Abstract

We demonstrate in vivo volumetric bidirectional blood flow imaging in animal models using single-pass flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography. This technique uses a modified Hilbert transform algorithm to separate moving and non-moving scatterers within a depth. The resulting reconstructed image maps the components of moving scatterers flowing into and out of the imaging axis onto opposite image half-planes, enabling volumetric bidirectional flow mapping without manual segmentation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Optics Express 12, 10 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-367
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. Wojtkowski, Srinivasan V. J., Ko T. H., J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-Resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Optics Express 12, 2404 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-11-2404
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, C. Randall, G. Liu, J. Y. Jiang, A. E. Cable, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system,” Optics Express 15, 1627 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=127228
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 12, 041215 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, R. J. Zawadzki, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography and investigation of human retinal vessel autoregulation,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 12, 041214 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Guo, J. Zhang, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and Z. Chen, “Frequency domain phase-resolved optical Doppler and Doppler variance tomography,” Optics Communications 242, 6 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 11, 3116 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3116
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. De Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Optics Express 11, 8 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-25-3490
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Optics Express 16, 6008 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-9-6008
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. L. Yannuzzi, K. Rohrer, L. Tindel, R. Sobel, M. Constanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93, 7 (1986).
    [PubMed]
  11. M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanin' green,” Ophthalmology 101, 5 (1994).
    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for real-time full-range Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Applied Optics 45, 8 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. R. K. Wang, “In vivo full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Applied Physics Letters 90, 054103 (2007).
  15. B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters,” Optics Express 15, 13375 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-20-13375
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. L. An and R. K. Wang, “Use of a scanner to modulate spatial interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt Letters 32, 3423 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-23-3423
    [Crossref]
  17. S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, “Full-range, high-speed, high-resolution 1-mu m spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using BM-scan for volumetric imaging of the human posterior eye,” Optics Express 16, 8406 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8406
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, “Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator,” Optics Letters 30, 147 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-2-147
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 13, 583 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-583
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Optics Express 12, 4822 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=81308
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, “Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 10 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. A. H. Bachmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and T. Lasser, “Heterodyne Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for full range probing with high axial resolution,” Optics Express 14, 1487 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-4-1487
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Optics Express 15, 4083 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-4083
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Optics Express 15, 408 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-408
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 11, 2183 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral-domain phase microscopy,” Opt Lett 30, 1162 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography - A new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106, 2771 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. V. Hamburger and H. L. Hamilton, “A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo,” Journal of Morphology 88, 54 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  29. B. S. Sorg, M. E. Hardee, N. Agarwal, B. J. Moeller, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Spectral imaging facilitates visualization and measurements of unstable and abnormal microvascular oxygen transport in tumors,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 13 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Optics Express 16, 6008 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-9-6008
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, “Full-range, high-speed, high-resolution 1-mu m spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using BM-scan for volumetric imaging of the human posterior eye,” Optics Express 16, 8406 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8406
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Sorg, M. E. Hardee, N. Agarwal, B. J. Moeller, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Spectral imaging facilitates visualization and measurements of unstable and abnormal microvascular oxygen transport in tumors,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 13 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (9)

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Optics Express 15, 4083 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-4083
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Optics Express 15, 408 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-408
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, R. Michaely, T. Lasser, and S. C. Sekhar, “Complex ambiguity-free Fourier domain optical coherence tomography through transverse scanning,” Opt Letters 32, 3453 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-23-3453
[Crossref]

R. K. Wang, “In vivo full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Applied Physics Letters 90, 054103 (2007).

B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters,” Optics Express 15, 13375 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-20-13375
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “Use of a scanner to modulate spatial interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt Letters 32, 3423 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-23-3423
[Crossref]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, C. Randall, G. Liu, J. Y. Jiang, A. E. Cable, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system,” Optics Express 15, 1627 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=127228
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 12, 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, R. J. Zawadzki, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography and investigation of human retinal vessel autoregulation,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 12, 041214 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for real-time full-range Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Applied Optics 45, 8 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and T. Lasser, “Heterodyne Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for full range probing with high axial resolution,” Optics Express 14, 1487 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-4-1487
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral-domain phase microscopy,” Opt Lett 30, 1162 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, “Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 10 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, “Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator,” Optics Letters 30, 147 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-2-147
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 13, 583 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-583
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Optics Express 12, 4822 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=81308
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Guo, J. Zhang, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and Z. Chen, “Frequency domain phase-resolved optical Doppler and Doppler variance tomography,” Optics Communications 242, 6 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Optics Express 12, 10 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-367
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, Srinivasan V. J., Ko T. H., J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-Resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Optics Express 12, 2404 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-11-2404
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 11, 3116 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3116
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. De Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Optics Express 11, 8 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 11, 2183 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography - A new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106, 2771 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanin' green,” Ophthalmology 101, 5 (1994).
[PubMed]

1986 (1)

L. Yannuzzi, K. Rohrer, L. Tindel, R. Sobel, M. Constanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93, 7 (1986).
[PubMed]

1951 (1)

V. Hamburger and H. L. Hamilton, “A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo,” Journal of Morphology 88, 54 (1951).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, N.

B. S. Sorg, M. E. Hardee, N. Agarwal, B. J. Moeller, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Spectral imaging facilitates visualization and measurements of unstable and abnormal microvascular oxygen transport in tumors,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 13 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, L.

L. An and R. K. Wang, “Use of a scanner to modulate spatial interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt Letters 32, 3423 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-23-3423
[Crossref]

Aoki, G.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for real-time full-range Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Applied Optics 45, 8 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bachman, M.

L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Guo, J. Zhang, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and Z. Chen, “Frequency domain phase-resolved optical Doppler and Doppler variance tomography,” Optics Communications 242, 6 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bachmann, A. H.

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Optics Express 15, 408 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-408
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and T. Lasser, “Heterodyne Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for full range probing with high axial resolution,” Optics Express 14, 1487 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-4-1487
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Optics Express 16, 6008 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-9-6008
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 11, 3116 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3116
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters,” Optics Express 15, 13375 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-20-13375
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blatter, C.

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Optics Express 15, 408 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-408
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Optics Express 12, 4822 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=81308
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Optics Express 12, 10 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-367
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. De Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Optics Express 11, 8 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bower, B. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 12, 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, R. J. Zawadzki, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography and investigation of human retinal vessel autoregulation,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 12, 041214 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A. E.

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, C. Randall, G. Liu, J. Y. Jiang, A. E. Cable, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system,” Optics Express 15, 1627 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=127228
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Optics Express 12, 10 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-367
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. De Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Optics Express 11, 8 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Optics Express 12, 10 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-367
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. De Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Optics Express 11, 8 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Guo, J. Zhang, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and Z. Chen, “Frequency domain phase-resolved optical Doppler and Doppler variance tomography,” Optics Communications 242, 6 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. P.

J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, “Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator,” Optics Letters 30, 147 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-2-147
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choma, M. A.

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, “Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 10 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral-domain phase microscopy,” Opt Lett 30, 1162 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 11, 2183 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography - A new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106, 2771 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Constanza, M.

L. Yannuzzi, K. Rohrer, L. Tindel, R. Sobel, M. Constanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93, 7 (1986).
[PubMed]

Creazzo, T. L.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral-domain phase microscopy,” Opt Lett 30, 1162 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, A. M.

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, “Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 10 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Optics Express 12, 4822 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=81308
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Optics Express 12, 10 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-367
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. De Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Optics Express 11, 8 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dewhirst, M. W.

B. S. Sorg, M. E. Hardee, N. Agarwal, B. J. Moeller, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Spectral imaging facilitates visualization and measurements of unstable and abnormal microvascular oxygen transport in tumors,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 13 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 11, 3116 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3116
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

M. Wojtkowski, Srinivasan V. J., Ko T. H., J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-Resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Optics Express 12, 2404 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-11-2404
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ellerbee, A. K.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral-domain phase microscopy,” Opt Lett 30, 1162 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endo, T.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for real-time full-range Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Applied Optics 45, 8 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fabritius, T.

S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, “Full-range, high-speed, high-resolution 1-mu m spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using BM-scan for volumetric imaging of the human posterior eye,” Optics Express 16, 8406 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8406
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 11, 3116 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3116
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. Wojtkowski, Srinivasan V. J., Ko T. H., J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-Resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Optics Express 12, 2404 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-11-2404
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gotzinger, E.

B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters,” Optics Express 15, 13375 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-20-13375
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 13, 583 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-583
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gragoudas, E.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanin' green,” Ophthalmology 101, 5 (1994).
[PubMed]

Gruber, A.

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Optics Express 15, 4083 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-4083
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Guo, J. Zhang, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and Z. Chen, “Frequency domain phase-resolved optical Doppler and Doppler variance tomography,” Optics Communications 242, 6 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guyer, D.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanin' green,” Ophthalmology 101, 5 (1994).
[PubMed]

Hamburger, V.

V. Hamburger and H. L. Hamilton, “A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo,” Journal of Morphology 88, 54 (1951).
[Crossref]

Hamilton, H. L.

V. Hamburger and H. L. Hamilton, “A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo,” Journal of Morphology 88, 54 (1951).
[Crossref]

Hanson, S. R.

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Optics Express 15, 4083 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-4083
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hardee, M. E.

B. S. Sorg, M. E. Hardee, N. Agarwal, B. J. Moeller, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Spectral imaging facilitates visualization and measurements of unstable and abnormal microvascular oxygen transport in tumors,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 13 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters,” Optics Express 15, 13375 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-20-13375
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 13, 583 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-583
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hope-Ross, M.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanin' green,” Ophthalmology 101, 5 (1994).
[PubMed]

Huang, D.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 12, 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hurst, S.

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Optics Express 15, 4083 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-4083
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for real-time full-range Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Applied Optics 45, 8 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, R. J. Zawadzki, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography and investigation of human retinal vessel autoregulation,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 12, 041214 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 12, 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, “Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 10 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral-domain phase microscopy,” Opt Lett 30, 1162 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 11, 2183 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography - A new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106, 2771 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Optics Express 15, 4083 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-4083
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, J. Y.

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, C. Randall, G. Liu, J. Y. Jiang, A. E. Cable, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system,” Optics Express 15, 1627 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=127228
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirby, M. L.

T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography - A new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106, 2771 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Optics Express 16, 6008 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-9-6008
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, Srinivasan V. J., Ko T. H., J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-Resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Optics Express 12, 2404 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-11-2404
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krupsky, S.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanin' green,” Ophthalmology 101, 5 (1994).
[PubMed]

Lasser, T.

R. A. Leitgeb, R. Michaely, T. Lasser, and S. C. Sekhar, “Complex ambiguity-free Fourier domain optical coherence tomography through transverse scanning,” Opt Letters 32, 3453 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-23-3453
[Crossref]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Optics Express 15, 408 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-408
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and T. Lasser, “Heterodyne Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for full range probing with high axial resolution,” Optics Express 14, 1487 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-4-1487
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Optics Express 15, 408 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-408
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, R. Michaely, T. Lasser, and S. C. Sekhar, “Complex ambiguity-free Fourier domain optical coherence tomography through transverse scanning,” Opt Letters 32, 3453 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-23-3453
[Crossref]

A. H. Bachmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and T. Lasser, “Heterodyne Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for full range probing with high axial resolution,” Optics Express 14, 1487 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-4-1487
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 13, 583 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-583
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 11, 3116 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3116
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, G. P.

L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Guo, J. Zhang, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and Z. Chen, “Frequency domain phase-resolved optical Doppler and Doppler variance tomography,” Optics Communications 242, 6 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, C. Randall, G. Liu, J. Y. Jiang, A. E. Cable, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system,” Optics Express 15, 1627 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=127228
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Optics Express 15, 4083 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-4083
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, “Full-range, high-speed, high-resolution 1-mu m spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using BM-scan for volumetric imaging of the human posterior eye,” Optics Express 16, 8406 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8406
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for real-time full-range Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Applied Optics 45, 8 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mariampillai, A.

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, C. Randall, G. Liu, J. Y. Jiang, A. E. Cable, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system,” Optics Express 15, 1627 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=127228
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michaely, R.

R. A. Leitgeb, R. Michaely, T. Lasser, and S. C. Sekhar, “Complex ambiguity-free Fourier domain optical coherence tomography through transverse scanning,” Opt Letters 32, 3453 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-23-3453
[Crossref]

Moeller, B. J.

B. S. Sorg, M. E. Hardee, N. Agarwal, B. J. Moeller, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Spectral imaging facilitates visualization and measurements of unstable and abnormal microvascular oxygen transport in tumors,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 13 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munce, N. R.

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, C. Randall, G. Liu, J. Y. Jiang, A. E. Cable, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system,” Optics Express 15, 1627 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=127228
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nassif, N. A.

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Optics Express 12, 10 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-367
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. De Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Optics Express 11, 8 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, “Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator,” Optics Letters 30, 147 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-2-147
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orlock, D.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanin' green,” Ophthalmology 101, 5 (1994).
[PubMed]

Park, B. H.

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Optics Express 12, 10 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-367
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. De Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Optics Express 11, 8 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Optics Express 12, 10 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-367
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. De Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Optics Express 11, 8 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters,” Optics Express 15, 13375 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-20-13375
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 13, 583 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-583
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanin' green,” Ophthalmology 101, 5 (1994).
[PubMed]

Randall, C.

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, C. Randall, G. Liu, J. Y. Jiang, A. E. Cable, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system,” Optics Express 15, 1627 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=127228
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rohrer, K.

L. Yannuzzi, K. Rohrer, L. Tindel, R. Sobel, M. Constanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93, 7 (1986).
[PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 11, 2183 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 11, 3116 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3116
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sekhar, S. C.

R. A. Leitgeb, R. Michaely, T. Lasser, and S. C. Sekhar, “Complex ambiguity-free Fourier domain optical coherence tomography through transverse scanning,” Opt Letters 32, 3453 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-23-3453
[Crossref]

Shields, W.

L. Yannuzzi, K. Rohrer, L. Tindel, R. Sobel, M. Constanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93, 7 (1986).
[PubMed]

Slakter, J.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanin' green,” Ophthalmology 101, 5 (1994).
[PubMed]

Sobel, R.

L. Yannuzzi, K. Rohrer, L. Tindel, R. Sobel, M. Constanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93, 7 (1986).
[PubMed]

Sorenson, J.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanin' green,” Ophthalmology 101, 5 (1994).
[PubMed]

Sorg, B. S.

B. S. Sorg, M. E. Hardee, N. Agarwal, B. J. Moeller, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Spectral imaging facilitates visualization and measurements of unstable and abnormal microvascular oxygen transport in tumors,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 13 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Standish, B. A.

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, C. Randall, G. Liu, J. Y. Jiang, A. E. Cable, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system,” Optics Express 15, 1627 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=127228
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szkulmowska, A.

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Optics Express 16, 6008 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-9-6008
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Optics Express 16, 6008 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-9-6008
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H., Ko

M. Wojtkowski, Srinivasan V. J., Ko T. H., J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-Resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Optics Express 12, 2404 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-11-2404
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 12, 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Optics Express 12, 10 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-367
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Optics Express 12, 4822 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=81308
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. De Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Optics Express 11, 8 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thrane, L.

T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography - A new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106, 2771 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tindel, L.

L. Yannuzzi, K. Rohrer, L. Tindel, R. Sobel, M. Constanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93, 7 (1986).
[PubMed]

V. J., Srinivasan

M. Wojtkowski, Srinivasan V. J., Ko T. H., J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-Resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Optics Express 12, 2404 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-11-2404
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villiger, M. L.

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Optics Express 15, 408 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-408
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitkin, I. A.

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, C. Randall, G. Liu, J. Y. Jiang, A. E. Cable, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system,” Optics Express 15, 1627 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=127228
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Guo, J. Zhang, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and Z. Chen, “Frequency domain phase-resolved optical Doppler and Doppler variance tomography,” Optics Communications 242, 6 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Optics Express 15, 4083 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-4083
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, “In vivo full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Applied Physics Letters 90, 054103 (2007).

L. An and R. K. Wang, “Use of a scanner to modulate spatial interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt Letters 32, 3423 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-23-3423
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 12, 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Guo, J. Zhang, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and Z. Chen, “Frequency domain phase-resolved optical Doppler and Doppler variance tomography,” Optics Communications 242, 6 (2004).
[Crossref]

White, B. R.

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. De Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Optics Express 11, 8 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Optics Express 16, 6008 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-9-6008
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, Srinivasan V. J., Ko T. H., J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-Resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Optics Express 12, 2404 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-11-2404
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral-domain phase microscopy,” Opt Lett 30, 1162 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C. H.

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 11, 2183 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, V. X. D.

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, C. Randall, G. Liu, J. Y. Jiang, A. E. Cable, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system,” Optics Express 15, 1627 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=127228
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yannuzzi, L.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanin' green,” Ophthalmology 101, 5 (1994).
[PubMed]

L. Yannuzzi, K. Rohrer, L. Tindel, R. Sobel, M. Constanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93, 7 (1986).
[PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, “Full-range, high-speed, high-resolution 1-mu m spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using BM-scan for volumetric imaging of the human posterior eye,” Optics Express 16, 8406 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8406
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for real-time full-range Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Applied Optics 45, 8 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yatagai, T.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for real-time full-range Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Applied Optics 45, 8 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yelbuz, T. M.

T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography - A new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106, 2771 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Optics Express 12, 4822 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=81308
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Optics Express 12, 10 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-367
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zang, E.

L. Yannuzzi, K. Rohrer, L. Tindel, R. Sobel, M. Constanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93, 7 (1986).
[PubMed]

Zawadzki, R. J.

B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, R. J. Zawadzki, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography and investigation of human retinal vessel autoregulation,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 12, 041214 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 11, 3116 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3116
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, “Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator,” Optics Letters 30, 147 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-2-147
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Guo, J. Zhang, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and Z. Chen, “Frequency domain phase-resolved optical Doppler and Doppler variance tomography,” Optics Communications 242, 6 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M.

B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, R. J. Zawadzki, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography and investigation of human retinal vessel autoregulation,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 12, 041214 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Applied Optics (1)

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for real-time full-range Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Applied Optics 45, 8 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Applied Physics Letters (1)

R. K. Wang, “In vivo full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Applied Physics Letters 90, 054103 (2007).

Circulation (1)

T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography - A new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106, 2771 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Journal of Biomedical Optics (4)

B. S. Sorg, M. E. Hardee, N. Agarwal, B. J. Moeller, and M. W. Dewhirst, “Spectral imaging facilitates visualization and measurements of unstable and abnormal microvascular oxygen transport in tumors,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 13 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, “Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 10 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 12, 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, R. J. Zawadzki, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography and investigation of human retinal vessel autoregulation,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 12, 041214 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Journal of Morphology (1)

V. Hamburger and H. L. Hamilton, “A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo,” Journal of Morphology 88, 54 (1951).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmology (2)

L. Yannuzzi, K. Rohrer, L. Tindel, R. Sobel, M. Constanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, “Fluorescein angiography complication survey,” Ophthalmology 93, 7 (1986).
[PubMed]

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanin' green,” Ophthalmology 101, 5 (1994).
[PubMed]

Opt Lett (1)

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral-domain phase microscopy,” Opt Lett 30, 1162 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt Letters (2)

R. A. Leitgeb, R. Michaely, T. Lasser, and S. C. Sekhar, “Complex ambiguity-free Fourier domain optical coherence tomography through transverse scanning,” Opt Letters 32, 3453 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-23-3453
[Crossref]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “Use of a scanner to modulate spatial interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt Letters 32, 3423 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-23-3423
[Crossref]

Optics Communications (1)

L. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Guo, J. Zhang, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and Z. Chen, “Frequency domain phase-resolved optical Doppler and Doppler variance tomography,” Optics Communications 242, 6 (2004).
[Crossref]

Optics Express (14)

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 11, 3116 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3116
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. De Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Optics Express 11, 8 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Optics Express 16, 6008 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-9-6008
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Optics Express 12, 10 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-367
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, Srinivasan V. J., Ko T. H., J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-Resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Optics Express 12, 2404 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-11-2404
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, C. Randall, G. Liu, J. Y. Jiang, A. E. Cable, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system,” Optics Express 15, 1627 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=127228
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, “Full-range, high-speed, high-resolution 1-mu m spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using BM-scan for volumetric imaging of the human posterior eye,” Optics Express 16, 8406 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8406
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters,” Optics Express 15, 13375 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-20-13375
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and T. Lasser, “Heterodyne Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for full range probing with high axial resolution,” Optics Express 14, 1487 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-4-1487
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Optics Express 15, 4083 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-4083
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Optics Express 15, 408 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-408
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 11, 2183 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Optics Express 13, 583 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-583
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Optics Express 12, 4822 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=81308
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Optics Letters (1)

J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, “Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator,” Optics Letters 30, 147 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-2-147
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (7726 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Flow chart of SDOCT spectral datacube processing. (a) Spectral inverse Fourier transform of B-scan yields (b,c) conventional SDOCT depth-resolved reflectivity map and lateral Fourier transform yields (d,e) sample spatial frequency information.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Flow chart of SPFI-SDOCT processing. (a) Lateral Fourier transform of B-scan yields (b) spatial frequency of sample centered around DC and spatial frequency of moving scatterers shifted by their respective Doppler frequencies. (c) Applying a frequency-shifted Heaviside step function and inverse Fourier transform of spatial frequencies recreates (d) the analytic interferometric signal (modified Hilbert transf'rm). (e) Spectral inverse Fourier transform of the analytic interferometric signal maps depth-solved reflectivities of bidirectionally moving scatterers on opposite image half-planes which can then be (f) overlaid for vessel identification.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SPFI-SDOCT microscope. 2-dimensional scanning was implemented using a galvanometer scanning pair and f/8.5 microscope optics were optimized for a 9μm spot-size. The reference arm was blocked to allow for commonpath imaging.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Phantom and in vivo flow models.(a) Two micro-capillaries were connected and oriented such that fluid flowed in opposite directions in a B-scan cross-section (line indicates B-scan orientation).(b) Chicken embryo preparation showing live embryo and peripheral vessels on both amnion and yolk surfaces (arrow).(c) Mouse window chamber preparation showing skin fold vasculature and tumor.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Flow phantom imaging showing (a) conventional SDOCT depth image with complex conjugate mirror image,(b) SPFI processed flow image showing bidirectional flow, and (c) overlaid flow and structure image. Negative flow (blue), positive flow (red), and non-moving structure (orange) are identified.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

3D reconstruction of bidirectional volumetric flow magnitude in chicken embryo model. 3mm × 3mm volume is comprised of nine 1mm × 1mm volumes sampled with 1ms integration time. Vessel sizes of 40μm (purple) to 270μm (orange) were within detection limits. Amionic vessel (blue), amionic vessel branch point (green), and motion artifact (red) are indentified.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(7.73MB) Movie of 3D rendering of bidirectional flow magnitude in chicken embryo model. [Media 1]

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

3D reconstruction of bidirectional volumetric flow magnitude in mouse window chamber model. 3mm × 3mm volume is comprised of nine 1mm × 1mm volumes sampled with 2ms integration time. Vessel sizes of 20μm (purple) to 110μm (green) were within detection limits. Tumor region vasculature (blue) and motion artifact (red) are indicated.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s [ k , x ] = m = 1 M A m exp [ ( 2 nk Δ z m + θ h [ x ] + θ m [ x ] ) ]
θ m [ x ] = 2 nk w 0 2 [ x dL D ] v m v x x dL D + w 0 2
s [ k , x ] = m = 1 M A m exp [ i 2 nk Δ z m ] exp [ i θ h [ x ] ] exp [ 2 ink∏ w 0 2 [ x dL D ] v m v x x dL D + w 0 2 ]
= m = 1 M A m exp [ i 2 nk Δ z m ] g [ x ] h [ x ]
FT x u [ I [ k , x ] ] = m = 1 M A m cos [ 2 nk Δ z m ] ⊗Re [ G [ u ] ] ⊗Re [ H [ u ] ] .
Re [ H [ u ] ] = Re [ dL D w 0 2 dL D + w 0 2 exp [ 2 ink v m v x x dL D + w 0 2 ] exp [ iux ] dx ]
= κ cos [ w 0 u 2 nk v m v x ] 1 u 2 nk v m v x
σ h [ u ] = x = 1 L σ h 2 [ x ]
FT x u [ I [ k , x ] ] H [ u f T ] = α ( V + [ k , u + f D , + ] + V __ [ k , u f D , ] )
dv = L λ 0 2 nD τ w 0 cos θ D

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