Abstract

We propose a simple and effective way to reduce the losses in left-handed metamaterials by manipulating the values of the effective parameters R, L, and C. We investigate the role of losses of the short-wire pairs and the fishnet structures. Increasing the effective inductance to capacitance ratio, L/C, reduces the losses and the figure of merit can increase substantially, especially at THz frequencies and in the optical regime.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative-index materials: New frontiers in optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315 (5808), 47-49 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 41-48 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "The Science of Negative Index Materials," J. Phys. : Condens. Matter. 20, 304217 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813 nm and single negative at 772 nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. B. Pendry, "Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. B. Pendry and D. R. Smith, "The quest for the superlens," Sci. Am. 295, 60-67 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. and Nanostruct.: Fundam. and Appl. 5, 149 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. V. M. Shalaev, W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. F. Zhou, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "A unifying approach to left handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620-3622.
    [PubMed]
  17. W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, V. C. de Silva, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Metamagnetics with rainbow colors," Opt. Express 15, 3333-3341 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan,W. S. Cai, S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813nm and single negative at 772nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, Wave Propagation: From Electrons to Photonic Crystals and Left-handed Materials (Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 2008).
  20. M. Gorkunov, M. Lapine, E. Shamonina, and K. H. Ringhofer, "Effective magnetic properties of a composite material with circular conductive elements," Eur. Phys. J. B 28, 263-269 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Size dependence and convergence of the retrieval parameters of metamaterials," Photon. and Nanostruct.: Fundam. and Appl. 6, 96 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. M. Soukoulis, "Bending back light: The science of negative index materials" Opt. Photon. News 17, 16 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the Magnetic Response of Split-Ring Resonators at Optical Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "The Science of Negative Index Materials," J. Phys. : Condens. Matter. 20, 304217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Size dependence and convergence of the retrieval parameters of metamaterials," Photon. and Nanostruct.: Fundam. and Appl. 6, 96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813 nm and single negative at 772 nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315 (5808), 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 41-48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. and Nanostruct.: Fundam. and Appl. 5, 149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, V. C. de Silva, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Metamagnetics with rainbow colors," Opt. Express 15, 3333-3341 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan,W. S. Cai, S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813nm and single negative at 772nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative-index materials: New frontiers in optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry and D. R. Smith, "The quest for the superlens," Sci. Am. 295, 60-67 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, "Bending back light: The science of negative index materials" Opt. Photon. News 17, 16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the Magnetic Response of Split-Ring Resonators at Optical Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

M. Gorkunov, M. Lapine, E. Shamonina, and K. H. Ringhofer, "Effective magnetic properties of a composite material with circular conductive elements," Eur. Phys. J. B 28, 263-269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, "Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813 nm and single negative at 772 nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W. S.

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, V. C. de Silva, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Metamagnetics with rainbow colors," Opt. Express 15, 3333-3341 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan,W. S. Cai, S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813nm and single negative at 772nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, V. C. de Silva, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Metamagnetics with rainbow colors," Opt. Express 15, 3333-3341 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan,W. S. Cai, S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813nm and single negative at 772nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813 nm and single negative at 772 nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Silva, V. C.

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, V. C. de Silva, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Metamagnetics with rainbow colors," Opt. Express 15, 3333-3341 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolling, G.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drachev, V. P.

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813 nm and single negative at 772 nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, V. C. de Silva, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Metamagnetics with rainbow colors," Opt. Express 15, 3333-3341 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan,W. S. Cai, S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813nm and single negative at 772nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "The Science of Negative Index Materials," J. Phys. : Condens. Matter. 20, 304217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. and Nanostruct.: Fundam. and Appl. 5, 149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative-index materials: New frontiers in optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the Magnetic Response of Split-Ring Resonators at Optical Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "A unifying approach to left handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620-3622.
[PubMed]

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorkunov, M.

M. Gorkunov, M. Lapine, E. Shamonina, and K. H. Ringhofer, "Effective magnetic properties of a composite material with circular conductive elements," Eur. Phys. J. B 28, 263-269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guven, K.

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Size dependence and convergence of the retrieval parameters of metamaterials," Photon. and Nanostruct.: Fundam. and Appl. 6, 96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "The Science of Negative Index Materials," J. Phys. : Condens. Matter. 20, 304217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. and Nanostruct.: Fundam. and Appl. 5, 149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative-index materials: New frontiers in optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the Magnetic Response of Split-Ring Resonators at Optical Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katsarakis, N.

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. and Nanostruct.: Fundam. and Appl. 5, 149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813 nm and single negative at 772 nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, V. C. de Silva, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Metamagnetics with rainbow colors," Opt. Express 15, 3333-3341 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan,W. S. Cai, S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813nm and single negative at 772nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Size dependence and convergence of the retrieval parameters of metamaterials," Photon. and Nanostruct.: Fundam. and Appl. 6, 96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "The Science of Negative Index Materials," J. Phys. : Condens. Matter. 20, 304217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the Magnetic Response of Split-Ring Resonators at Optical Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "A unifying approach to left handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620-3622.
[PubMed]

Lapine, M.

M. Gorkunov, M. Lapine, E. Shamonina, and K. H. Ringhofer, "Effective magnetic properties of a composite material with circular conductive elements," Eur. Phys. J. B 28, 263-269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315 (5808), 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markos, P.

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry and D. R. Smith, "The quest for the superlens," Sci. Am. 295, 60-67 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the Magnetic Response of Split-Ring Resonators at Optical Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ringhofer, K. H.

M. Gorkunov, M. Lapine, E. Shamonina, and K. H. Ringhofer, "Effective magnetic properties of a composite material with circular conductive elements," Eur. Phys. J. B 28, 263-269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

V. M. Shalaev, W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 41-48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, V. C. de Silva, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Metamagnetics with rainbow colors," Opt. Express 15, 3333-3341 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan,W. S. Cai, S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813nm and single negative at 772nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813 nm and single negative at 772 nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shamonina, E.

M. Gorkunov, M. Lapine, E. Shamonina, and K. H. Ringhofer, "Effective magnetic properties of a composite material with circular conductive elements," Eur. Phys. J. B 28, 263-269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry and D. R. Smith, "The quest for the superlens," Sci. Am. 295, 60-67 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Size dependence and convergence of the retrieval parameters of metamaterials," Photon. and Nanostruct.: Fundam. and Appl. 6, 96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "The Science of Negative Index Materials," J. Phys. : Condens. Matter. 20, 304217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. and Nanostruct.: Fundam. and Appl. 5, 149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315 (5808), 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, "Bending back light: The science of negative index materials" Opt. Photon. News 17, 16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(2006).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative-index materials: New frontiers in optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the Magnetic Response of Split-Ring Resonators at Optical Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "A unifying approach to left handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620-3622.
[PubMed]

Tsiapa, I.

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. and Nanostruct.: Fundam. and Appl. 5, 149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle, G.

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(2006).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315 (5808), 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813 nm and single negative at 772 nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, S. M.

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan,W. S. Cai, S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813nm and single negative at 772nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H. K.

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan,W. S. Cai, S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813nm and single negative at 772nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, V. C. de Silva, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Metamagnetics with rainbow colors," Opt. Express 15, 3333-3341 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813 nm and single negative at 772 nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "The Science of Negative Index Materials," J. Phys. : Condens. Matter. 20, 304217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J. F.

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Size dependence and convergence of the retrieval parameters of metamaterials," Photon. and Nanostruct.: Fundam. and Appl. 6, 96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the Magnetic Response of Split-Ring Resonators at Optical Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Zhou, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "A unifying approach to left handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620-3622.
[PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative-index materials: New frontiers in optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. B (1)

M. Gorkunov, M. Lapine, E. Shamonina, and K. H. Ringhofer, "Effective magnetic properties of a composite material with circular conductive elements," Eur. Phys. J. B 28, 263-269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. : Condens. Matter. (1)

C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "The Science of Negative Index Materials," J. Phys. : Condens. Matter. 20, 304217 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 41-48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, V. C. de Silva, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Metamagnetics with rainbow colors," Opt. Express 15, 3333-3341 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (8)

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan,W. S. Cai, S. M. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813nm and single negative at 772nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "A unifying approach to left handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620-3622.
[PubMed]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813 nm and single negative at 772 nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 1671(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Photon. News (1)

C. M. Soukoulis, "Bending back light: The science of negative index materials" Opt. Photon. News 17, 16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Photon. and Nanostruct.: Fundam. and Appl. (2)

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Size dependence and convergence of the retrieval parameters of metamaterials," Photon. and Nanostruct.: Fundam. and Appl. 6, 96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. and Nanostruct.: Fundam. and Appl. 5, 149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the Magnetic Response of Split-Ring Resonators at Optical Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sci. Am. (1)

J. B. Pendry and D. R. Smith, "The quest for the superlens," Sci. Am. 295, 60-67 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315 (5808), 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, Wave Propagation: From Electrons to Photonic Crystals and Left-handed Materials (Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 2008).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Geometries for short-wire pair arrays (a) and the fishnet structure (b). Both consist of a patterned metallic double layer (yellow, usually Au) separated by a thin dielectric (blue).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) An effective RLC circuit of the short-wire pairs structure shown in Fig. 1(a). (b) Linear dependence of the magnetic resonance frequency, fm , on the length of the short-wire l. The other parameters are given by s=1.5 mm, ax =9.5 mm, ay =20 mm, εr =2.53. (c) Dependence of the magnetic resonance frequency, fm , on the thickness of the dielectric spacer, s. (w=1 mm, l=7 mm, ax =9.5 mm, ay =20 mm,εr =2.53).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Effective permeability for the fishnet structure for three different widths of the dielectric spacer, s=0.25 (blue dashed), 0.5 (green dotted) and 1.0 mm (red solid), respectively. The frequency f is normalized by the magnetic resonance frequency fm (fm =9.701, 9.689 and 9.604 GHz for s=0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mm, respectively). (b) The normalized loss, (1-R-T)/(1-R) (solid) , and the real part of refractive index, -Re(n) (dashed), as a function of the normalized frequency. (c) Figure of Merit, |Re(n)/Im(n)|, versus f/fm .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Effective permeability for the fishnet structure with permeability of the dielectric spacer μr =1.0 (blue dashed), 1.4 (green dotted) and 2.0 (red solid), respectively. The dielectric constant is εr =20/μr . The frequency f is normalized by the resonance frequency fm (fm =2.323, 2.325 and 2.330 GHz for μr =1.0, 1.4 and 2.0, respectively). (b) The normalized loss and the real part of refractive index (dashed). (c) Figure of Merit.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Effective permeability for the fishnet structure for three different widths of the dielectric spacers, s=30 (blue dashed), 60 (green dotted), and 90 nm (red solid), respectively The other parameters are given by wx =100 nm, wy =200 nm, ax =ay =300 nm, t=40 nm, εr =1.90. (b) The real part of refractive index (dashed). (c) Figure of Merit.

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