Abstract

Recently, we introduced a sensor for the detection of local contrast gloss (or luster) of products. This is a new development step in contrast gloss measurement, since contrast gloss has been measured previously from a macroscopic area. Therefore, yet there do not exist statistical parameters for the classification of the contrast gloss as there exist parameters, e.g., for the classification of the surface roughness. In this study, we define novel statistical parameters for the diffuse component and contrast gloss obtained by the sensor for the detection of local contrast gloss. As an example, we utilize these statistical parameters and measured specular gloss, diffuse-component, and contrast gloss maps in the characterization of prints.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. S. Hunter and R. W. Harold, The Measurement of Appearance (Wiley, 1987).
  2. M. Landy "Visual perception: A gloss on surface properties," Nature (London) 447, 158-159 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Ji, M. R. Pointer, R. M. Luo, and J. Dakin "Gloss as an aspect of the measurement of appearance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 22-33 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Silvennoinen, K.-E. Peiponen and K. Myller, Specular Gloss (Elsevier, 2008).
  5. Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss D523-89 (2008) (American Society for Testing and Materials, 2008).
  6. Paints and varnishes - Determination of specular gloss of non-metallic paint films at 20, 60, and 85 degrees, ISO 2813:1994 (International Organization for Standardization, 1994).
    [PubMed]
  7. N. Elton and J. Preston "Polarized light reflectometry for studies of paper coating structure II: Application to coating structure, gloss and porosity," Tappi J. 5, 10-16 (2006).
  8. M. Beland and J. M. Bennett "Effect of local microroughness on the gloss uniformity of printed paper surfaces," Appl. Opt. 39, 2719-2726 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. MacGregor and P. Johansson "Submillimeter gloss variations in coated paper; Part I, The gloss imaging eguipment and analytical techniques," Tappi J. 73, 161-168 (1990).
  10. V. G. W. Harrison, Definition and Measurement of Gloss (Printing and Allied Trades Research Association, 1945).
  11. W. J. O�??Brien, W. M. Johnston, F. Fanian, and S. Lambert "The surface roughness and gloss of composites," J. Dent. Res. 63, 685-688 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. M. Campbell, W. M. Johnston, and W. J. O�??Brien "Light scattering and gloss of an experimental quartz-filled composite," J. Dent. Res. 65, 892-894 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Sugane and T. Gunji "Evaluation of the reflection properties of embroidery yarn by graphic image analysis," Journal of the Textile Machinery Society of Japan 42, 16-22 (1996).
  14. H. K. Bustard and R. W. Smith "Investigation into the scattering of light by human hair," Appl. Opt. 30, 3485- 3491 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. V. E. Gorbatenko, V. A. Guzii, A. A. Perminov, A. G. Tkachev, A. Ya. Kozyarskii, and V. S. Lukashov "Checking gloss factors on glassy surfaces," Glass Ceram. 46, 153-155 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Oksman, M. Juuti and K.-E. Peiponen "Sensor for the detection of local contrast gloss of products," Opt. Lett. 33, 654-656 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. M. Bennett and L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, 1989).
  18. K.-E. Peiponen and M. Juuti, "Statistical parameters for gloss evaluation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 0711041- 0711043 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Oksman, M. Juuti and K.-E. Peiponen "Visibility map for print quality assessment by means of a diffractive optical element based glossmeter," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2185-2188 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

M. Landy "Visual perception: A gloss on surface properties," Nature (London) 447, 158-159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Oksman, M. Juuti and K.-E. Peiponen "Visibility map for print quality assessment by means of a diffractive optical element based glossmeter," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2185-2188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

W. Ji, M. R. Pointer, R. M. Luo, and J. Dakin "Gloss as an aspect of the measurement of appearance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 22-33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Elton and J. Preston "Polarized light reflectometry for studies of paper coating structure II: Application to coating structure, gloss and porosity," Tappi J. 5, 10-16 (2006).

K.-E. Peiponen and M. Juuti, "Statistical parameters for gloss evaluation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 0711041- 0711043 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000

1996

A. Sugane and T. Gunji "Evaluation of the reflection properties of embroidery yarn by graphic image analysis," Journal of the Textile Machinery Society of Japan 42, 16-22 (1996).

1991

1990

M. MacGregor and P. Johansson "Submillimeter gloss variations in coated paper; Part I, The gloss imaging eguipment and analytical techniques," Tappi J. 73, 161-168 (1990).

1989

V. E. Gorbatenko, V. A. Guzii, A. A. Perminov, A. G. Tkachev, A. Ya. Kozyarskii, and V. S. Lukashov "Checking gloss factors on glassy surfaces," Glass Ceram. 46, 153-155 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

P. M. Campbell, W. M. Johnston, and W. J. O�??Brien "Light scattering and gloss of an experimental quartz-filled composite," J. Dent. Res. 65, 892-894 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

W. J. O�??Brien, W. M. Johnston, F. Fanian, and S. Lambert "The surface roughness and gloss of composites," J. Dent. Res. 63, 685-688 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beland, M.

Bennett, J. M.

Bustard, H. K.

Campbell, P. M.

P. M. Campbell, W. M. Johnston, and W. J. O�??Brien "Light scattering and gloss of an experimental quartz-filled composite," J. Dent. Res. 65, 892-894 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dakin, J.

Elton, N.

N. Elton and J. Preston "Polarized light reflectometry for studies of paper coating structure II: Application to coating structure, gloss and porosity," Tappi J. 5, 10-16 (2006).

Fanian, F.

W. J. O�??Brien, W. M. Johnston, F. Fanian, and S. Lambert "The surface roughness and gloss of composites," J. Dent. Res. 63, 685-688 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorbatenko, V. E.

V. E. Gorbatenko, V. A. Guzii, A. A. Perminov, A. G. Tkachev, A. Ya. Kozyarskii, and V. S. Lukashov "Checking gloss factors on glassy surfaces," Glass Ceram. 46, 153-155 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gunji, T.

A. Sugane and T. Gunji "Evaluation of the reflection properties of embroidery yarn by graphic image analysis," Journal of the Textile Machinery Society of Japan 42, 16-22 (1996).

Guzii, V. A.

V. E. Gorbatenko, V. A. Guzii, A. A. Perminov, A. G. Tkachev, A. Ya. Kozyarskii, and V. S. Lukashov "Checking gloss factors on glassy surfaces," Glass Ceram. 46, 153-155 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

Johansson, P.

M. MacGregor and P. Johansson "Submillimeter gloss variations in coated paper; Part I, The gloss imaging eguipment and analytical techniques," Tappi J. 73, 161-168 (1990).

Johnston, W. M.

P. M. Campbell, W. M. Johnston, and W. J. O�??Brien "Light scattering and gloss of an experimental quartz-filled composite," J. Dent. Res. 65, 892-894 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. O�??Brien, W. M. Johnston, F. Fanian, and S. Lambert "The surface roughness and gloss of composites," J. Dent. Res. 63, 685-688 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juuti, M.

A. Oksman, M. Juuti and K.-E. Peiponen "Sensor for the detection of local contrast gloss of products," Opt. Lett. 33, 654-656 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Oksman, M. Juuti and K.-E. Peiponen "Visibility map for print quality assessment by means of a diffractive optical element based glossmeter," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2185-2188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-E. Peiponen and M. Juuti, "Statistical parameters for gloss evaluation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 0711041- 0711043 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kozyarskii, A. Ya.

V. E. Gorbatenko, V. A. Guzii, A. A. Perminov, A. G. Tkachev, A. Ya. Kozyarskii, and V. S. Lukashov "Checking gloss factors on glassy surfaces," Glass Ceram. 46, 153-155 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, S.

W. J. O�??Brien, W. M. Johnston, F. Fanian, and S. Lambert "The surface roughness and gloss of composites," J. Dent. Res. 63, 685-688 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landy, M.

M. Landy "Visual perception: A gloss on surface properties," Nature (London) 447, 158-159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lukashov, V. S.

V. E. Gorbatenko, V. A. Guzii, A. A. Perminov, A. G. Tkachev, A. Ya. Kozyarskii, and V. S. Lukashov "Checking gloss factors on glassy surfaces," Glass Ceram. 46, 153-155 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Luo, R. M.

MacGregor, M.

M. MacGregor and P. Johansson "Submillimeter gloss variations in coated paper; Part I, The gloss imaging eguipment and analytical techniques," Tappi J. 73, 161-168 (1990).

O???Brien, W. J.

P. M. Campbell, W. M. Johnston, and W. J. O�??Brien "Light scattering and gloss of an experimental quartz-filled composite," J. Dent. Res. 65, 892-894 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. O�??Brien, W. M. Johnston, F. Fanian, and S. Lambert "The surface roughness and gloss of composites," J. Dent. Res. 63, 685-688 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oksman, A.

A. Oksman, M. Juuti and K.-E. Peiponen "Sensor for the detection of local contrast gloss of products," Opt. Lett. 33, 654-656 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Oksman, M. Juuti and K.-E. Peiponen "Visibility map for print quality assessment by means of a diffractive optical element based glossmeter," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2185-2188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peiponen, K.-E.

A. Oksman, M. Juuti and K.-E. Peiponen "Sensor for the detection of local contrast gloss of products," Opt. Lett. 33, 654-656 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Oksman, M. Juuti and K.-E. Peiponen "Visibility map for print quality assessment by means of a diffractive optical element based glossmeter," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2185-2188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-E. Peiponen and M. Juuti, "Statistical parameters for gloss evaluation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 0711041- 0711043 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perminov, A. A.

V. E. Gorbatenko, V. A. Guzii, A. A. Perminov, A. G. Tkachev, A. Ya. Kozyarskii, and V. S. Lukashov "Checking gloss factors on glassy surfaces," Glass Ceram. 46, 153-155 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pointer, M. R.

Preston, J.

N. Elton and J. Preston "Polarized light reflectometry for studies of paper coating structure II: Application to coating structure, gloss and porosity," Tappi J. 5, 10-16 (2006).

Smith, R. W.

Sugane, A.

A. Sugane and T. Gunji "Evaluation of the reflection properties of embroidery yarn by graphic image analysis," Journal of the Textile Machinery Society of Japan 42, 16-22 (1996).

Tkachev, A. G.

V. E. Gorbatenko, V. A. Guzii, A. A. Perminov, A. G. Tkachev, A. Ya. Kozyarskii, and V. S. Lukashov "Checking gloss factors on glassy surfaces," Glass Ceram. 46, 153-155 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K.-E. Peiponen and M. Juuti, "Statistical parameters for gloss evaluation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 0711041- 0711043 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glass Ceram.

V. E. Gorbatenko, V. A. Guzii, A. A. Perminov, A. G. Tkachev, A. Ya. Kozyarskii, and V. S. Lukashov "Checking gloss factors on glassy surfaces," Glass Ceram. 46, 153-155 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Dent. Res.

W. J. O�??Brien, W. M. Johnston, F. Fanian, and S. Lambert "The surface roughness and gloss of composites," J. Dent. Res. 63, 685-688 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Campbell, W. M. Johnston, and W. J. O�??Brien "Light scattering and gloss of an experimental quartz-filled composite," J. Dent. Res. 65, 892-894 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Journal of the Textile Machinery Society of Japan

A. Sugane and T. Gunji "Evaluation of the reflection properties of embroidery yarn by graphic image analysis," Journal of the Textile Machinery Society of Japan 42, 16-22 (1996).

Meas. Sci. Technol.

A. Oksman, M. Juuti and K.-E. Peiponen "Visibility map for print quality assessment by means of a diffractive optical element based glossmeter," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2185-2188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

M. Landy "Visual perception: A gloss on surface properties," Nature (London) 447, 158-159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Tappi J.

N. Elton and J. Preston "Polarized light reflectometry for studies of paper coating structure II: Application to coating structure, gloss and porosity," Tappi J. 5, 10-16 (2006).

M. MacGregor and P. Johansson "Submillimeter gloss variations in coated paper; Part I, The gloss imaging eguipment and analytical techniques," Tappi J. 73, 161-168 (1990).

Other

V. G. W. Harrison, Definition and Measurement of Gloss (Printing and Allied Trades Research Association, 1945).

R. Silvennoinen, K.-E. Peiponen and K. Myller, Specular Gloss (Elsevier, 2008).

Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss D523-89 (2008) (American Society for Testing and Materials, 2008).

Paints and varnishes - Determination of specular gloss of non-metallic paint films at 20, 60, and 85 degrees, ISO 2813:1994 (International Organization for Standardization, 1994).
[PubMed]

R. S. Hunter and R. W. Harold, The Measurement of Appearance (Wiley, 1987).

J. M. Bennett and L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, 1989).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the sensor for the detection of local contrast gloss. C, collimating optics; L, lens; S, sample; WFR, speckle pattern incident on the DOE; and the image of the grating structure of the DOE is on the right-hand side of WFR. CCD1 and CCD2 are CCD cameras for recording specularly and diffusely propagating light, respectively. At the bottom are two images of 16 light spots recorded by the CCD cameras. The angle α is 45°. The schematic image of 16 light spots is presented in the left lower corner. A dashed square marks the area where the intensity [Eq. (4)] is calculated.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Specular gloss maps G (upper row), diffuse-component maps D (middle row) and contrast gloss maps Gc (bottom row) measured from (a) black, (b) magenta, (c) yellow, (d) cyan, and (e) cheek prints. The scales of each parameter are in the sidebars. The maps covered the same region 2 mm × 2 mm on the surface of each sample.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measurement parameters and statistical parameters from Eqs. (5)–(9) for the prints.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G c = 100 ( 1 D G ) ,
D = 100 × I sample , diffuse I reference ,
G = 100 × I sample , specular I reference ,
I = 1 NM i = 1 , j = 1 N , M I i , j ,
f mean = f ( x , y ) = 1 A A f ( x , y ) d x d y ,
f a = 1 A A f ( x , y ) f ( x , y ) d x d y
f q = { 1 A A [ f ( x , y ) f ( x , y ) ] 2 d x d y } 1 2 .
f a , x = 1 A A f ( x , y ) x f ( x , y ) x d x d y
f a , y = 1 A A f ( x , y ) y f ( x , y ) y d x d y
f q , x = { 1 A , A [ ∂f ( x , y ) x f ( x , y ) x ] 2 d x d y } 1 2
f q , y = { 1 A A [ f ( x , y ) y f ( x , y ) y ] 2 d x d y } 1 2 .

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