Abstract

A 3-D optical imaging system based on active stereo vision and motion tracking is built to track the motion of patient and to register the time-sequenced images of cervix recorded during colposcopy. The imaging system is evaluated by examining human subjects in vivo before routine colposcopy examination procedures. The system tracks the motion of patient accurately. The temporal kinetics of the acetowhitening process in the area of interest can be quantitatively measured. The results demonstrate that the kinetics of acetowhitening may be potentially used for accurately differentiating the precancerous lesions from the normal and benign lesions, and grading the precancerous lesions.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. C. Anderson, J. A. Jordan, A. R. Morse, and F. Sharp, A Text and Atlas of Integrated Colposcopy: for Colposcopists, Histopathologists and Cytologists (Chapman & Hall Medical, London, 1992).
  2. B. W. Pogue, H. B. Kaufman, A. Zelenchuk, W. Harper, G. C. Burke, E. E. Burke, and D. M. Harper, "Analysis of acetic acid-induced whitening of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 397-403 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. T. Wu, J. Y. Qu, T. H. Cheung, S. F. Yim, and Y. F. Wong, "Study of dynamic process of acetic acid induced-whitening in epithelial tissues at cellular level," Opt. Express 13, 4963-4973 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. T. Wu and J. Y. Qu, "Optical imaging for medical diagnosis based on active stereo vision and motion tracking," Opt. Express,  15, 10421-10426 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Y. Tsai, "A versatile camera calibration technique for high-accuracy 3D machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV camera and lenses," IEEE J. Rob. Autom. 3, 323-344 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Q. Huynh, R. A. Owens, and P. E. Hartmann, "Calibrating a structured light stripe system: a novel approach," Int. J. Comput. Vis. 33, 73-86 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. Besl and N. D. McKay, "A method for registration of 3-D shapes," IEEE Trans. on Patt.Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 239-256 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. S. Moore and G. P. McCabe, Introduction to the Practice of Statistics, 5th ed. (W. H. Freeman, New York, 2006).

2007

T. T. Wu and J. Y. Qu, "Optical imaging for medical diagnosis based on active stereo vision and motion tracking," Opt. Express,  15, 10421-10426 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

T. T. Wu, J. Y. Qu, T. H. Cheung, S. F. Yim, and Y. F. Wong, "Study of dynamic process of acetic acid induced-whitening in epithelial tissues at cellular level," Opt. Express 13, 4963-4973 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

B. W. Pogue, H. B. Kaufman, A. Zelenchuk, W. Harper, G. C. Burke, E. E. Burke, and D. M. Harper, "Analysis of acetic acid-induced whitening of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 397-403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

D. Q. Huynh, R. A. Owens, and P. E. Hartmann, "Calibrating a structured light stripe system: a novel approach," Int. J. Comput. Vis. 33, 73-86 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. J. Besl and N. D. McKay, "A method for registration of 3-D shapes," IEEE Trans. on Patt.Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 239-256 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. Y. Tsai, "A versatile camera calibration technique for high-accuracy 3D machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV camera and lenses," IEEE J. Rob. Autom. 3, 323-344 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Besl, P. J.

P. J. Besl and N. D. McKay, "A method for registration of 3-D shapes," IEEE Trans. on Patt.Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 239-256 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Burke, E. E.

B. W. Pogue, H. B. Kaufman, A. Zelenchuk, W. Harper, G. C. Burke, E. E. Burke, and D. M. Harper, "Analysis of acetic acid-induced whitening of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 397-403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burke, G. C.

B. W. Pogue, H. B. Kaufman, A. Zelenchuk, W. Harper, G. C. Burke, E. E. Burke, and D. M. Harper, "Analysis of acetic acid-induced whitening of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 397-403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheung, T. H.

T. T. Wu, J. Y. Qu, T. H. Cheung, S. F. Yim, and Y. F. Wong, "Study of dynamic process of acetic acid induced-whitening in epithelial tissues at cellular level," Opt. Express 13, 4963-4973 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harper, D. M.

B. W. Pogue, H. B. Kaufman, A. Zelenchuk, W. Harper, G. C. Burke, E. E. Burke, and D. M. Harper, "Analysis of acetic acid-induced whitening of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 397-403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harper, W.

B. W. Pogue, H. B. Kaufman, A. Zelenchuk, W. Harper, G. C. Burke, E. E. Burke, and D. M. Harper, "Analysis of acetic acid-induced whitening of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 397-403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartmann, P. E.

D. Q. Huynh, R. A. Owens, and P. E. Hartmann, "Calibrating a structured light stripe system: a novel approach," Int. J. Comput. Vis. 33, 73-86 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huynh, D. Q.

D. Q. Huynh, R. A. Owens, and P. E. Hartmann, "Calibrating a structured light stripe system: a novel approach," Int. J. Comput. Vis. 33, 73-86 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, H. B.

B. W. Pogue, H. B. Kaufman, A. Zelenchuk, W. Harper, G. C. Burke, E. E. Burke, and D. M. Harper, "Analysis of acetic acid-induced whitening of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 397-403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKay, N. D.

P. J. Besl and N. D. McKay, "A method for registration of 3-D shapes," IEEE Trans. on Patt.Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 239-256 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Owens, R. A.

D. Q. Huynh, R. A. Owens, and P. E. Hartmann, "Calibrating a structured light stripe system: a novel approach," Int. J. Comput. Vis. 33, 73-86 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue, H. B. Kaufman, A. Zelenchuk, W. Harper, G. C. Burke, E. E. Burke, and D. M. Harper, "Analysis of acetic acid-induced whitening of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 397-403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, J. Y.

T. T. Wu and J. Y. Qu, "Optical imaging for medical diagnosis based on active stereo vision and motion tracking," Opt. Express,  15, 10421-10426 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Wu, J. Y. Qu, T. H. Cheung, S. F. Yim, and Y. F. Wong, "Study of dynamic process of acetic acid induced-whitening in epithelial tissues at cellular level," Opt. Express 13, 4963-4973 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, R. Y.

R. Y. Tsai, "A versatile camera calibration technique for high-accuracy 3D machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV camera and lenses," IEEE J. Rob. Autom. 3, 323-344 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wong, Y. F.

T. T. Wu, J. Y. Qu, T. H. Cheung, S. F. Yim, and Y. F. Wong, "Study of dynamic process of acetic acid induced-whitening in epithelial tissues at cellular level," Opt. Express 13, 4963-4973 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, T. T.

T. T. Wu and J. Y. Qu, "Optical imaging for medical diagnosis based on active stereo vision and motion tracking," Opt. Express,  15, 10421-10426 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Wu, J. Y. Qu, T. H. Cheung, S. F. Yim, and Y. F. Wong, "Study of dynamic process of acetic acid induced-whitening in epithelial tissues at cellular level," Opt. Express 13, 4963-4973 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yim, S. F.

T. T. Wu, J. Y. Qu, T. H. Cheung, S. F. Yim, and Y. F. Wong, "Study of dynamic process of acetic acid induced-whitening in epithelial tissues at cellular level," Opt. Express 13, 4963-4973 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zelenchuk, A.

B. W. Pogue, H. B. Kaufman, A. Zelenchuk, W. Harper, G. C. Burke, E. E. Burke, and D. M. Harper, "Analysis of acetic acid-induced whitening of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 397-403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Mach. Intell.

P. J. Besl and N. D. McKay, "A method for registration of 3-D shapes," IEEE Trans. on Patt.Anal. Mach. Intell. 14, 239-256 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Rob. Autom.

R. Y. Tsai, "A versatile camera calibration technique for high-accuracy 3D machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV camera and lenses," IEEE J. Rob. Autom. 3, 323-344 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Comput. Vis.

D. Q. Huynh, R. A. Owens, and P. E. Hartmann, "Calibrating a structured light stripe system: a novel approach," Int. J. Comput. Vis. 33, 73-86 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

B. W. Pogue, H. B. Kaufman, A. Zelenchuk, W. Harper, G. C. Burke, E. E. Burke, and D. M. Harper, "Analysis of acetic acid-induced whitening of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 397-403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

T. T. Wu, J. Y. Qu, T. H. Cheung, S. F. Yim, and Y. F. Wong, "Study of dynamic process of acetic acid induced-whitening in epithelial tissues at cellular level," Opt. Express 13, 4963-4973 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Wu and J. Y. Qu, "Optical imaging for medical diagnosis based on active stereo vision and motion tracking," Opt. Express,  15, 10421-10426 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D. S. Moore and G. P. McCabe, Introduction to the Practice of Statistics, 5th ed. (W. H. Freeman, New York, 2006).

M. C. Anderson, J. A. Jordan, A. R. Morse, and F. Sharp, A Text and Atlas of Integrated Colposcopy: for Colposcopists, Histopathologists and Cytologists (Chapman & Hall Medical, London, 1992).

Supplementary Material (5)

» Media 1: MOV (2963 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (14237 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (2635 KB)     
» Media 4: MPG (13690 KB)     
» Media 5: MPG (3152 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the 3-D imaging system. (b) Picture of the imaging system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Cross-polarized reflection image of human cervix taken by blue channel; (b) Laser stripes projected on the same human cervix surface; (c) Image of the same human cervix surface by using a commercial colposcope; (d) Reconstructed 3-D human cervix surface with intensity texture mapping (unit: mm). Images in (b,d) are shown in pseudo-color.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(2.9 MB) Movie of motion tracking and image registration measured from a human subject with large motion [(14.2 MB version)]. (a) Unregistered target images vs. reference image; (b) registered target images vs. reference image; (c) intensity line profiles along A–B in (a); (d) intensity line profiles along A′-B′ in (b). [Media 1][Media 2]

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(2.6 MB) Movie of motion tracking and image registration measured from a human subject with small motion [(13.6 MB version)]. (a) Unregistered target images vs. reference image; (b) registered target images vs. reference image; (c) intensity line profiles along A-B in (a); (d) intensity line profiles along A′-B′ in (b). [Media 3][Media 4]

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(3.2 MB) Movie of kinetics of acetowhitening measured from a human subject in vivo. (a) Unregistered images vs. reference image; (b) registered images vs. reference image; (c) normalized reflection intensity as a function of time measured from 5 sites in the unregistered target images; (d) normalized reflection intensity as a function of time measured from 5 sites in the registered target images. The reflection intensity as a function of time presents the kinetics of acetowhitening at the measurement sites labeled in (a, b). [Media 5]

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Temporal kinetics of acetowhitening for normal tissue, HPV infection, low and high grade CIN lesions.

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