Abstract

We theoretically investigate the application of coupled optical microcavities as refractive index sensors. Coupled microcavities support a very sharp asymmetrical Fano resonance, which gives rise to faster changes in output transmission than the changes from a single cavity. With the output transmission at a fixed wavelength that varies much faster than it does in a single-cavity resonance, the result is enhanced sensitivity of the device to the changes in refractive index. In addition, it is observed that both thermal and optical Kerr effects can be utilized to improve the sensitivity.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

P. Zijlstra, K. L. van der Molen, and A. P. Mosk, "Spatial refractive index sensor using whispering gallery modes in an optically trapped microsphere," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou and A. W. Poon, "Fano resonance-based electrically reconfigurable add-drop filters in silicon microring resonator-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Opt. Lett. 32, 781-783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. Yang and L. J. Guo, "Optical sensors based on active microcavities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143-147 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, "Experimental Realization of an On-Chip All-Optical Analogue to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Barclay, B. Lev, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, and H. Mabuchi, "Integration of fiber-coupled high-Q SiNx microdisks with atom chips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108-131110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. M. N. Passaro and F. D. Leonardis, "Modeling and design of a novel high-Sensitivity electric field silicon-on-insulator sensor based on a whispering-gallery-mode resonator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 124-133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Liang, L. Yang, J. K. S. Poon, Y. Huang, K. J. Vahala, and A. Yariv, "Transmission characteristics of a Fabry-Perot etalon-microtoroid resonator coupled system," Opt. Lett. 31, 510-512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, "liquid-core optical ring-resonator sensors," Opt. Lett. 31, 1319-1321 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Armani and K J. Vahala, "Heavy water detection using ultra-high-Q microcavities," Opt. Lett. 31, 1896-1898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

I. M. White, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, "Tuning whispering gallery modes in optical microspheres with chemical etching," Opt. Express 13, 10754-10759 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, "Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. F. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, "Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3666-3668 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, S. Mookherjea, G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, and A. Yariv, "Matrix analysis of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 91-103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, "Tunable delay line with interacting whispering gallery mode resonators," Opt. Lett. 29, 626-628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Gorodetsky and I. S. Grudinin, "Fundamental thermal fluctuations in microspheres," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 697-705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

E. Krioukov, J. Greve, and C. Otto, "Performance of integrated optical microcavities for refractive index and fluorescence sensing," Sens. Actuators B 90, 58-67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, "Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527-1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. Fan, "Sharp asymmetric lineshapes in side-coupled waveguide-cavity systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 908-910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Djordjev, S. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk tunable resonant filters and switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 828-830 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Modal coupling in traveling-wave resonators," Opt. Lett. 27, 1669-1671 (2002)
[CrossRef]

2001

1961

U. Fano, "Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts," Phys. Rev. 124, 1866-1878 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Armani and K J. Vahala, "Heavy water detection using ultra-high-Q microcavities," Opt. Lett. 31, 1896-1898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, "Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, R. C.

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. F. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, "Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3666-3668 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barclay, P. E.

P. E. Barclay, B. Lev, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, and H. Mabuchi, "Integration of fiber-coupled high-Q SiNx microdisks with atom chips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108-131110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blair, S.

Boyd, R. W.

Braun, D.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buchholz, D. B.

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. F. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, "Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3666-3668 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. F. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, "Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3666-3668 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. F. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, "Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3666-3668 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, "Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527-1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.

Choi, S.

K. Djordjev, S. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk tunable resonant filters and switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 828-830 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

K. Djordjev, S. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk tunable resonant filters and switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 828-830 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Djordjev, K.

K. Djordjev, S. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk tunable resonant filters and switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 828-830 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, "Experimental Realization of an On-Chip All-Optical Analogue to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fan, "Sharp asymmetric lineshapes in side-coupled waveguide-cavity systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 908-910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

Fang, W.

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. F. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, "Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3666-3668 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fano, U.

U. Fano, "Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts," Phys. Rev. 124, 1866-1878 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francois, A.

A. Francois and M. Himmelhaus, "Optical biosensor based on whispering gallery mode excitations in clusters of microparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Greve, J.

E. Krioukov, J. Greve, and C. Otto, "Performance of integrated optical microcavities for refractive index and fluorescence sensing," Sens. Actuators B 90, 58-67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, I. S.

Guo, L. J.

J. Yang and L. J. Guo, "Optical sensors based on active microcavities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143-147 (2006)
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, "Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527-1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hanumegowda, N. M.

Heebner, J. E.

Himmelhaus, M.

A. Francois and M. Himmelhaus, "Optical biosensor based on whispering gallery mode excitations in clusters of microparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

W. Liang, L. Yang, J. K. S. Poon, Y. Huang, K. J. Vahala, and A. Yariv, "Transmission characteristics of a Fabry-Perot etalon-microtoroid resonator coupled system," Opt. Lett. 31, 510-512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, S. Mookherjea, G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, and A. Yariv, "Matrix analysis of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 91-103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hupp, J. F.

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. F. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, "Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3666-3668 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Keng, D.

M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, "Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khoshsima, M.

M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, "Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Modal coupling in traveling-wave resonators," Opt. Lett. 27, 1669-1671 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Kolchenko, V.

M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, "Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krioukov, E.

E. Krioukov, J. Greve, and C. Otto, "Performance of integrated optical microcavities for refractive index and fluorescence sensing," Sens. Actuators B 90, 58-67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonardis, F. D.

W. M. N. Passaro and F. D. Leonardis, "Modeling and design of a novel high-Sensitivity electric field silicon-on-insulator sensor based on a whispering-gallery-mode resonator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 124-133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lev, B.

P. E. Barclay, B. Lev, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, and H. Mabuchi, "Integration of fiber-coupled high-Q SiNx microdisks with atom chips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108-131110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

J. T. Robinson, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, "On-chip gas detection in silicon optical microcavities," Opt. Express 16, 4296-4301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, "Experimental Realization of an On-Chip All-Optical Analogue to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mabuchi, H.

P. E. Barclay, B. Lev, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, and H. Mabuchi, "Integration of fiber-coupled high-Q SiNx microdisks with atom chips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108-131110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

Matsko, A. B.

Mookherjea, S.

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, S. Mookherjea, G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, and A. Yariv, "Matrix analysis of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 91-103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mosk, A. P.

P. Zijlstra, K. L. van der Molen, and A. P. Mosk, "Spatial refractive index sensor using whispering gallery modes in an optically trapped microsphere," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noto, M.

M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, "Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Otto, C.

E. Krioukov, J. Greve, and C. Otto, "Performance of integrated optical microcavities for refractive index and fluorescence sensing," Sens. Actuators B 90, 58-67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oveys, H.

Painter, O.

P. E. Barclay, B. Lev, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, and H. Mabuchi, "Integration of fiber-coupled high-Q SiNx microdisks with atom chips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108-131110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paloczi, G. T.

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, S. Mookherjea, G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, and A. Yariv, "Matrix analysis of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 91-103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Passaro, W. M. N.

W. M. N. Passaro and F. D. Leonardis, "Modeling and design of a novel high-Sensitivity electric field silicon-on-insulator sensor based on a whispering-gallery-mode resonator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 124-133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poon, A. W.

Poon, J. K. S.

W. Liang, L. Yang, J. K. S. Poon, Y. Huang, K. J. Vahala, and A. Yariv, "Transmission characteristics of a Fabry-Perot etalon-microtoroid resonator coupled system," Opt. Lett. 31, 510-512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, S. Mookherjea, G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, and A. Yariv, "Matrix analysis of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 91-103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Povinelli, M. L.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, "Experimental Realization of an On-Chip All-Optical Analogue to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. T.

Sandhu, S.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, "Experimental Realization of an On-Chip All-Optical Analogue to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savchenkov, A. A.

Scheuer, J.

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, S. Mookherjea, G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, and A. Yariv, "Matrix analysis of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 91-103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, "Experimental Realization of an On-Chip All-Optical Analogue to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spillane, S. M.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Modal coupling in traveling-wave resonators," Opt. Lett. 27, 1669-1671 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, K.

P. E. Barclay, B. Lev, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, and H. Mabuchi, "Integration of fiber-coupled high-Q SiNx microdisks with atom chips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108-131110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, "Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K J.

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liang, L. Yang, J. K. S. Poon, Y. Huang, K. J. Vahala, and A. Yariv, "Transmission characteristics of a Fabry-Perot etalon-microtoroid resonator coupled system," Opt. Lett. 31, 510-512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Modal coupling in traveling-wave resonators," Opt. Lett. 27, 1669-1671 (2002)
[CrossRef]

van der Molen, K. L.

P. Zijlstra, K. L. van der Molen, and A. P. Mosk, "Spatial refractive index sensor using whispering gallery modes in an optically trapped microsphere," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, "Experimental Realization of an On-Chip All-Optical Analogue to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

J. Yang and L. J. Guo, "Optical sensors based on active microcavities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143-147 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Yariv, A.

W. Liang, L. Yang, J. K. S. Poon, Y. Huang, K. J. Vahala, and A. Yariv, "Transmission characteristics of a Fabry-Perot etalon-microtoroid resonator coupled system," Opt. Lett. 31, 510-512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, S. Mookherjea, G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, and A. Yariv, "Matrix analysis of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 91-103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Zijlstra, P.

P. Zijlstra, K. L. van der Molen, and A. P. Mosk, "Spatial refractive index sensor using whispering gallery modes in an optically trapped microsphere," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. E. Barclay, B. Lev, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, and H. Mabuchi, "Integration of fiber-coupled high-Q SiNx microdisks with atom chips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108-131110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. F. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, "Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3666-3668 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, "Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, "Sharp asymmetric lineshapes in side-coupled waveguide-cavity systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 908-910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, "Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527-1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Zijlstra, K. L. van der Molen, and A. P. Mosk, "Spatial refractive index sensor using whispering gallery modes in an optically trapped microsphere," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161101 (2007).
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A. Francois and M. Himmelhaus, "Optical biosensor based on whispering gallery mode excitations in clusters of microparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

W. M. N. Passaro and F. D. Leonardis, "Modeling and design of a novel high-Sensitivity electric field silicon-on-insulator sensor based on a whispering-gallery-mode resonator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 124-133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang and L. J. Guo, "Optical sensors based on active microcavities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143-147 (2006)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. Djordjev, S. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk tunable resonant filters and switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 828-830 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

U. Fano, "Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts," Phys. Rev. 124, 1866-1878 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, "Experimental Realization of an On-Chip All-Optical Analogue to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
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E. Krioukov, J. Greve, and C. Otto, "Performance of integrated optical microcavities for refractive index and fluorescence sensing," Sens. Actuators B 90, 58-67 (2003).
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C. W. Gardiner and P. Zoller, Quantum Noise, Springer, 2004.

Y.-F. Xiao, J. Gao, X.-B. Zou, J. F. McMillan, X. Yang, Y.-L. Chen, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and C. W. Wong, "Coupled quantum electrodynamics in photonic crystal nanocavities," http://arxiv.org/abs/0707.2632.

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Iltchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, "High-Q whispering-gallery mode sensor in liquids," in Proc. SPIE 4629, 172-180 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of two coupled cavities. (b) The typical reflection (R), transmission (T), and loss (cavity absorption) spectra. (c) The enlarged reflection and loss spectra of the coupled-cavity system. Used parameters: κE =20κI and θ=-π/8.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Slopes of the reflection spectra (dR/) in Fig. 1(b). (b) The slope of the reflection spectrum for various working conditions θ and ω-ω 0. Here κE =20κI .

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Typical reflection spectra (a) and their slopes (b) when the two cavities have a detuning ω 21. Inset in (b) shows the maximum slope as a function of ω 21. Here κE =20κI , θ=-π/8.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dc j dt = ( i Δ j κ T , j 2 ) c j κ E , j 1 2 ( a in ( j ) + b in ( j ) ) .
c j ( ω ) = κ E , j 1 2 [ a in ( j ) ( ω ) + b in ( j ) ( ω ) ] i Δ j κ T , j 2 .
X out ( j ) ( ω ) = κ E , j X in ( j ) ( ω ) + ( i Δ j + κ E , j κ T , j 2 ) Y in ( j ) ( ω ) i Δ j κ T , j 2 ,
( b in ( j ) ( ω ) b out ( j ) ( ω ) ) = T j ( a in ( j ) ( ω ) a out ( j ) ( ω ) ) ,
T j = 1 i Δ j + κ E , j κ T , j 2 ( κ E , j i Δ j κ T , j 2 i Δ j κ T , j 2 + 2 κ I , j κ E , j ) .
( b in ( 2 ) ( ω ) b out ( 2 ) ( ω ) ) = T ( a in ( 1 ) ( ω ) a out ( 1 ) ( ω ) ) ,
T 0 = ( 0 e i θ e i θ 0 ) .
T ( ω ) = e i θ Π j = 1 , 2 ( i Δ j + κ E , j κ T , j 2 ) e 2 i θ Π j = 1 , 2 ( i Δ j κ T , j 2 ) κ E , 1 κ E , 2 2 ,
R ( ω ) = e 2 i θ ( i Δ 2 κ T , 2 2 ) κ E , 1 + ( i Δ 1 κ T , 1 2 + 2 κ E , 1 ) κ E , 2 e 2 i θ Π j = 1 , 2 ( i Δ j κ T , j 2 ) κ E , 1 κ E , 2 2 .
λ 2 π a [ η n s + ( 1 η ) n c ] l ,
d λ d n s ( 2 π a l ) η .
dR dn s = dR d λ d λ dn s = 4 π 2 c a η l λ 2 dR d ω ,

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