Abstract

We present the design and analysis of a novel reconfigurable photonic-crystal waveguide (PCW). The predefined waveguide is the result of the refractive-index variation of three rows of holes that can be obtained by the infiltration of liquids within what are otherwise air holes in a two-dimensional triangular-lattice photonic crystal. We compute the power transmission through the reconfigurable PCWs as well as through arbitrary waveguide bends. The advantages of writing reconfigurable PCW of a multimode nature are highlighted. We demonstrate the necessity to infiltrate high-refractive-index substances to obtain efficient power transfer via reconfigurable manner.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  2. O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126-1128 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Halevi and F. Ramos-Mendieta, "Tunable photonic crystals with semiconducting constituents," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1875-1878 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Takeda and K. Yoshino, "Tunable light propagation in Y-shaped waveguides in two-dimensional photonic crystals utilizing liquid crystals as linear defects," Phys. Rev. B 67, 073106 (1-4) (2003).
  5. H. M. H. Chong and R. M. De La Rue, "Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermooptic effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1528-1530 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Yasuda, Y. Tsuji, and M. Koshiba, "Tunable light propagation in photonic crystal coupler filled with liquid crystal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 55-57 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (1-3) (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, "Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits," Opt. Lett. 31, 59-61 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Kurt and D. S. Citrin, "Coupled-resonator optical waveguide for biochemical sensing of nanoliter volumes of analyte in the terahertz region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241119 (1-3) (2005).
  13. C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y. H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (1-3) (2007).
  14. C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (4)

S. S. Xiao and N. A. Mortensen "Proposal of highly sensitive optofluidic sensors based on dispersive photonic crystal waveguides," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S463-S467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kurt and D. S. Citrin, "Photonic-crystal heterostructure waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 78-84 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Lon�?ar, B. G. Lee, L. Diehl, M. A. Beklin, F. Capasso, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "Design and fabrication of photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers for optofluidics," Opt. Express 15, 4499-4514 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-8-4499.
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, "Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits," Opt. Lett. 31, 59-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Yasuda, Y. Tsuji, and M. Koshiba, "Tunable light propagation in photonic crystal coupler filled with liquid crystal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 55-57 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. M. H. Chong and R. M. De La Rue, "Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermooptic effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1528-1530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Halevi and F. Ramos-Mendieta, "Tunable photonic crystals with semiconducting constituents," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1875-1878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beklin, M. A.

Berenger, J. P.

J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bettoti, P.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (1-3) (2006).

Capasso, F.

Chong, H. M. H.

H. M. H. Chong and R. M. De La Rue, "Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermooptic effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1528-1530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Citrin, D. S.

H. Kurt and D. S. Citrin, "Photonic-crystal heterostructure waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 78-84 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kurt and D. S. Citrin, "Coupled-resonator optical waveguide for biochemical sensing of nanoliter volumes of analyte in the terahertz region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241119 (1-3) (2005).

Colocci, M.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (1-3) (2006).

Dapkus, P. D.

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

H. M. H. Chong and R. M. De La Rue, "Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermooptic effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1528-1530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y. H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (1-3) (2007).

Emery, T.

Erickson, D.

Faist, J.

Freeman, D.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y. H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (1-3) (2007).

Giessen, H.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y. H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (1-3) (2007).

Gini, E.

Giovannini, M.

Grillet, C.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y. H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (1-3) (2007).

Halevi, P.

P. Halevi and F. Ramos-Mendieta, "Tunable photonic crystals with semiconducting constituents," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1875-1878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Husain, A.

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Intonti, F.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (1-3) (2006).

Kim, I.

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

T. Yasuda, Y. Tsuji, and M. Koshiba, "Tunable light propagation in photonic crystal coupler filled with liquid crystal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 55-57 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurt, H.

H. Kurt and D. S. Citrin, "Photonic-crystal heterostructure waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 78-84 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kurt and D. S. Citrin, "Coupled-resonator optical waveguide for biochemical sensing of nanoliter volumes of analyte in the terahertz region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241119 (1-3) (2005).

Lee, B. G.

Lee, M. W.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y. H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (1-3) (2007).

Lee, P. T.

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y. H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (1-3) (2007).

Lon??ar, M.

Luther-Davies, B.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y. H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (1-3) (2007).

Madden, S.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y. H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (1-3) (2007).

Monat, C.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y. H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (1-3) (2007).

Mortensen, N. A.

S. S. Xiao and N. A. Mortensen "Proposal of highly sensitive optofluidic sensors based on dispersive photonic crystal waveguides," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S463-S467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, J. D.

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (1-3) (2006).

Psaltis, D.

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, "Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits," Opt. Lett. 31, 59-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramos-Mendieta, F.

P. Halevi and F. Ramos-Mendieta, "Tunable photonic crystals with semiconducting constituents," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1875-1878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rockwood, T.

Ruan, Y.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y. H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (1-3) (2007).

Scherer, A.

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, "Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits," Opt. Lett. 31, 59-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, S. L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (1-3) (2006).

Smith, C. L. C.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y. H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (1-3) (2007).

Takeda, H.

H. Takeda and K. Yoshino, "Tunable light propagation in Y-shaped waveguides in two-dimensional photonic crystals utilizing liquid crystals as linear defects," Phys. Rev. B 67, 073106 (1-4) (2003).

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y. H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (1-3) (2007).

Tsuji, Y.

T. Yasuda, Y. Tsuji, and M. Koshiba, "Tunable light propagation in photonic crystal coupler filled with liquid crystal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 55-57 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turck, V.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (1-3) (2006).

Vignolini, S.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (1-3) (2006).

Wehrspohn, R.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (1-3) (2006).

Wiersma, D.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (1-3) (2006).

Wu, D. K. C.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y. H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (1-3) (2007).

Xiao, S. S.

S. S. Xiao and N. A. Mortensen "Proposal of highly sensitive optofluidic sensors based on dispersive photonic crystal waveguides," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S463-S467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, T.

T. Yasuda, Y. Tsuji, and M. Koshiba, "Tunable light propagation in photonic crystal coupler filled with liquid crystal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 55-57 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

H. Takeda and K. Yoshino, "Tunable light propagation in Y-shaped waveguides in two-dimensional photonic crystals utilizing liquid crystals as linear defects," Phys. Rev. B 67, 073106 (1-4) (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Kurt and D. S. Citrin, "Photonic-crystal heterostructure waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 78-84 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. M. H. Chong and R. M. De La Rue, "Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermooptic effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1528-1530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasuda, Y. Tsuji, and M. Koshiba, "Tunable light propagation in photonic crystal coupler filled with liquid crystal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 55-57 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

S. S. Xiao and N. A. Mortensen "Proposal of highly sensitive optofluidic sensors based on dispersive photonic crystal waveguides," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S463-S467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Halevi and F. Ramos-Mendieta, "Tunable photonic crystals with semiconducting constituents," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1875-1878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H. Takeda and K. Yoshino, "Tunable light propagation in Y-shaped waveguides in two-dimensional photonic crystals utilizing liquid crystals as linear defects," Phys. Rev. B 67, 073106 (1-4) (2003).

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (1-3) (2006).

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