Abstract

Eu3+ doped LaF3 nanoparticles with core/shell morphologies were synthesized and selected spectroscopic properties were measured as a function of heat treatment times and temperatures. More specifically, the relative intensity of photoluminescence spectra, both through direct excitation of the lanthanide as well as phonon sideband spectra were evaluated with increasing amounts of time held at specific temperatures. A one dimensional approximation was used to compute an effective diffusion coefficient for the rare earth dopants in LaF3. Despite the simplicity of the model employed, the calculated diffusion coefficients based on the spectroscopic results are accurate within an order of magnitude in comparison to other fluoride crystals yielding a simplified approach to estimating kinetic and diffusion effects in optical materials.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. R. DiMaio, B. Kokuoz, T. L. James, and J. Ballato, "Structural determination of light emitting inorganic nanoparticles with complex core/shell architectures." Adv Mater 19, 3266-3270 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. R. DiMaio, C. Sabieter, B. Kokuoz, and J. Ballato, "Controlling Energy Transfer between Multiple Dopants within a Single Nanoparticle," Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 1809-1813 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. F. Hoener, K. A. Allan, A. J. Bard, A. Campion, M. A. Fox, T. E. Mallouk, S. E. Webber, and J. M. White, "Demonstration of a Shell-Core Structure in Layered CdSe-ZnSe Small Particles by X-ray Photoelectron and Auger Spectroscopies," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3812-3817 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. E. Brus, "Nucleation and Growth of CdSe on ZnS Quantum Crystallite Seeds, and Vice Versa, in Inverse Micelle Media," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 1327-1332 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Hässelbarth, A. Eychmüller, R. Eichberger, M. Giersig, A. Mews, and H. Weller, "Chemistry and Photophysics of Mixed CdS/HgS Collids," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 5333-5340 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Darbandi, R. Thomann, and T. Nann, "Single Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by Microemulsion Synthesis," Chem. Mater. 17, 5720-5725 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kömpe, H. Borchert, J. Storz, A. Lobo, S. Adam, T. Möller, and M. Haase, "Green-Emitting CePO4 Core-Shell Nanoparticles with 70% Photoluminescence Quantum Yield," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5513 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Lehmann, K. Kömpe, and M. Haase, "Synthesis of Eu3+-Doped Core and Core/Shell Nanoparticles and Direct Spectroscopic Identification of Dopant Sites at the Surface and in the Interior of the Particles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 14935 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. W. Stouwdam and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, "Improvement in the Luminescence Properties and Processability of LaF3/Ln and LaPO4/Ln Nanoparticles by Surface modification," Langmuir 20, 11763-11771 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Z. L. Wang, Z. W. Quan, P. Y. Jia, C. K. Lin, Y. Luo, Y. Chen, J. Fang, W. Zhou, C. J. O�??Conner,and J. Lin, "A Facile Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Redispersible CeF3, CeF3:Tb3+, and CeF3:Tb3+/LaF3 (Core/Shell) Nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 18, 2030-2037 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. J. Dejeneka, "The luminescence and structure of novel transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics." J Non-Cryst Solids 239, 149-155 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Schneider and G. Decher, "Distance-Dependant Fluorescence Quenching on Gold Nanoparticles Ensheathed with Layer-by-Layer Assembled Polyelectrolytes," Nano Letters 6, 5330-5336 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. X. Liu, C. Li, Z. Quan, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, "Tunable Luminescence properties of CaIn2O4:Eu3+ Phosphors," J. Phys. Chem. C,  111, 16601-16607 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion (Oxford University Press, New York, 1975).
  15. D. J. Cherniak, X. Y. Zhang, N. K. Wayne, and E. B. Watson, "Sr, Y and REE diffusion in fluorite," Chem. Geolo. 181, 99-111 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, and M. Raudesepp, "Bright White Light through Up-Conversion of a Single NIR Source for Sol-Gel-derived Thin Film Made with Ln3+-Doped LaF3 Nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12464-12465 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. R. DiMaio, C. Sabieter, B. Kokuoz, and J. Ballato, "Controlling Energy Transfer between Multiple Dopants within a Single Nanoparticle," Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 1809-1813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

J. R. DiMaio, B. Kokuoz, T. L. James, and J. Ballato, "Structural determination of light emitting inorganic nanoparticles with complex core/shell architectures." Adv Mater 19, 3266-3270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, C. Li, Z. Quan, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, "Tunable Luminescence properties of CaIn2O4:Eu3+ Phosphors," J. Phys. Chem. C,  111, 16601-16607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Z. L. Wang, Z. W. Quan, P. Y. Jia, C. K. Lin, Y. Luo, Y. Chen, J. Fang, W. Zhou, C. J. O�??Conner,and J. Lin, "A Facile Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Redispersible CeF3, CeF3:Tb3+, and CeF3:Tb3+/LaF3 (Core/Shell) Nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 18, 2030-2037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider and G. Decher, "Distance-Dependant Fluorescence Quenching on Gold Nanoparticles Ensheathed with Layer-by-Layer Assembled Polyelectrolytes," Nano Letters 6, 5330-5336 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, and M. Raudesepp, "Bright White Light through Up-Conversion of a Single NIR Source for Sol-Gel-derived Thin Film Made with Ln3+-Doped LaF3 Nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12464-12465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Darbandi, R. Thomann, and T. Nann, "Single Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by Microemulsion Synthesis," Chem. Mater. 17, 5720-5725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

O. Lehmann, K. Kömpe, and M. Haase, "Synthesis of Eu3+-Doped Core and Core/Shell Nanoparticles and Direct Spectroscopic Identification of Dopant Sites at the Surface and in the Interior of the Particles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 14935 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Stouwdam and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, "Improvement in the Luminescence Properties and Processability of LaF3/Ln and LaPO4/Ln Nanoparticles by Surface modification," Langmuir 20, 11763-11771 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. Kömpe, H. Borchert, J. Storz, A. Lobo, S. Adam, T. Möller, and M. Haase, "Green-Emitting CePO4 Core-Shell Nanoparticles with 70% Photoluminescence Quantum Yield," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. J. Cherniak, X. Y. Zhang, N. K. Wayne, and E. B. Watson, "Sr, Y and REE diffusion in fluorite," Chem. Geolo. 181, 99-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. J. Dejeneka, "The luminescence and structure of novel transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics." J Non-Cryst Solids 239, 149-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. Hässelbarth, A. Eychmüller, R. Eichberger, M. Giersig, A. Mews, and H. Weller, "Chemistry and Photophysics of Mixed CdS/HgS Collids," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 5333-5340 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. F. Hoener, K. A. Allan, A. J. Bard, A. Campion, M. A. Fox, T. E. Mallouk, S. E. Webber, and J. M. White, "Demonstration of a Shell-Core Structure in Layered CdSe-ZnSe Small Particles by X-ray Photoelectron and Auger Spectroscopies," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3812-3817 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

L. E. Brus, "Nucleation and Growth of CdSe on ZnS Quantum Crystallite Seeds, and Vice Versa, in Inverse Micelle Media," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 1327-1332 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Adam, S.

K. Kömpe, H. Borchert, J. Storz, A. Lobo, S. Adam, T. Möller, and M. Haase, "Green-Emitting CePO4 Core-Shell Nanoparticles with 70% Photoluminescence Quantum Yield," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Allan, K. A.

C. F. Hoener, K. A. Allan, A. J. Bard, A. Campion, M. A. Fox, T. E. Mallouk, S. E. Webber, and J. M. White, "Demonstration of a Shell-Core Structure in Layered CdSe-ZnSe Small Particles by X-ray Photoelectron and Auger Spectroscopies," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3812-3817 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ballato, J.

J. R. DiMaio, C. Sabieter, B. Kokuoz, and J. Ballato, "Controlling Energy Transfer between Multiple Dopants within a Single Nanoparticle," Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 1809-1813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. DiMaio, B. Kokuoz, T. L. James, and J. Ballato, "Structural determination of light emitting inorganic nanoparticles with complex core/shell architectures." Adv Mater 19, 3266-3270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bard, A. J.

C. F. Hoener, K. A. Allan, A. J. Bard, A. Campion, M. A. Fox, T. E. Mallouk, S. E. Webber, and J. M. White, "Demonstration of a Shell-Core Structure in Layered CdSe-ZnSe Small Particles by X-ray Photoelectron and Auger Spectroscopies," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3812-3817 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Borchert, H.

K. Kömpe, H. Borchert, J. Storz, A. Lobo, S. Adam, T. Möller, and M. Haase, "Green-Emitting CePO4 Core-Shell Nanoparticles with 70% Photoluminescence Quantum Yield," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brus, L. E.

L. E. Brus, "Nucleation and Growth of CdSe on ZnS Quantum Crystallite Seeds, and Vice Versa, in Inverse Micelle Media," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 1327-1332 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Campion, A.

C. F. Hoener, K. A. Allan, A. J. Bard, A. Campion, M. A. Fox, T. E. Mallouk, S. E. Webber, and J. M. White, "Demonstration of a Shell-Core Structure in Layered CdSe-ZnSe Small Particles by X-ray Photoelectron and Auger Spectroscopies," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3812-3817 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Z. L. Wang, Z. W. Quan, P. Y. Jia, C. K. Lin, Y. Luo, Y. Chen, J. Fang, W. Zhou, C. J. O�??Conner,and J. Lin, "A Facile Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Redispersible CeF3, CeF3:Tb3+, and CeF3:Tb3+/LaF3 (Core/Shell) Nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 18, 2030-2037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

X. Liu, C. Li, Z. Quan, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, "Tunable Luminescence properties of CaIn2O4:Eu3+ Phosphors," J. Phys. Chem. C,  111, 16601-16607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cherniak, D. J.

D. J. Cherniak, X. Y. Zhang, N. K. Wayne, and E. B. Watson, "Sr, Y and REE diffusion in fluorite," Chem. Geolo. 181, 99-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Darbandi, M.

M. Darbandi, R. Thomann, and T. Nann, "Single Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by Microemulsion Synthesis," Chem. Mater. 17, 5720-5725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Decher, G.

G. Schneider and G. Decher, "Distance-Dependant Fluorescence Quenching on Gold Nanoparticles Ensheathed with Layer-by-Layer Assembled Polyelectrolytes," Nano Letters 6, 5330-5336 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dejeneka, M. J.

M. J. Dejeneka, "The luminescence and structure of novel transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics." J Non-Cryst Solids 239, 149-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DiMaio, J. R.

J. R. DiMaio, C. Sabieter, B. Kokuoz, and J. Ballato, "Controlling Energy Transfer between Multiple Dopants within a Single Nanoparticle," Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 1809-1813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. DiMaio, B. Kokuoz, T. L. James, and J. Ballato, "Structural determination of light emitting inorganic nanoparticles with complex core/shell architectures." Adv Mater 19, 3266-3270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eichberger, R.

A. Hässelbarth, A. Eychmüller, R. Eichberger, M. Giersig, A. Mews, and H. Weller, "Chemistry and Photophysics of Mixed CdS/HgS Collids," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 5333-5340 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eychmüller, A.

A. Hässelbarth, A. Eychmüller, R. Eichberger, M. Giersig, A. Mews, and H. Weller, "Chemistry and Photophysics of Mixed CdS/HgS Collids," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 5333-5340 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J.

Z. L. Wang, Z. W. Quan, P. Y. Jia, C. K. Lin, Y. Luo, Y. Chen, J. Fang, W. Zhou, C. J. O�??Conner,and J. Lin, "A Facile Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Redispersible CeF3, CeF3:Tb3+, and CeF3:Tb3+/LaF3 (Core/Shell) Nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 18, 2030-2037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fox, M. A.

C. F. Hoener, K. A. Allan, A. J. Bard, A. Campion, M. A. Fox, T. E. Mallouk, S. E. Webber, and J. M. White, "Demonstration of a Shell-Core Structure in Layered CdSe-ZnSe Small Particles by X-ray Photoelectron and Auger Spectroscopies," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3812-3817 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Giersig, M.

A. Hässelbarth, A. Eychmüller, R. Eichberger, M. Giersig, A. Mews, and H. Weller, "Chemistry and Photophysics of Mixed CdS/HgS Collids," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 5333-5340 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haase, M.

O. Lehmann, K. Kömpe, and M. Haase, "Synthesis of Eu3+-Doped Core and Core/Shell Nanoparticles and Direct Spectroscopic Identification of Dopant Sites at the Surface and in the Interior of the Particles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 14935 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kömpe, H. Borchert, J. Storz, A. Lobo, S. Adam, T. Möller, and M. Haase, "Green-Emitting CePO4 Core-Shell Nanoparticles with 70% Photoluminescence Quantum Yield," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hässelbarth, A.

A. Hässelbarth, A. Eychmüller, R. Eichberger, M. Giersig, A. Mews, and H. Weller, "Chemistry and Photophysics of Mixed CdS/HgS Collids," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 5333-5340 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hoener, C. F.

C. F. Hoener, K. A. Allan, A. J. Bard, A. Campion, M. A. Fox, T. E. Mallouk, S. E. Webber, and J. M. White, "Demonstration of a Shell-Core Structure in Layered CdSe-ZnSe Small Particles by X-ray Photoelectron and Auger Spectroscopies," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3812-3817 (1992).
[CrossRef]

James, T. L.

J. R. DiMaio, B. Kokuoz, T. L. James, and J. Ballato, "Structural determination of light emitting inorganic nanoparticles with complex core/shell architectures." Adv Mater 19, 3266-3270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jia, P. Y.

Z. L. Wang, Z. W. Quan, P. Y. Jia, C. K. Lin, Y. Luo, Y. Chen, J. Fang, W. Zhou, C. J. O�??Conner,and J. Lin, "A Facile Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Redispersible CeF3, CeF3:Tb3+, and CeF3:Tb3+/LaF3 (Core/Shell) Nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 18, 2030-2037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kokuoz, B.

J. R. DiMaio, C. Sabieter, B. Kokuoz, and J. Ballato, "Controlling Energy Transfer between Multiple Dopants within a Single Nanoparticle," Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 1809-1813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. DiMaio, B. Kokuoz, T. L. James, and J. Ballato, "Structural determination of light emitting inorganic nanoparticles with complex core/shell architectures." Adv Mater 19, 3266-3270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kömpe, K.

O. Lehmann, K. Kömpe, and M. Haase, "Synthesis of Eu3+-Doped Core and Core/Shell Nanoparticles and Direct Spectroscopic Identification of Dopant Sites at the Surface and in the Interior of the Particles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 14935 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kömpe, H. Borchert, J. Storz, A. Lobo, S. Adam, T. Möller, and M. Haase, "Green-Emitting CePO4 Core-Shell Nanoparticles with 70% Photoluminescence Quantum Yield," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, O.

O. Lehmann, K. Kömpe, and M. Haase, "Synthesis of Eu3+-Doped Core and Core/Shell Nanoparticles and Direct Spectroscopic Identification of Dopant Sites at the Surface and in the Interior of the Particles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 14935 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

X. Liu, C. Li, Z. Quan, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, "Tunable Luminescence properties of CaIn2O4:Eu3+ Phosphors," J. Phys. Chem. C,  111, 16601-16607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. K.

Z. L. Wang, Z. W. Quan, P. Y. Jia, C. K. Lin, Y. Luo, Y. Chen, J. Fang, W. Zhou, C. J. O�??Conner,and J. Lin, "A Facile Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Redispersible CeF3, CeF3:Tb3+, and CeF3:Tb3+/LaF3 (Core/Shell) Nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 18, 2030-2037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

X. Liu, C. Li, Z. Quan, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, "Tunable Luminescence properties of CaIn2O4:Eu3+ Phosphors," J. Phys. Chem. C,  111, 16601-16607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wang, Z. W. Quan, P. Y. Jia, C. K. Lin, Y. Luo, Y. Chen, J. Fang, W. Zhou, C. J. O�??Conner,and J. Lin, "A Facile Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Redispersible CeF3, CeF3:Tb3+, and CeF3:Tb3+/LaF3 (Core/Shell) Nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 18, 2030-2037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, C. Li, Z. Quan, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, "Tunable Luminescence properties of CaIn2O4:Eu3+ Phosphors," J. Phys. Chem. C,  111, 16601-16607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lobo, A.

K. Kömpe, H. Borchert, J. Storz, A. Lobo, S. Adam, T. Möller, and M. Haase, "Green-Emitting CePO4 Core-Shell Nanoparticles with 70% Photoluminescence Quantum Yield," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Z. L. Wang, Z. W. Quan, P. Y. Jia, C. K. Lin, Y. Luo, Y. Chen, J. Fang, W. Zhou, C. J. O�??Conner,and J. Lin, "A Facile Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Redispersible CeF3, CeF3:Tb3+, and CeF3:Tb3+/LaF3 (Core/Shell) Nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 18, 2030-2037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mallouk, T. E.

C. F. Hoener, K. A. Allan, A. J. Bard, A. Campion, M. A. Fox, T. E. Mallouk, S. E. Webber, and J. M. White, "Demonstration of a Shell-Core Structure in Layered CdSe-ZnSe Small Particles by X-ray Photoelectron and Auger Spectroscopies," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3812-3817 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mews, A.

A. Hässelbarth, A. Eychmüller, R. Eichberger, M. Giersig, A. Mews, and H. Weller, "Chemistry and Photophysics of Mixed CdS/HgS Collids," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 5333-5340 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Möller, T.

K. Kömpe, H. Borchert, J. Storz, A. Lobo, S. Adam, T. Möller, and M. Haase, "Green-Emitting CePO4 Core-Shell Nanoparticles with 70% Photoluminescence Quantum Yield," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nann, T.

M. Darbandi, R. Thomann, and T. Nann, "Single Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by Microemulsion Synthesis," Chem. Mater. 17, 5720-5725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O???Conner, C. J.

Z. L. Wang, Z. W. Quan, P. Y. Jia, C. K. Lin, Y. Luo, Y. Chen, J. Fang, W. Zhou, C. J. O�??Conner,and J. Lin, "A Facile Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Redispersible CeF3, CeF3:Tb3+, and CeF3:Tb3+/LaF3 (Core/Shell) Nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 18, 2030-2037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quan, Z.

X. Liu, C. Li, Z. Quan, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, "Tunable Luminescence properties of CaIn2O4:Eu3+ Phosphors," J. Phys. Chem. C,  111, 16601-16607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quan, Z. W.

Z. L. Wang, Z. W. Quan, P. Y. Jia, C. K. Lin, Y. Luo, Y. Chen, J. Fang, W. Zhou, C. J. O�??Conner,and J. Lin, "A Facile Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Redispersible CeF3, CeF3:Tb3+, and CeF3:Tb3+/LaF3 (Core/Shell) Nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 18, 2030-2037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raudesepp, M.

S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, and M. Raudesepp, "Bright White Light through Up-Conversion of a Single NIR Source for Sol-Gel-derived Thin Film Made with Ln3+-Doped LaF3 Nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12464-12465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabieter, C.

J. R. DiMaio, C. Sabieter, B. Kokuoz, and J. Ballato, "Controlling Energy Transfer between Multiple Dopants within a Single Nanoparticle," Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 1809-1813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, G.

G. Schneider and G. Decher, "Distance-Dependant Fluorescence Quenching on Gold Nanoparticles Ensheathed with Layer-by-Layer Assembled Polyelectrolytes," Nano Letters 6, 5330-5336 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivakumar, S.

S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, and M. Raudesepp, "Bright White Light through Up-Conversion of a Single NIR Source for Sol-Gel-derived Thin Film Made with Ln3+-Doped LaF3 Nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12464-12465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Storz, J.

K. Kömpe, H. Borchert, J. Storz, A. Lobo, S. Adam, T. Möller, and M. Haase, "Green-Emitting CePO4 Core-Shell Nanoparticles with 70% Photoluminescence Quantum Yield," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stouwdam, J. W.

J. W. Stouwdam and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, "Improvement in the Luminescence Properties and Processability of LaF3/Ln and LaPO4/Ln Nanoparticles by Surface modification," Langmuir 20, 11763-11771 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomann, R.

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[CrossRef]

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S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, and M. Raudesepp, "Bright White Light through Up-Conversion of a Single NIR Source for Sol-Gel-derived Thin Film Made with Ln3+-Doped LaF3 Nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12464-12465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Stouwdam and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, "Improvement in the Luminescence Properties and Processability of LaF3/Ln and LaPO4/Ln Nanoparticles by Surface modification," Langmuir 20, 11763-11771 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Z. L. Wang, Z. W. Quan, P. Y. Jia, C. K. Lin, Y. Luo, Y. Chen, J. Fang, W. Zhou, C. J. O�??Conner,and J. Lin, "A Facile Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Redispersible CeF3, CeF3:Tb3+, and CeF3:Tb3+/LaF3 (Core/Shell) Nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 18, 2030-2037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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D. J. Cherniak, X. Y. Zhang, N. K. Wayne, and E. B. Watson, "Sr, Y and REE diffusion in fluorite," Chem. Geolo. 181, 99-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wayne, N. K.

D. J. Cherniak, X. Y. Zhang, N. K. Wayne, and E. B. Watson, "Sr, Y and REE diffusion in fluorite," Chem. Geolo. 181, 99-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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C. F. Hoener, K. A. Allan, A. J. Bard, A. Campion, M. A. Fox, T. E. Mallouk, S. E. Webber, and J. M. White, "Demonstration of a Shell-Core Structure in Layered CdSe-ZnSe Small Particles by X-ray Photoelectron and Auger Spectroscopies," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3812-3817 (1992).
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A. Hässelbarth, A. Eychmüller, R. Eichberger, M. Giersig, A. Mews, and H. Weller, "Chemistry and Photophysics of Mixed CdS/HgS Collids," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 5333-5340 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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C. F. Hoener, K. A. Allan, A. J. Bard, A. Campion, M. A. Fox, T. E. Mallouk, S. E. Webber, and J. M. White, "Demonstration of a Shell-Core Structure in Layered CdSe-ZnSe Small Particles by X-ray Photoelectron and Auger Spectroscopies," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3812-3817 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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D. J. Cherniak, X. Y. Zhang, N. K. Wayne, and E. B. Watson, "Sr, Y and REE diffusion in fluorite," Chem. Geolo. 181, 99-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Z. L. Wang, Z. W. Quan, P. Y. Jia, C. K. Lin, Y. Luo, Y. Chen, J. Fang, W. Zhou, C. J. O�??Conner,and J. Lin, "A Facile Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Redispersible CeF3, CeF3:Tb3+, and CeF3:Tb3+/LaF3 (Core/Shell) Nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 18, 2030-2037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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J. R. DiMaio, B. Kokuoz, T. L. James, and J. Ballato, "Structural determination of light emitting inorganic nanoparticles with complex core/shell architectures." Adv Mater 19, 3266-3270 (2007).
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K. Kömpe, H. Borchert, J. Storz, A. Lobo, S. Adam, T. Möller, and M. Haase, "Green-Emitting CePO4 Core-Shell Nanoparticles with 70% Photoluminescence Quantum Yield," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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D. J. Cherniak, X. Y. Zhang, N. K. Wayne, and E. B. Watson, "Sr, Y and REE diffusion in fluorite," Chem. Geolo. 181, 99-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (2)

Z. L. Wang, Z. W. Quan, P. Y. Jia, C. K. Lin, Y. Luo, Y. Chen, J. Fang, W. Zhou, C. J. O�??Conner,and J. Lin, "A Facile Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Redispersible CeF3, CeF3:Tb3+, and CeF3:Tb3+/LaF3 (Core/Shell) Nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 18, 2030-2037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, and M. Raudesepp, "Bright White Light through Up-Conversion of a Single NIR Source for Sol-Gel-derived Thin Film Made with Ln3+-Doped LaF3 Nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12464-12465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Lehmann, K. Kömpe, and M. Haase, "Synthesis of Eu3+-Doped Core and Core/Shell Nanoparticles and Direct Spectroscopic Identification of Dopant Sites at the Surface and in the Interior of the Particles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 14935 (2004).
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A. Hässelbarth, A. Eychmüller, R. Eichberger, M. Giersig, A. Mews, and H. Weller, "Chemistry and Photophysics of Mixed CdS/HgS Collids," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 5333-5340 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Hoener, K. A. Allan, A. J. Bard, A. Campion, M. A. Fox, T. E. Mallouk, S. E. Webber, and J. M. White, "Demonstration of a Shell-Core Structure in Layered CdSe-ZnSe Small Particles by X-ray Photoelectron and Auger Spectroscopies," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3812-3817 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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J. W. Stouwdam and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, "Improvement in the Luminescence Properties and Processability of LaF3/Ln and LaPO4/Ln Nanoparticles by Surface modification," Langmuir 20, 11763-11771 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Model of the europium (red) doped core nanoparticle with a first (middle) and second (outer) layer of undoped lanthanum fluoride (yellow).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photoluminescence of Eu0.2La0.8F3 nanoparticles before and after annealing with (a) no shell and with shells calculated to be (b) 0.8 nm and (c) 1.3 nm thick.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Phonon sideband spectra of core-shell LaF3 nanoparticles.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Phonon sideband spectroscopy of Eu.2La0.8F3 nanoparticles with (a) no intermediate shell and calculated intermediate shell thicknesses of (b) 0.8 nm and (c) 1.3 nm before and after heat-treatment.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Emission spectra of core shell particle with 3% Eu3+ core before and after annealing.

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