Abstract

We demonstrate on-chip laser absorption spectroscopy using silicon microring resonators integrated with PDMS microfluidic channels. A 100 μm radius microring resonator with Q>100,000 is used to enhance the interaction length between evanescent light and a cladding liquid. We measure absorption spectra of less than 2 nL of N-methylaniline from 1460 nm to 1610 nm with 1 nm resolution and effective free space path lengths up to 5 mm. This work can help realize a completely on-chip spectroscopy device for lab-on-a-chip applications.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, "Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 33-52 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, "Fabrication and testing of planar chalcogenide waveguide integrated microfluidic sensor," Opt. Express 15, 2307-2314 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. C. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, "An integrated fluorescence detection system in poly(dimethylsiloxane) for microfluidic applications," Anal. Chem. 73, 4491-4498 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. N. A. Mortensen, S. S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, "Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 117-127 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. R. Hawkins and H. Schmidt, "Optofluidic waveguides: II. Fabrication and structures," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 17-32 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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  14. M. A. Belkin, M. Loncar, B. G. Lee, C. Pflugl, R. Audet, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Hofler, "Intra-cavity absorption spectroscopy with narrow-ridge microfluidic quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 15, 11262-11271 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Yariv, "Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483-485 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymer micro-ring filters and modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1968-1975 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, "Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 33-52 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen, S. S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, "Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 117-127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Hawkins and H. Schmidt, "Optofluidic waveguides: II. Fabrication and structures," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 17-32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Robinson, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, "On-chip gas detection in silicon optical microcavities," Opt. Express 16, 4296-4301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Armani and K. J. Vahala, "Heavy water detection using ultra-high-Q microcavities," Opt. Lett. 31, 1896-1898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

A. Yariv, "Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483-485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymer micro-ring filters and modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1968-1975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. C. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, "An integrated fluorescence detection system in poly(dimethylsiloxane) for microfluidic applications," Anal. Chem. 73, 4491-4498 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd and J. E. Heebner, "Sensitive disk resonator photonic biosensor," Appl. Opt. 40, 5742-5747 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Armani, A. M.

Audet, R.

Belkin, M. A.

Bour, D.

Boyd, R. W.

Brandenburg, A.

K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, C. Hoffmann, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, "Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2591-2597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brynda, E.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Carlie, N.

Chabinyc, M. L.

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. C. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, "An integrated fluorescence detection system in poly(dimethylsiloxane) for microfluidic applications," Anal. Chem. 73, 4491-4498 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, C. Y.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chiu, D. T.

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. C. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, "An integrated fluorescence detection system in poly(dimethylsiloxane) for microfluidic applications," Anal. Chem. 73, 4491-4498 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christian, J. F.

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. C. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, "An integrated fluorescence detection system in poly(dimethylsiloxane) for microfluidic applications," Anal. Chem. 73, 4491-4498 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conkey, D. B.

W. G. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. L. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Atomic spectroscopy on a chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 331-335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cordovez, B.

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, "Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 33-52 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corzine, S.

Ctyroky, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

Diehl, L.

Dostalek, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, D.

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, "Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 33-52 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farca, G.

Fung, W.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, A. R.

A. R. Hawkins and H. Schmidt, "Optofluidic waveguides: II. Fabrication and structures," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 17-32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. L. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Atomic spectroscopy on a chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 331-335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heebner, J. E.

Hoffmann, C.

K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, C. Hoffmann, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, "Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2591-2597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hofler, G.

Homola, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J. J.

Karger, A. M.

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. C. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, "An integrated fluorescence detection system in poly(dimethylsiloxane) for microfluidic applications," Anal. Chem. 73, 4491-4498 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L.

Lee, B. G.

Lipson, M.

Loncar, M.

Mandal, S.

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, "Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 33-52 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonald, J. C.

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. C. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, "An integrated fluorescence detection system in poly(dimethylsiloxane) for microfluidic applications," Anal. Chem. 73, 4491-4498 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyrueis, P.

K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, C. Hoffmann, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, "Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2591-2597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N. A.

N. A. Mortensen, S. S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, "Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 117-127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nekvindova, P.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, J.

N. A. Mortensen, S. S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, "Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 117-127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petit, L.

Pflugl, C.

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabiei, P.

Richardson, K.

Robinson, J. T.

Rosenberger, A. T.

Schirmer, B.

K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, C. Hoffmann, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, "Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2591-2597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

A. R. Hawkins and H. Schmidt, "Optofluidic waveguides: II. Fabrication and structures," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 17-32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. L. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Atomic spectroscopy on a chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 331-335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, K.

K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, C. Hoffmann, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, "Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2591-2597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schrofel, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

Skalsky, M.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Skvor, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spirkova, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

Stroock, A. D.

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. C. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, "An integrated fluorescence detection system in poly(dimethylsiloxane) for microfluidic applications," Anal. Chem. 73, 4491-4498 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarasov, V.

Vahala, K. J.

Whitesides, G. M.

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. C. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, "An integrated fluorescence detection system in poly(dimethylsiloxane) for microfluidic applications," Anal. Chem. 73, 4491-4498 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, B.

W. G. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. L. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Atomic spectroscopy on a chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 331-335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S. S.

N. A. Mortensen, S. S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, "Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 117-127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, A. H. J.

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, "Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 33-52 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. H.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, W. G.

W. G. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. L. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Atomic spectroscopy on a chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 331-335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, "Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483-485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yin, D. L.

W. G. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. L. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Atomic spectroscopy on a chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 331-335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Anal. Chem.

M. L. Chabinyc, D. T. Chiu, J. C. McDonald, A. D. Stroock, J. F. Christian, A. M. Karger, and G. M. Whitesides, "An integrated fluorescence detection system in poly(dimethylsiloxane) for microfluidic applications," Anal. Chem. 73, 4491-4498 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biosens. Bioelectron.

K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, C. Hoffmann, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, "Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2591-2597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Yariv, "Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483-485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nanofluid.

N. A. Mortensen, S. S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, "Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 117-127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Hawkins and H. Schmidt, "Optofluidic waveguides: II. Fabrication and structures," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 17-32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, "Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale," Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 33-52 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

W. G. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. L. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Atomic spectroscopy on a chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 331-335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Sens. Actuators B

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Illustration of our device design with a straight waveguide coupled to a ring resonator and a microfluidic channel on top. (b) The electric field mode profile for the quasi TM mode propagating in a silicon waveguide in an aqueous environment.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Optical microscope image of the fabricated structure consisting of an exposed silicon microring resonator and an oxide clad bus waveguide. (b) Complete device with an integrated PDMS microchannel spanning 50 waveguides with ring resonators.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Ring resonator transmission showing a 15 nm window of the complete transmission spectrum (1460 nm – 1610 nm). (b) A close up of a representative resonance dip (points) and the resulting curve fitting (solid line). The waveguide loss at the resonance wavelength is 4.67 dB/cm and the resonance has a quality factor of 120,000.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Absorption spectrum for N-methylaniline measured using a microring resonator (points) and with a commercial spectrophotometer (solid line). The inset shows the attenuation and transmission coefficients for each resonant wavelength.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T ( θ ) = a 2 + t 2 2 a t cos θ 1 + a 2 t 2 2 a t cos θ
cos ( θ ) = cos ( 2 πL n eff λ ) 1 2 π 2 L 2 n g 2 λ 0 4 ( λ λ 0 ) 2
α T = α I + Γ α A
Γ = n A A E 2 dA Z o Re { E × H * } z ̂ dA

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