cross-section SEM picture of 12-fold QPC D2 microcavity supported by a central post with around 1.4 µm in diameter. (b) Tilted-view SEM pictures of 12-fold QPC D2 microcavity with a D=420 nm central post.

Fig. 4:
Fig. 4:

L-L curves of 12-fold QPC D2 microcavities without and with central posts when D=420 and 900 nm. The thresholds are estimated to be 0.35, 0.35, and 1.2 mW, respectively. SEM pictures of microcavities with different post sizes are also shown.

Fig. 5:
Fig. 5:

(a) Lasing spectra above and below (~0.8 times) thresholds. The measured Q factor decreases from 9,300 to 6,300 when D increases from 0 to 900 nm. (b) The angular plots show the measured WG mode polarizations before (top) and after (bottom) inserting the central post with low polarized ratios of 2.2 and 1.5.

Fig. 6:
Fig. 6:

(a) The scheme of the 12-fold QPC D2 microcavity for FEM simulation. (b) The simulated temperature distributions of microcavities without and with central post sizes of 440, 660, and 880 nm in diameter. The temperature is decreased when the post size is increased. (c) The simulated temperature distributions of microcavity with central post size of 880 nm in diameter when the time is 30, 50, 120, and 200 ns. The heat flow is mainly through the central post.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table. I: Coefficients for different materials used in heat transfer simulation (in M.K.S. unit).

Metrics