Abstract

We discuss and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to achieve photorefractive solitons of arbitrary linear polarization using the quadratic electro-optic effect and describe the observation of the self-trapping of a set of linear polarized beams in different positions of a paraelectric photorefractive crystal of potassium-lithium-tantalate-niobate (KLTN) biased by the inhomogeneous field produced by two miniaturized top electrodes. The polarization of the single solitons of the set is determined by the local electrostatic configuration and the underlying tunable anisotropy, which is detected through zero-field electro-activation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation Of Self-Trapping of an Optical Beam due to the Photorefractive Effect," Phys.Rev.Lett 71, 533-536 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. For a review, see Chapter 11 by E. DelRe, M. Segev, D. Christodoulides, B. Crosignani, and G. Salamo, in P. Gunter and J.P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg 2006).
  3. M. Segev, M. F. Shih, G. C. Valley, "Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706-718 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Vector photorefractive spatial solitons," Opt. Lett. 20, 1764-1766 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. R. Singh and D. N. Christodoulides, "Effects of optical activity on photorefractive spatial solitons in a biased Bi12TiO2 crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 719-724 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Fazio, V. Babin, M. Bertolotti, and V. Vlad, "Solitonlike propagation in photorefractive crystals with large optical activity and absorption," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016605 (2002).
  7. P. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Lou, X. Tan, Y. Gao, Q. Liu, D. Yang, J. Xu, and Z. Chen, "Elliptical solitons in nonconventionally biased photorefractive crystals," Opt. Express 15, 536-544 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Zhang, J. L. Zhao, F. J. Xiao, C. B. Lou, J. J. Xu, and Z. G. Chen, "Elliptical discrete solitons supported by enhanced photorefractive anisotropy," Opt. Express 16, 3865-3870 (2008)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, A. J. Agranat, "Soliton electro-optic effects in paraelectrics," Opt. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, A. J. Agranat, "Two-dimensional photorefractive spatial solitons in centrosymmetric paraelectric potassium-lithium-tantalate-niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16-18 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Chauvet, A. Q. Gou, G. Y. Fu, G. Salamo, "Electrically switched photoinduced waveguide in unpoled strontium barium niobate," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. F. Shih and F. W. Sheu, "Photorefractive polymeric optical spatial solitons," Opt. Lett. 24, 1853-1855 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Asaro, M. Sheldon, Z. G. Chen, O. Ostroverkhova, W. E. Moerner, "Soliton-induced waveguides in an organic photorefractive glass," Opt. Lett. 30, 519-521 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Bitman, N. Sapiens, L. Secundo, A. J. Agranat, G. Bartal, M. Segev, "Electroholographic tunable volume grating in the (g44) configuration," Opt. Lett. 31, 2849-2851 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Pierangelo, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, G. Biagi, E. Palange, and A. Agranat, "Separating polarization components through the electro-optic read-out of photorefractive solitons," Opt. Express 15, 14283 (2007)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. See the paraxial terms of Eq. (31) in A. Ciattoni, P. Di Porto, B. Crosignani, and A. Yariv, "Vectorial nonparaxial propagation equation in the presence of a tensorial refractive-index perturbation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 809- 819 (2000). For noncentrosymmetric crystals, the issue is further complicated by phase-matching conditions, as discussed in Ref. [4].
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, and A. Yariv, "Characterization of a new photorefractive material: KLTN," Opt. Lett. 17, 713-715 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni,and A. J. Agranat, "Anisotropic charge displacement supporting isolated photorefractive optical needles," Opt. Lett. 26, 908-910 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. D�??Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. DelRe, G. De Masi, A. Ciattoni, E. Palange, "Pairing space-charge field conditions with self-guiding for the attainment of circular symmetry in photorefractive solitons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5499-5501 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. N. Christodoulides, M. I. Carvalho, "Compression, Self-Bending, and Collapse of Gaussian Beams in Photorefractive Crystals," Opt. Lett. 19, 1714-1716 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

A. Bitman, N. Sapiens, L. Secundo, A. J. Agranat, G. Bartal, M. Segev, "Electroholographic tunable volume grating in the (g44) configuration," Opt. Lett. 31, 2849-2851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chauvet, A. Q. Gou, G. Y. Fu, G. Salamo, "Electrically switched photoinduced waveguide in unpoled strontium barium niobate," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

A. D�??Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, G. De Masi, A. Ciattoni, E. Palange, "Pairing space-charge field conditions with self-guiding for the attainment of circular symmetry in photorefractive solitons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5499-5501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. Fazio, V. Babin, M. Bertolotti, and V. Vlad, "Solitonlike propagation in photorefractive crystals with large optical activity and absorption," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016605 (2002).

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, A. J. Agranat, "Two-dimensional photorefractive spatial solitons in centrosymmetric paraelectric potassium-lithium-tantalate-niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16-18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Segev, M. F. Shih, G. C. Valley, "Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706-718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Singh and D. N. Christodoulides, "Effects of optical activity on photorefractive spatial solitons in a biased Bi12TiO2 crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 719-724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation Of Self-Trapping of an Optical Beam due to the Photorefractive Effect," Phys.Rev.Lett 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

A. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, and A. Yariv, "Characterization of a new photorefractive material: KLTN," Opt. Lett. 17, 713-715 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agranat, A.

Agranat, A. J.

A. Bitman, N. Sapiens, L. Secundo, A. J. Agranat, G. Bartal, M. Segev, "Electroholographic tunable volume grating in the (g44) configuration," Opt. Lett. 31, 2849-2851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D�??Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni,and A. J. Agranat, "Anisotropic charge displacement supporting isolated photorefractive optical needles," Opt. Lett. 26, 908-910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, A. J. Agranat, "Soliton electro-optic effects in paraelectrics," Opt. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, A. J. Agranat, "Two-dimensional photorefractive spatial solitons in centrosymmetric paraelectric potassium-lithium-tantalate-niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16-18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Asaro, M.

Babin, V.

E. Fazio, V. Babin, M. Bertolotti, and V. Vlad, "Solitonlike propagation in photorefractive crystals with large optical activity and absorption," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016605 (2002).

Bartal, G.

Bertolotti, M.

E. Fazio, V. Babin, M. Bertolotti, and V. Vlad, "Solitonlike propagation in photorefractive crystals with large optical activity and absorption," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016605 (2002).

Biagi, G.

Bitman, A.

Carvalho, M. I.

Chauvet, M.

M. Chauvet, A. Q. Gou, G. Y. Fu, G. Salamo, "Electrically switched photoinduced waveguide in unpoled strontium barium niobate," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Chen, Z. G.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Ciattoni, A.

A. Pierangelo, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, G. Biagi, E. Palange, and A. Agranat, "Separating polarization components through the electro-optic read-out of photorefractive solitons," Opt. Express 15, 14283 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. DelRe, G. De Masi, A. Ciattoni, E. Palange, "Pairing space-charge field conditions with self-guiding for the attainment of circular symmetry in photorefractive solitons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5499-5501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. D�??Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni,and A. J. Agranat, "Anisotropic charge displacement supporting isolated photorefractive optical needles," Opt. Lett. 26, 908-910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crosignani, B.

A. D�??Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation Of Self-Trapping of an Optical Beam due to the Photorefractive Effect," Phys.Rev.Lett 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D???Ercole, A.

A. D�??Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Masi, G.

E. DelRe, G. De Masi, A. Ciattoni, E. Palange, "Pairing space-charge field conditions with self-guiding for the attainment of circular symmetry in photorefractive solitons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5499-5501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DelRe, E.

A. Pierangelo, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, G. Biagi, E. Palange, and A. Agranat, "Separating polarization components through the electro-optic read-out of photorefractive solitons," Opt. Express 15, 14283 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D�??Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, G. De Masi, A. Ciattoni, E. Palange, "Pairing space-charge field conditions with self-guiding for the attainment of circular symmetry in photorefractive solitons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5499-5501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni,and A. J. Agranat, "Anisotropic charge displacement supporting isolated photorefractive optical needles," Opt. Lett. 26, 908-910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, A. J. Agranat, "Soliton electro-optic effects in paraelectrics," Opt. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, A. J. Agranat, "Two-dimensional photorefractive spatial solitons in centrosymmetric paraelectric potassium-lithium-tantalate-niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16-18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Di Porto, P.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation Of Self-Trapping of an Optical Beam due to the Photorefractive Effect," Phys.Rev.Lett 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G. C.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation Of Self-Trapping of an Optical Beam due to the Photorefractive Effect," Phys.Rev.Lett 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fazio, E.

E. Fazio, V. Babin, M. Bertolotti, and V. Vlad, "Solitonlike propagation in photorefractive crystals with large optical activity and absorption," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016605 (2002).

Fu, G. Y.

M. Chauvet, A. Q. Gou, G. Y. Fu, G. Salamo, "Electrically switched photoinduced waveguide in unpoled strontium barium niobate," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

Gou, A. Q.

M. Chauvet, A. Q. Gou, G. Y. Fu, G. Salamo, "Electrically switched photoinduced waveguide in unpoled strontium barium niobate," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hofmeister, R.

A. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, and A. Yariv, "Characterization of a new photorefractive material: KLTN," Opt. Lett. 17, 713-715 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Q.

Lou, C.

Lou, C. B.

Moerner, W. E.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation Of Self-Trapping of an Optical Beam due to the Photorefractive Effect," Phys.Rev.Lett 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ostroverkhova, O.

Palange, E.

A. Pierangelo, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, G. Biagi, E. Palange, and A. Agranat, "Separating polarization components through the electro-optic read-out of photorefractive solitons," Opt. Express 15, 14283 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D�??Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, G. De Masi, A. Ciattoni, E. Palange, "Pairing space-charge field conditions with self-guiding for the attainment of circular symmetry in photorefractive solitons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5499-5501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pierangelo, A.

Refaeli, E.

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, A. J. Agranat, "Two-dimensional photorefractive spatial solitons in centrosymmetric paraelectric potassium-lithium-tantalate-niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16-18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G.

M. Chauvet, A. Q. Gou, G. Y. Fu, G. Salamo, "Electrically switched photoinduced waveguide in unpoled strontium barium niobate," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation Of Self-Trapping of an Optical Beam due to the Photorefractive Effect," Phys.Rev.Lett 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sapiens, N.

Secundo, L.

Segev, M.

A. Bitman, N. Sapiens, L. Secundo, A. J. Agranat, G. Bartal, M. Segev, "Electroholographic tunable volume grating in the (g44) configuration," Opt. Lett. 31, 2849-2851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, A. J. Agranat, "Two-dimensional photorefractive spatial solitons in centrosymmetric paraelectric potassium-lithium-tantalate-niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16-18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, M. F. Shih, G. C. Valley, "Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706-718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Vector photorefractive spatial solitons," Opt. Lett. 20, 1764-1766 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation Of Self-Trapping of an Optical Beam due to the Photorefractive Effect," Phys.Rev.Lett 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, E. J.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation Of Self-Trapping of an Optical Beam due to the Photorefractive Effect," Phys.Rev.Lett 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheldon, M.

Sheu, F. W.

Shih, M. F.

M. F. Shih and F. W. Sheu, "Photorefractive polymeric optical spatial solitons," Opt. Lett. 24, 1853-1855 (1999)
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, M. F. Shih, G. C. Valley, "Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706-718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shultz, J. L.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation Of Self-Trapping of an Optical Beam due to the Photorefractive Effect," Phys.Rev.Lett 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, S. R.

Tamburrini, M.

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, A. J. Agranat, "Soliton electro-optic effects in paraelectrics," Opt. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, A. J. Agranat, "Two-dimensional photorefractive spatial solitons in centrosymmetric paraelectric potassium-lithium-tantalate-niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16-18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tan, X.

Valley, G. C.

M. Segev, M. F. Shih, G. C. Valley, "Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706-718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Vector photorefractive spatial solitons," Opt. Lett. 20, 1764-1766 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlad, V.

E. Fazio, V. Babin, M. Bertolotti, and V. Vlad, "Solitonlike propagation in photorefractive crystals with large optical activity and absorption," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016605 (2002).

Xiao, F. J.

Xu, J.

Xu, J. J.

Yang, D.

Yariv, A.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation Of Self-Trapping of an Optical Beam due to the Photorefractive Effect," Phys.Rev.Lett 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, and A. Yariv, "Characterization of a new photorefractive material: KLTN," Opt. Lett. 17, 713-715 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, P.

Zhao, J.

Zhao, J. L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. D�??Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, G. De Masi, A. Ciattoni, E. Palange, "Pairing space-charge field conditions with self-guiding for the attainment of circular symmetry in photorefractive solitons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5499-5501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, E. Refaeli, A. J. Agranat, "Two-dimensional photorefractive spatial solitons in centrosymmetric paraelectric potassium-lithium-tantalate-niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 16-18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Chauvet, A. Q. Gou, G. Y. Fu, G. Salamo, "Electrically switched photoinduced waveguide in unpoled strontium barium niobate," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J.Opt.Soc.Am. B (1)

M. Segev, M. F. Shih, G. C. Valley, "Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706-718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Opt.Lett. (1)

A. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, and A. Yariv, "Characterization of a new photorefractive material: KLTN," Opt. Lett. 17, 713-715 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

E. Fazio, V. Babin, M. Bertolotti, and V. Vlad, "Solitonlike propagation in photorefractive crystals with large optical activity and absorption," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016605 (2002).

Phys.Rev.Lett (1)

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation Of Self-Trapping of an Optical Beam due to the Photorefractive Effect," Phys.Rev.Lett 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

For a review, see Chapter 11 by E. DelRe, M. Segev, D. Christodoulides, B. Crosignani, and G. Salamo, in P. Gunter and J.P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg 2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Left: Electrode geometry. Right: relative position (a)-(e) of the input-beam/soliton set and calculated external electric bias field lines in the experimental conditions. (a) Input and (b) output intensity distribution with V = 0.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Soliton output intensity distribution in the positions of the set, (a)–(e). Large arrows indicate both the approximate direction of E and of the optical polarization, crosses indicate the center of the diffracted output distribution, and the ellipses schematically indicate the local orientation of the index ellipsoid section.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Underlying soliton anisotropy (lateral lobe structure) detected through zero-field electro-optic readout, for the positions of Fig.(2). The two illuminated regions indicate the guiding index structure that forms at the sides of the soliton waveguide along the direction of the local bias field [18, 20]. In the present case, we see that the direction identified by joining the peaks of the two lateral light distributions is approximately parallel to the local direction of the polarization/electric field (the arrow).

Equations (2)

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( z + ( i 2 k ) 2 ) A i = ( ik n 0 ) Δ n ij A j ,
Δ n ij = a ( g 11 E x 2 + g 12 E y 2 2 g 44 E x E y 2 g 44 E x E y g 11 E y 2 + g 12 E x 2 ) .

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