Abstract

We report a low-threshold, narrow-line THz-wave parametric oscillator with an intra-cavity grazing-incidence grating and a 1-mm thick, 45-mm long lithium-niobate planar waveguide. When pumped by an actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, the threshold energy and intensity of the parametric oscillator were about 2.2 mJ and 70 MW/cm2, respectively. The linewidths of the output THz wave were 12 and 134 GHz with and without the intra-cavity grating, respectively.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Rønne, P. �?strand, and S. R. Keiding, "THz spectroscopy of liquid H2O and D2O," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2888-2891 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, "Charge transport and carrier dynamics in liquids probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 340-343 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, "Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints," Opt. Express. 11, 2549-2554 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. M. Mittleman, S. Hunsche, L. Boivin, and M. C. Nuss, "T-ray tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 904-906 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, "Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Sato, K. Kawase, S. Wada, and H. Ito, "Tabletop terahertz-wave parametric generator using a compact, diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum.  72, 3051-3054 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Kawase, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, R1-R14 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Ohno, R. Guo, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, "High-resolution spectroscopy using a ring-cavity THz-wave parametric oscillator and Fabry-Perot interferometer," in the 7th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Pacific Rim 2007), Technical Digest (CD), paper WP_124.
  10. H. Minamide, K. Kawase, K. Imai, A. Sato, and H. Ito, "A novel tuning method for a ring-cavity THz-wave parametric oscillator," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper CThJ3.
  11. T. J. Edward, D. Walsh, M. B. Spurr, C. F. Rae, M. H. Dunn, and P. G. Browne, "Compact source of continuously and widely tunable terahertz radiation," Opt. Express 14, 1582-1589 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Sasaki, Y. Suzuki, K. Suizu, H. Ito, S. Yamaguchi, and M. Imaeda, "Surface-emitted terahertz-wave difference-frequency generation in periodically poled lithium niobate ridge-type waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L367-L369 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. C. Harvey and C. J. Matt, "External-cavity diode laser using a grazing-incidence diffraction grating," Opt. Lett. 16, 910-912 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. S. Yu and A. H. Kung, "Grazing-incidence periodically poled LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2233-2238 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 251 (Wiley, 1991).
  18. S. S. Sussman, "Tunable light scattering from transverse optical modes in lithium niobate," Microwave Lab. Report No. 1851, (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1970).

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, "Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints," Opt. Express. 11, 2549-2554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, R1-R14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, "Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Sato, K. Kawase, S. Wada, and H. Ito, "Tabletop terahertz-wave parametric generator using a compact, diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum.  72, 3051-3054 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, "Charge transport and carrier dynamics in liquids probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 340-343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

C. Rønne, P. �?strand, and S. R. Keiding, "THz spectroscopy of liquid H2O and D2O," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2888-2891 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Yu and A. H. Kung, "Grazing-incidence periodically poled LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2233-2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

??strand, P.

C. Rønne, P. �?strand, and S. R. Keiding, "THz spectroscopy of liquid H2O and D2O," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2888-2891 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boivin, L.

Bonn, M.

E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, "Charge transport and carrier dynamics in liquids probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 340-343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Browne, P. G.

Chen, S. Y.

Chen, Y. F.

Chen, Y. H.

Chiang, A. C.

Dunn, M. H.

Edward, T. J.

Harvey, K. C.

Heinz, T. F.

E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, "Charge transport and carrier dynamics in liquids probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 340-343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. C.

Hunsche, S.

Imaeda, M.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Suzuki, K. Suizu, H. Ito, S. Yamaguchi, and M. Imaeda, "Surface-emitted terahertz-wave difference-frequency generation in periodically poled lithium niobate ridge-type waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L367-L369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Imai, K.

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, "Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, "Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints," Opt. Express. 11, 2549-2554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, H.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Suzuki, K. Suizu, H. Ito, S. Yamaguchi, and M. Imaeda, "Surface-emitted terahertz-wave difference-frequency generation in periodically poled lithium niobate ridge-type waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L367-L369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, R1-R14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, "Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Sato, K. Kawase, S. Wada, and H. Ito, "Tabletop terahertz-wave parametric generator using a compact, diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum.  72, 3051-3054 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, "Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints," Opt. Express. 11, 2549-2554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, R1-R14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Sato, K. Kawase, S. Wada, and H. Ito, "Tabletop terahertz-wave parametric generator using a compact, diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum.  72, 3051-3054 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, "Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

C. Rønne, P. �?strand, and S. R. Keiding, "THz spectroscopy of liquid H2O and D2O," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2888-2891 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knoesel, E.

E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, "Charge transport and carrier dynamics in liquids probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 340-343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kung, A. H.

Lee, H. H.

Lin, S. T.

Lin, Y. Y.

Matt, C. J.

Minamide, H.

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, "Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

Nuss, M. C.

Ogawa, Y.

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, "Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints," Opt. Express. 11, 2549-2554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rae, C. F.

Rønne, C.

C. Rønne, P. �?strand, and S. R. Keiding, "THz spectroscopy of liquid H2O and D2O," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2888-2891 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, Y.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Suzuki, K. Suizu, H. Ito, S. Yamaguchi, and M. Imaeda, "Surface-emitted terahertz-wave difference-frequency generation in periodically poled lithium niobate ridge-type waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L367-L369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sato, A.

A. Sato, K. Kawase, S. Wada, and H. Ito, "Tabletop terahertz-wave parametric generator using a compact, diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum.  72, 3051-3054 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, "Charge transport and carrier dynamics in liquids probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 340-343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shikata, J.

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, R1-R14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, "Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spurr, M. B.

Suizu, K.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Suzuki, K. Suizu, H. Ito, S. Yamaguchi, and M. Imaeda, "Surface-emitted terahertz-wave difference-frequency generation in periodically poled lithium niobate ridge-type waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L367-L369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Suzuki, K. Suizu, H. Ito, S. Yamaguchi, and M. Imaeda, "Surface-emitted terahertz-wave difference-frequency generation in periodically poled lithium niobate ridge-type waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L367-L369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taniuchi, T.

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tu, R. Y.

Wada, S.

A. Sato, K. Kawase, S. Wada, and H. Ito, "Tabletop terahertz-wave parametric generator using a compact, diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum.  72, 3051-3054 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, D.

Wang, T. D.

Watanabe, Y.

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, "Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints," Opt. Express. 11, 2549-2554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, S.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Suzuki, K. Suizu, H. Ito, S. Yamaguchi, and M. Imaeda, "Surface-emitted terahertz-wave difference-frequency generation in periodically poled lithium niobate ridge-type waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L367-L369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. S.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, "Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, R1-R14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Sasaki, Y. Suzuki, K. Suizu, H. Ito, S. Yamaguchi, and M. Imaeda, "Surface-emitted terahertz-wave difference-frequency generation in periodically poled lithium niobate ridge-type waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L367-L369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Express. (1)

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, "Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints," Opt. Express. 11, 2549-2554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Rønne, P. �?strand, and S. R. Keiding, "THz spectroscopy of liquid H2O and D2O," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2888-2891 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, "Charge transport and carrier dynamics in liquids probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 340-343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Sato, K. Kawase, S. Wada, and H. Ito, "Tabletop terahertz-wave parametric generator using a compact, diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum.  72, 3051-3054 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. Ohno, R. Guo, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, "High-resolution spectroscopy using a ring-cavity THz-wave parametric oscillator and Fabry-Perot interferometer," in the 7th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Pacific Rim 2007), Technical Digest (CD), paper WP_124.

H. Minamide, K. Kawase, K. Imai, A. Sato, and H. Ito, "A novel tuning method for a ring-cavity THz-wave parametric oscillator," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper CThJ3.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 251 (Wiley, 1991).

S. S. Sussman, "Tunable light scattering from transverse optical modes in lithium niobate," Microwave Lab. Report No. 1851, (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1970).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic of the GITPO pumped by an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. It is a conventional TPO when the grating-M2 assembly is replaced by an output coupled at the signal wavelength. Without the grating-M2 assembly, the setup can be used for studying a TPG. (HR: high reflection, FP: Fabry-Perot)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signal versus pump energy of the TPG (green dots), TPO (red dots), and GITPO (blue dots) using a 1-mm-thick, 45-mm-long LiNbO3 planar waveguide. The pump threshold intensities of the TPO and GITPO are shown in the plot.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The signal pulse width of the GITPO (blue curve) is slightly longer than that of the TPG (green curve). (b) The linewidths of the TPG (green color), TPO (red color), and GITPO (blue and pink colors) were measured to be 213, 134, and 12 GHz, respectively. The signal-wave spectrum of the GITPO was tuned over 130 GHz by rotating a 0.6-mrad angle in mirror M2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The measured THz-wave transmission power (filled dots) versus the etalon gap. The solid curve is an Airy function fitted to the experimental data. A THz wavelength of 164 µm can be determined from periodicity of the fitting curve.

Equations (1)

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ω p = ω s + ω THz

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