Abstract

The use of laser optical feedback Imaging (LOFI) for scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (sSNOM) is proposed and investigated. We implement this sensitive imaging method by combining a sSNOM with optical heterodyne interferometry and the dynamic properties of a B class laser source which is here used both as source and detector. Compared with previous near field optical heterodyne experiments, this detection scheme provides an optical amplification that is several orders of magnitude higher, while keeping a low noise phase-sensitive detection. Successful demonstration of this complex field imaging technique is done on Silicon on Insulator (SOI) optical waveguides revealing phase singularities and directional leakage.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  13. I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer " Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type optical near-field microscope ", Opt. Express 13, 5553-5564 (2005)
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  25. M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. Van Hulst, "Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294-297 (2000)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

A. Sinno, P., Ruaux, L. Chassagne, S. Top̧u, Y. Alayli, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Enlarged atomic force microscopy scanning scope: Novel sample-holder device with millimeter range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 095107 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jacquin, E. Lacot, C. Felix, and O. Hugon, "Laser optical feedback imaging insensitive to parasitic optical feedback," Appl. Opt. 46, 6779-6782 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Leìrondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J.-M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, "Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry," Nature Photonics 1, 473-478 (2007)
[CrossRef]

2006

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G.P. Wiederrecht, S.-H. Chang, S.K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J.-A. Rogers, M.E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: A comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006)
[CrossRef]

A. Bruyant, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, " Local complex reflectivity in optical waveguides", Phys. Rev. B,  74, 075414-1-075414-16 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer " Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type optical near-field microscope ", Opt. Express 13, 5553-5564 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bruyant, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, and P. Joubert,"Light propagation in a porous silicon waveguide: An optical modes analysis in near-field," Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials,  202 (8), 1417-1421 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel., S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Probing photonic and optoelectronic structures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. and Technol. 64 (5-6), 441-452 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchange channel waveguide characterization, J. Microsc.,  209 (3), 155-161 (2003)
[CrossRef]

S. Aubert, A. BruyantS. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, "Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-.eld optical microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20,2117-2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Performance of visible and mid-infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopes," J. Microsc. 210, 311-314 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, "Phonon enhanced light matter interaction at the nanometre scale," Nature 418,159-162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

E. Lacot, R. Day, and F. Stoeckel, "Coherent laser detection by frequency-shifted optical feedback," Phys. Rev. A 64, 043815 (2001)
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 77-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. Van Hulst, "Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294-297 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

E. Lacot, R. Day, and F. Stoeckel, "Laser optical feedback tomography," Opt. Lett. 24,744-746.(1999)
[CrossRef]

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Imaging a GaAlAs laserdiode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5,269-275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, and. X. S. Xie, "Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014-4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. S. Taylor, K.E. Leopold, M. Wendman, G. Gurley, and V. Elings, "Scanning probe optical microscopy of evanescent fields,�??�??Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69,2981-2987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Okamoto, H. Takeda, and F. Kannari," Ultrahighly sensitive laser-Doppler velocity meter with a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 microchip laser, " Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

K. Otsuka, "Highly sensitive measurement of Doppler-shift with a microchip solid-state laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 31, L1546 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Alayli, Y.

A. Sinno, P., Ruaux, L. Chassagne, S. Top̧u, Y. Alayli, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Enlarged atomic force microscopy scanning scope: Novel sample-holder device with millimeter range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 095107 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aubert, S.

A. Bruyant, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, " Local complex reflectivity in optical waveguides", Phys. Rev. B,  74, 075414-1-075414-16 (2006)
[CrossRef]

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer " Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type optical near-field microscope ", Opt. Express 13, 5553-5564 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bruyant, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, and P. Joubert,"Light propagation in a porous silicon waveguide: An optical modes analysis in near-field," Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials,  202 (8), 1417-1421 (2005)
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel., S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Probing photonic and optoelectronic structures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. and Technol. 64 (5-6), 441-452 (2004)
[CrossRef]

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchange channel waveguide characterization, J. Microsc.,  209 (3), 155-161 (2003)
[CrossRef]

S. Aubert, A. BruyantS. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, "Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-.eld optical microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20,2117-2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

A. Bruyant, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, " Local complex reflectivity in optical waveguides", Phys. Rev. B,  74, 075414-1-075414-16 (2006)
[CrossRef]

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G.P. Wiederrecht, S.-H. Chang, S.K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J.-A. Rogers, M.E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: A comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006)
[CrossRef]

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer " Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type optical near-field microscope ", Opt. Express 13, 5553-5564 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bruyant, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, and P. Joubert,"Light propagation in a porous silicon waveguide: An optical modes analysis in near-field," Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials,  202 (8), 1417-1421 (2005)
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel., S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Probing photonic and optoelectronic structures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. and Technol. 64 (5-6), 441-452 (2004)
[CrossRef]

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchange channel waveguide characterization, J. Microsc.,  209 (3), 155-161 (2003)
[CrossRef]

S. Aubert, A. BruyantS. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, "Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-.eld optical microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20,2117-2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Imaging a GaAlAs laserdiode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5,269-275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Balistreri, M. L. M.

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. Van Hulst, "Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294-297 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belarouci, A.

Benech, P.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Leìrondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J.-M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, "Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry," Nature Photonics 1, 473-478 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Blaize, S.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Leìrondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J.-M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, "Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry," Nature Photonics 1, 473-478 (2007)
[CrossRef]

A. Sinno, P., Ruaux, L. Chassagne, S. Top̧u, Y. Alayli, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Enlarged atomic force microscopy scanning scope: Novel sample-holder device with millimeter range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 095107 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G.P. Wiederrecht, S.-H. Chang, S.K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J.-A. Rogers, M.E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: A comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006)
[CrossRef]

A. Bruyant, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, " Local complex reflectivity in optical waveguides", Phys. Rev. B,  74, 075414-1-075414-16 (2006)
[CrossRef]

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer " Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type optical near-field microscope ", Opt. Express 13, 5553-5564 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bruyant, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, and P. Joubert,"Light propagation in a porous silicon waveguide: An optical modes analysis in near-field," Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials,  202 (8), 1417-1421 (2005)
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel., S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Probing photonic and optoelectronic structures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. and Technol. 64 (5-6), 441-452 (2004)
[CrossRef]

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchange channel waveguide characterization, J. Microsc.,  209 (3), 155-161 (2003)
[CrossRef]

S. Aubert, A. BruyantS. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, "Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-.eld optical microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20,2117-2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G.P. Wiederrecht, S.-H. Chang, S.K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J.-A. Rogers, M.E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: A comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Broquin, J.-E.

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchange channel waveguide characterization, J. Microsc.,  209 (3), 155-161 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Bruyant, A

Bruyant, A.

A. Sinno, P., Ruaux, L. Chassagne, S. Top̧u, Y. Alayli, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Enlarged atomic force microscopy scanning scope: Novel sample-holder device with millimeter range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 095107 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bruyant, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, " Local complex reflectivity in optical waveguides", Phys. Rev. B,  74, 075414-1-075414-16 (2006)
[CrossRef]

A. Bruyant, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, and P. Joubert,"Light propagation in a porous silicon waveguide: An optical modes analysis in near-field," Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials,  202 (8), 1417-1421 (2005)
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel., S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Probing photonic and optoelectronic structures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. and Technol. 64 (5-6), 441-452 (2004)
[CrossRef]

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchange channel waveguide characterization, J. Microsc.,  209 (3), 155-161 (2003)
[CrossRef]

S. Aubert, A. BruyantS. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, "Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-.eld optical microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20,2117-2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Castro, M.E.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G.P. Wiederrecht, S.-H. Chang, S.K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J.-A. Rogers, M.E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: A comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-H.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G.P. Wiederrecht, S.-H. Chang, S.K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J.-A. Rogers, M.E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: A comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Charrier, J.

A. Bruyant, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, and P. Joubert,"Light propagation in a porous silicon waveguide: An optical modes analysis in near-field," Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials,  202 (8), 1417-1421 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Chassagne, L.

A. Sinno, P., Ruaux, L. Chassagne, S. Top̧u, Y. Alayli, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Enlarged atomic force microscopy scanning scope: Novel sample-holder device with millimeter range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 095107 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, R.

E. Lacot, R. Day, and F. Stoeckel, "Coherent laser detection by frequency-shifted optical feedback," Phys. Rev. A 64, 043815 (2001)
[CrossRef]

E. Lacot, R. Day, and F. Stoeckel, "Laser optical feedback tomography," Opt. Lett. 24,744-746.(1999)
[CrossRef]

Elings, V.

R. S. Taylor, K.E. Leopold, M. Wendman, G. Gurley, and V. Elings, "Scanning probe optical microscopy of evanescent fields,�??�??Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69,2981-2987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Leìrondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J.-M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, "Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry," Nature Photonics 1, 473-478 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Felix, E.

Gilles, H.

Girard, S.

Gomez, L.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G.P. Wiederrecht, S.-H. Chang, S.K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J.-A. Rogers, M.E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: A comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Gray, S.K.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G.P. Wiederrecht, S.-H. Chang, S.K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J.-A. Rogers, M.E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: A comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Gurley, G.

R. S. Taylor, K.E. Leopold, M. Wendman, G. Gurley, and V. Elings, "Scanning probe optical microscopy of evanescent fields,�??�??Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69,2981-2987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hillenbrand, R.

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Performance of visible and mid-infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopes," J. Microsc. 210, 311-314 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, "Phonon enhanced light matter interaction at the nanometre scale," Nature 418,159-162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 77-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hua, F.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G.P. Wiederrecht, S.-H. Chang, S.K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J.-A. Rogers, M.E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: A comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Hudlet, S.

Hugon, C.

Jacquin,

Jeon, S.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G.P. Wiederrecht, S.-H. Chang, S.K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J.-A. Rogers, M.E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: A comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Joubert, P.

A. Bruyant, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, and P. Joubert,"Light propagation in a porous silicon waveguide: An optical modes analysis in near-field," Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials,  202 (8), 1417-1421 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Kannari, F.

S. Okamoto, H. Takeda, and F. Kannari," Ultrahighly sensitive laser-Doppler velocity meter with a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 microchip laser, " Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Performance of visible and mid-infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopes," J. Microsc. 210, 311-314 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, "Phonon enhanced light matter interaction at the nanometre scale," Nature 418,159-162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 77-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kern, P.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Leìrondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J.-M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, "Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry," Nature Photonics 1, 473-478 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Knoll, B.

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 77-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Korterik, J. P.

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. Van Hulst, "Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294-297 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. Van Hulst, "Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294-297 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacot, E.

E. Lacot, R. Day, and F. Stoeckel, "Coherent laser detection by frequency-shifted optical feedback," Phys. Rev. A 64, 043815 (2001)
[CrossRef]

E. Lacot, R. Day, and F. Stoeckel, "Laser optical feedback tomography," Opt. Lett. 24,744-746.(1999)
[CrossRef]

Lacot, O.

Laroche, M.

Le Coarer, E.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Leìrondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J.-M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, "Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry," Nature Photonics 1, 473-478 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Leblond, G.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Leìrondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J.-M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, "Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry," Nature Photonics 1, 473-478 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Leìrondel, G.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Leìrondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J.-M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, "Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry," Nature Photonics 1, 473-478 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Leopold, K.E.

R. S. Taylor, K.E. Leopold, M. Wendman, G. Gurley, and V. Elings, "Scanning probe optical microscopy of evanescent fields,�??�??Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69,2981-2987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lerondel, G.

A. Sinno, P., Ruaux, L. Chassagne, S. Top̧u, Y. Alayli, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Enlarged atomic force microscopy scanning scope: Novel sample-holder device with millimeter range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 095107 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G.P. Wiederrecht, S.-H. Chang, S.K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J.-A. Rogers, M.E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: A comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006)
[CrossRef]

A. Bruyant, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, " Local complex reflectivity in optical waveguides", Phys. Rev. B,  74, 075414-1-075414-16 (2006)
[CrossRef]

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer " Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type optical near-field microscope ", Opt. Express 13, 5553-5564 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bruyant, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, and P. Joubert,"Light propagation in a porous silicon waveguide: An optical modes analysis in near-field," Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials,  202 (8), 1417-1421 (2005)
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel., S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Probing photonic and optoelectronic structures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. and Technol. 64 (5-6), 441-452 (2004)
[CrossRef]

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchange channel waveguide characterization, J. Microsc.,  209 (3), 155-161 (2003)
[CrossRef]

S. Aubert, A. BruyantS. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, "Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-.eld optical microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20,2117-2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Minier, V.

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchange channel waveguide characterization, J. Microsc.,  209 (3), 155-161 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Morand, A.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Leìrondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J.-M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, "Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry," Nature Photonics 1, 473-478 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

E. J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, and. X. S. Xie, "Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014-4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, S.

S. Okamoto, H. Takeda, and F. Kannari," Ultrahighly sensitive laser-Doppler velocity meter with a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 microchip laser, " Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, K.

K. Otsuka, "Highly sensitive measurement of Doppler-shift with a microchip solid-state laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 31, L1546 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pirasteh, P.

A. Bruyant, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, and P. Joubert,"Light propagation in a porous silicon waveguide: An optical modes analysis in near-field," Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials,  202 (8), 1417-1421 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J.-A.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G.P. Wiederrecht, S.-H. Chang, S.K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J.-A. Rogers, M.E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: A comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Royer, P.

A. Sinno, P., Ruaux, L. Chassagne, S. Top̧u, Y. Alayli, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Enlarged atomic force microscopy scanning scope: Novel sample-holder device with millimeter range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 095107 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Leìrondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J.-M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, "Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry," Nature Photonics 1, 473-478 (2007)
[CrossRef]

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G.P. Wiederrecht, S.-H. Chang, S.K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J.-A. Rogers, M.E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: A comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006)
[CrossRef]

A. Bruyant, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, " Local complex reflectivity in optical waveguides", Phys. Rev. B,  74, 075414-1-075414-16 (2006)
[CrossRef]

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer " Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type optical near-field microscope ", Opt. Express 13, 5553-5564 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bruyant, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, and P. Joubert,"Light propagation in a porous silicon waveguide: An optical modes analysis in near-field," Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials,  202 (8), 1417-1421 (2005)
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel., S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Probing photonic and optoelectronic structures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. and Technol. 64 (5-6), 441-452 (2004)
[CrossRef]

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchange channel waveguide characterization, J. Microsc.,  209 (3), 155-161 (2003)
[CrossRef]

S. Aubert, A. BruyantS. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, "Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-.eld optical microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20,2117-2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Imaging a GaAlAs laserdiode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5,269-275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruaux, P.,

A. Sinno, P., Ruaux, L. Chassagne, S. Top̧u, Y. Alayli, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Enlarged atomic force microscopy scanning scope: Novel sample-holder device with millimeter range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 095107 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez, E.J.

E. J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, and. X. S. Xie, "Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014-4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sinno, A.

A. Sinno, P., Ruaux, L. Chassagne, S. Top̧u, Y. Alayli, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Enlarged atomic force microscopy scanning scope: Novel sample-holder device with millimeter range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 095107 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stefanon, I.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Leìrondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J.-M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, "Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry," Nature Photonics 1, 473-478 (2007)
[CrossRef]

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G.P. Wiederrecht, S.-H. Chang, S.K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J.-A. Rogers, M.E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: A comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006)
[CrossRef]

A. Bruyant, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, " Local complex reflectivity in optical waveguides", Phys. Rev. B,  74, 075414-1-075414-16 (2006)
[CrossRef]

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer " Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type optical near-field microscope ", Opt. Express 13, 5553-5564 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bruyant, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, and P. Joubert,"Light propagation in a porous silicon waveguide: An optical modes analysis in near-field," Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials,  202 (8), 1417-1421 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Stoeckel, F.

E. Lacot, R. Day, and F. Stoeckel, "Coherent laser detection by frequency-shifted optical feedback," Phys. Rev. A 64, 043815 (2001)
[CrossRef]

E. Lacot, R. Day, and F. Stoeckel, "Laser optical feedback tomography," Opt. Lett. 24,744-746.(1999)
[CrossRef]

Takeda, H.

S. Okamoto, H. Takeda, and F. Kannari," Ultrahighly sensitive laser-Doppler velocity meter with a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 microchip laser, " Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Taubner, T.

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Performance of visible and mid-infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopes," J. Microsc. 210, 311-314 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, "Phonon enhanced light matter interaction at the nanometre scale," Nature 418,159-162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, R. S.

R. S. Taylor, K.E. Leopold, M. Wendman, G. Gurley, and V. Elings, "Scanning probe optical microscopy of evanescent fields,�??�??Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69,2981-2987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Top¸, S.

A. Sinno, P., Ruaux, L. Chassagne, S. Top̧u, Y. Alayli, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Enlarged atomic force microscopy scanning scope: Novel sample-holder device with millimeter range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 095107 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Hulst, N. F.

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. Van Hulst, "Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294-297 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wendman, M.

R. S. Taylor, K.E. Leopold, M. Wendman, G. Gurley, and V. Elings, "Scanning probe optical microscopy of evanescent fields,�??�??Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69,2981-2987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G.P.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G.P. Wiederrecht, S.-H. Chang, S.K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J.-A. Rogers, M.E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: A comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Wurtz, G.

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Imaging a GaAlAs laserdiode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5,269-275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.S.

E. J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, and. X. S. Xie, "Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014-4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Imaging a GaAlAs laserdiode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 5,269-275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J.-E. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchange channel waveguide characterization, J. Microsc.,  209 (3), 155-161 (2003)
[CrossRef]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Performance of visible and mid-infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopes," J. Microsc. 210, 311-314 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (Oxford)

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 77-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G.P. Wiederrecht, S.-H. Chang, S.K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J.-A. Rogers, M.E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: A comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys

K. Otsuka, "Highly sensitive measurement of Doppler-shift with a microchip solid-state laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 31, L1546 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Microsc. Res. and Technol.

R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel., S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Probing photonic and optoelectronic structures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. and Technol. 64 (5-6), 441-452 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Nature

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, "Phonon enhanced light matter interaction at the nanometre scale," Nature 418,159-162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photonics

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Leìrondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J.-M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, "Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry," Nature Photonics 1, 473-478 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

E. Lacot, R. Day, and F. Stoeckel, "Coherent laser detection by frequency-shifted optical feedback," Phys. Rev. A 64, 043815 (2001)
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme of the experimental setup. The sSNOM microscope is combined with the LOFI detection. The sample under study consists of an SOI waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical laser power spectra recorded with an electrical spectrum analyzer of resolution bandwidth RBW=10Hz for increasing laser output powers Pout. (a) Pout=450μW. (b) Pout=1.25mW. (c) Pout=2.4mW. (d) Pout=3.7mW. In red (e) Pout=0 mW (the detector noise). A strong noise resonance takes place at the laser relaxation oscillation frequency which is a monotonically increasing function of laser output power.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

sSNOM-LOFI power spectrum compared to the detector noise level (in red). The benefit of demodulating at sideband frequencies (Δf ± ftip rather than Δf) is that the optical background inherent in sSNOM experiments can be efficiently suppressed [13]. The frequency matching between harmonic Δfftip and laser relaxation frequency maximises the LOFI enhancement factor

Fig.4.
Fig.4.

Scheme of the waveguide cross section

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Raw images provided by the LOFI/sSNOM system. A) and E) are AFM topography images taken at two different position along the waveguide. The corresponding optical images are respectively: B) and F) for the real field maps, C) and G) for the amplitude maps and D) and H) for the phase maps

Equations (4)

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Δ P out t F e = 2 P out γ ext R e G ( F e ) cos ( 2 π F e t φ e )
G ( Ω e ) = γ c Γ R 2 + Ω e 2 ( Ω R 2 Ω e 2 ) 2 + Γ R 2 Ω e 2
Δ P out t Δ f f tip = 2 G ( Δ f f tip ) P out E tip cos ( 2 π ( Δ f f tip ) t φ tip + Cte )
{ R Δ f f tip = 2 G ( Δ f f tip ) P out E tip Φ Δ f f tip = φ tip + Cte

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