Abstract

Micropixelated blue (470nm) and ultraviolet (370nm) AlInGaN light emitting diode (‘micro-LED’) arrays have been fabricated in flip-chip format with different pixel diameters (72µm and 30µm at, respectively, 100 and 278 pixels/mm2). Each micro-LED pixel can be individually-addressed and the devices possess a specially designed n-common contact incorporated to ensure uniform current injection and consequently uniform light emission across the array. The flip-chip micro-LEDs show, per pixel, high continuous output intensity of up to 0.55µW/µm2 (55W/cm2) at an injection current density of 10kA/cm2 and can sustain continuous injection current densities of up to 12kA/cm2 before breakdown. We also demonstrate that nanosecond pulsed output operation of these devices with per pixel on-axis average peak intensity up to 2.9µW/µm2 (corresponding to energy of 45pJ per 22ns optical pulse) can be achieved. We investigate the pertinent performance characteristics of these arrays for micro-projection applications, including the prospect of integrated optical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. C. W. Jeon, H. W. Choi, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, "High-density matrix-addressable AlInGaN-based 368nm microarray light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2421-2423 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "High-resolution 128x96 nitride microdisplay," IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 25, 277-279 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. W. Jeon, Z. Gong, M. D. Dawson, M. A. A. Neil, and P. M. W. French, "Microstripe-array InGaN light-emitting diodes with individually addressable elements,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1681-1683 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. Gu, H. W. Choi, G. McConnell, A. M. Gurney, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754-2756 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, and M. D. Dawson, "Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-array light emitting diodes using confocal microscopy," Appl Phys. Lett. 86, 041111 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. K. Kawasaki, C. Koike, Y. Aoyagi, and M. Takeuchi, "Vertical AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diode emitting at 322nm fabricated by the laser lift-off technique," Appl Phys. Lett. 89, 261114 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

B. R. Rae, C. Griffin, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, E. Charbon, M. D. Dawson, and R. K. Henderson, "CMOS driven micro-pixel LEDs integrated with single photon avalanche diodes for time resolved fluorescence measurements," J. Phys. D: Applied Physics 41, 094011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno and C.-C. Sun, "Modeling the radiation pattern of LEDs," Opt. Express 16, 1808-1819 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

N. Hempler, J.-M. Hopkins, A. J. Kemp, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, J. Wagner, M. D. Dawson, and D. Burns, "Pulsed pumping of semiconductor disk lasers," Opt. Express 15, 3247-3256 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, "Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54, 2650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastaka, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hybride vapor phase eptaxially grown AlN/Sapphire templates," Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 46, L537-L539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D. S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diode," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gu, H. X. Zhang, H. D. Sun, M. D. Dawson, A. R. Mackintosh, A. J. C. Kuehne, R. A. Pethrick, C. Belton and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic microstructured light-emitting diodes produced using photocurable polymer blends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. W. Jeon, Z. Gong, M. D. Dawson, M. A. A. Neil, and P. M. W. French, "Microstripe-array InGaN light-emitting diodes with individually addressable elements,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1681-1683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawasaki, C. Koike, Y. Aoyagi, and M. Takeuchi, "Vertical AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diode emitting at 322nm fabricated by the laser lift-off technique," Appl Phys. Lett. 89, 261114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, and M. D. Dawson, "Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-array light emitting diodes using confocal microscopy," Appl Phys. Lett. 86, 041111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta and M. C. Wu, Nature, "Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images," Nature 436, 370-372, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Jeon, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, "Mask-free photolithographic exposure using a matrix-addressable micropixellated AlInGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (6)

H. Peng, E. Makarona, Y. He, Y. K. Song, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Su, Z. Ren, M. Gherasimova, S.-R. Jeon, G. Cui, J. Han, "Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes operating in the 340nm wavelength range and application to time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, and M. A. Khan, "High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838-1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Jeon, H. W. Choi, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, "High-density matrix-addressable AlInGaN-based 368nm microarray light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2421-2423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "High-resolution 128x96 nitride microdisplay," IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 25, 277-279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, G. McConnell, A. M. Gurney, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754-2756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Chediak, Z. Luo, J. Seo, N. Cheung, L. P. Lee, and T. D. Sands, "Heterogeneous integration of CdS filters with GaN LEDs for fluorescence detection microsystems," Sens. Actuators A. 111, 1-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, "Current crowding and optical saturation effects in GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on insulating substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3337-3339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, "III-nitride blue microdisplay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1303-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Ozden, M. Diagne, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Han, and T. Takeuchi, "Matrix-addressable 1024 element blue light emitting InGaN QW diode array," Phys. Stat. Solidi(a) 188, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Adivarahan, V.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastaka, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hybride vapor phase eptaxially grown AlN/Sapphire templates," Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 46, L537-L539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, and M. A. Khan, "High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838-1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, Y.

K. Kawasaki, C. Koike, Y. Aoyagi, and M. Takeuchi, "Vertical AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diode emitting at 322nm fabricated by the laser lift-off technique," Appl Phys. Lett. 89, 261114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Belton, C.

E. Gu, H. X. Zhang, H. D. Sun, M. D. Dawson, A. R. Mackintosh, A. J. C. Kuehne, R. A. Pethrick, C. Belton and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic microstructured light-emitting diodes produced using photocurable polymer blends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

E. Gu, H. X. Zhang, H. D. Sun, M. D. Dawson, A. R. Mackintosh, A. J. C. Kuehne, R. A. Pethrick, C. Belton and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic microstructured light-emitting diodes produced using photocurable polymer blends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, "Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burns, D.

Charbon, E.

B. R. Rae, C. Griffin, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, E. Charbon, M. D. Dawson, and R. K. Henderson, "CMOS driven micro-pixel LEDs integrated with single photon avalanche diodes for time resolved fluorescence measurements," J. Phys. D: Applied Physics 41, 094011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chediak, J. A.

J. A. Chediak, Z. Luo, J. Seo, N. Cheung, L. P. Lee, and T. D. Sands, "Heterogeneous integration of CdS filters with GaN LEDs for fluorescence detection microsystems," Sens. Actuators A. 111, 1-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, N.

J. A. Chediak, Z. Luo, J. Seo, N. Cheung, L. P. Lee, and T. D. Sands, "Heterogeneous integration of CdS filters with GaN LEDs for fluorescence detection microsystems," Sens. Actuators A. 111, 1-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, P. Y.

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta and M. C. Wu, Nature, "Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images," Nature 436, 370-372, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H. W.

C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, and M. D. Dawson, "Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-array light emitting diodes using confocal microscopy," Appl Phys. Lett. 86, 041111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, G. McConnell, A. M. Gurney, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754-2756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Jeon, H. W. Choi, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, "High-density matrix-addressable AlInGaN-based 368nm microarray light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2421-2423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "High-resolution 128x96 nitride microdisplay," IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 25, 277-279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cui, G.

H. Peng, E. Makarona, Y. He, Y. K. Song, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Su, Z. Ren, M. Gherasimova, S.-R. Jeon, G. Cui, J. Han, "Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes operating in the 340nm wavelength range and application to time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

B. R. Rae, C. Griffin, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, E. Charbon, M. D. Dawson, and R. K. Henderson, "CMOS driven micro-pixel LEDs integrated with single photon avalanche diodes for time resolved fluorescence measurements," J. Phys. D: Applied Physics 41, 094011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54, 2650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Hempler, J.-M. Hopkins, A. J. Kemp, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, J. Wagner, M. D. Dawson, and D. Burns, "Pulsed pumping of semiconductor disk lasers," Opt. Express 15, 3247-3256 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D. S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diode," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gu, H. X. Zhang, H. D. Sun, M. D. Dawson, A. R. Mackintosh, A. J. C. Kuehne, R. A. Pethrick, C. Belton and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic microstructured light-emitting diodes produced using photocurable polymer blends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. W. Jeon, Z. Gong, M. D. Dawson, M. A. A. Neil, and P. M. W. French, "Microstripe-array InGaN light-emitting diodes with individually addressable elements,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1681-1683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Jeon, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, "Mask-free photolithographic exposure using a matrix-addressable micropixellated AlInGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, and M. D. Dawson, "Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-array light emitting diodes using confocal microscopy," Appl Phys. Lett. 86, 041111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, G. McConnell, A. M. Gurney, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754-2756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Jeon, H. W. Choi, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, "High-density matrix-addressable AlInGaN-based 368nm microarray light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2421-2423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "High-resolution 128x96 nitride microdisplay," IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 25, 277-279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

deMello, J. C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, "Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diagne, M.

I. Ozden, M. Diagne, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Han, and T. Takeuchi, "Matrix-addressable 1024 element blue light emitting InGaN QW diode array," Phys. Stat. Solidi(a) 188, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Elson, D. S.

Fareed, Q.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastaka, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hybride vapor phase eptaxially grown AlN/Sapphire templates," Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 46, L537-L539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, A. I.

French, P. M. W.

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54, 2650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D. S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diode," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. W. Jeon, Z. Gong, M. D. Dawson, M. A. A. Neil, and P. M. W. French, "Microstripe-array InGaN light-emitting diodes with individually addressable elements,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1681-1683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaevski, M.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastaka, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hybride vapor phase eptaxially grown AlN/Sapphire templates," Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 46, L537-L539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gärtner, C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, "Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gherasimova, M.

H. Peng, E. Makarona, Y. He, Y. K. Song, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Su, Z. Ren, M. Gherasimova, S.-R. Jeon, G. Cui, J. Han, "Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes operating in the 340nm wavelength range and application to time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Girkin, J. M.

B. R. Rae, C. Griffin, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, E. Charbon, M. D. Dawson, and R. K. Henderson, "CMOS driven micro-pixel LEDs integrated with single photon avalanche diodes for time resolved fluorescence measurements," J. Phys. D: Applied Physics 41, 094011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D. S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diode," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, and M. D. Dawson, "Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-array light emitting diodes using confocal microscopy," Appl Phys. Lett. 86, 041111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, G. McConnell, A. M. Gurney, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754-2756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Girkin, D. L. Wokosin, A. M. Gurney, and A. I. Ferguson, "Confocal microscopy using InGaN violet laser diode at 406nm," Opt. Express 7, 336-341 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, Z.

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54, 2650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. W. Jeon, Z. Gong, M. D. Dawson, M. A. A. Neil, and P. M. W. French, "Microstripe-array InGaN light-emitting diodes with individually addressable elements,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1681-1683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, C.

B. R. Rae, C. Griffin, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, E. Charbon, M. D. Dawson, and R. K. Henderson, "CMOS driven micro-pixel LEDs integrated with single photon avalanche diodes for time resolved fluorescence measurements," J. Phys. D: Applied Physics 41, 094011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54, 2650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D. S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diode," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, and M. D. Dawson, "Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-array light emitting diodes using confocal microscopy," Appl Phys. Lett. 86, 041111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, G. McConnell, A. M. Gurney, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754-2756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

B. R. Rae, C. Griffin, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, E. Charbon, M. D. Dawson, and R. K. Henderson, "CMOS driven micro-pixel LEDs integrated with single photon avalanche diodes for time resolved fluorescence measurements," J. Phys. D: Applied Physics 41, 094011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54, 2650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D. S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diode," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gu, H. X. Zhang, H. D. Sun, M. D. Dawson, A. R. Mackintosh, A. J. C. Kuehne, R. A. Pethrick, C. Belton and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic microstructured light-emitting diodes produced using photocurable polymer blends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. W. Jeon, Z. Gong, M. D. Dawson, M. A. A. Neil, and P. M. W. French, "Microstripe-array InGaN light-emitting diodes with individually addressable elements,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1681-1683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Jeon, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, "Mask-free photolithographic exposure using a matrix-addressable micropixellated AlInGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, and M. D. Dawson, "Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-array light emitting diodes using confocal microscopy," Appl Phys. Lett. 86, 041111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, G. McConnell, A. M. Gurney, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754-2756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Jeon, H. W. Choi, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, "High-density matrix-addressable AlInGaN-based 368nm microarray light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2421-2423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, "Current crowding and optical saturation effects in GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on insulating substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3337-3339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gurney, A. M.

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, G. McConnell, A. M. Gurney, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754-2756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Girkin, D. L. Wokosin, A. M. Gurney, and A. I. Ferguson, "Confocal microscopy using InGaN violet laser diode at 406nm," Opt. Express 7, 336-341 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J.

H. Peng, E. Makarona, Y. He, Y. K. Song, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Su, Z. Ren, M. Gherasimova, S.-R. Jeon, G. Cui, J. Han, "Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes operating in the 340nm wavelength range and application to time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Ozden, M. Diagne, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Han, and T. Takeuchi, "Matrix-addressable 1024 element blue light emitting InGaN QW diode array," Phys. Stat. Solidi(a) 188, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haug, V.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, "Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

H. Peng, E. Makarona, Y. He, Y. K. Song, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Su, Z. Ren, M. Gherasimova, S.-R. Jeon, G. Cui, J. Han, "Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes operating in the 340nm wavelength range and application to time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heliotis, G.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, "Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hempler, N.

Henderson, R. K.

B. R. Rae, C. Griffin, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, E. Charbon, M. D. Dawson, and R. K. Henderson, "CMOS driven micro-pixel LEDs integrated with single photon avalanche diodes for time resolved fluorescence measurements," J. Phys. D: Applied Physics 41, 094011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, J.-M.

Jeon, C. W.

H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. W. Jeon, Z. Gong, M. D. Dawson, M. A. A. Neil, and P. M. W. French, "Microstripe-array InGaN light-emitting diodes with individually addressable elements,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1681-1683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Jeon, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, "Mask-free photolithographic exposure using a matrix-addressable micropixellated AlInGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, and M. D. Dawson, "Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-array light emitting diodes using confocal microscopy," Appl Phys. Lett. 86, 041111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "High-resolution 128x96 nitride microdisplay," IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 25, 277-279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Jeon, H. W. Choi, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, "High-density matrix-addressable AlInGaN-based 368nm microarray light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2421-2423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.-R.

H. Peng, E. Makarona, Y. He, Y. K. Song, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Su, Z. Ren, M. Gherasimova, S.-R. Jeon, G. Cui, J. Han, "Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes operating in the 340nm wavelength range and application to time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, "III-nitride blue microdisplay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1303-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S. X.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, "III-nitride blue microdisplay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1303-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Karnutsch, C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, "Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katona, T.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastaka, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hybride vapor phase eptaxially grown AlN/Sapphire templates," Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 46, L537-L539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, K.

K. Kawasaki, C. Koike, Y. Aoyagi, and M. Takeuchi, "Vertical AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diode emitting at 322nm fabricated by the laser lift-off technique," Appl Phys. Lett. 89, 261114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, A. J.

Kennedy, G.

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54, 2650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, G. T.

Khan, A.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastaka, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hybride vapor phase eptaxially grown AlN/Sapphire templates," Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 46, L537-L539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. A.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, and M. A. Khan, "High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838-1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koike, C.

K. Kawasaki, C. Koike, Y. Aoyagi, and M. Takeuchi, "Vertical AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diode emitting at 322nm fabricated by the laser lift-off technique," Appl Phys. Lett. 89, 261114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuehne, A. J. C.

E. Gu, H. X. Zhang, H. D. Sun, M. D. Dawson, A. R. Mackintosh, A. J. C. Kuehne, R. A. Pethrick, C. Belton and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic microstructured light-emitting diodes produced using photocurable polymer blends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

J. A. Chediak, Z. Luo, J. Seo, N. Cheung, L. P. Lee, and T. D. Sands, "Heterogeneous integration of CdS filters with GaN LEDs for fluorescence detection microsystems," Sens. Actuators A. 111, 1-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, "Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, "III-nitride blue microdisplay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1303-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, "III-nitride blue microdisplay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1303-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, G. McConnell, A. M. Gurney, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754-2756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z.

J. A. Chediak, Z. Luo, J. Seo, N. Cheung, L. P. Lee, and T. D. Sands, "Heterogeneous integration of CdS filters with GaN LEDs for fluorescence detection microsystems," Sens. Actuators A. 111, 1-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mackintosh, A. R.

E. Gu, H. X. Zhang, H. D. Sun, M. D. Dawson, A. R. Mackintosh, A. J. C. Kuehne, R. A. Pethrick, C. Belton and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic microstructured light-emitting diodes produced using photocurable polymer blends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Makarona, E.

H. Peng, E. Makarona, Y. He, Y. K. Song, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Su, Z. Ren, M. Gherasimova, S.-R. Jeon, G. Cui, J. Han, "Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes operating in the 340nm wavelength range and application to time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mandavilli, V.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, and M. A. Khan, "High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838-1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maruska, H. P.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, and M. A. Khan, "High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838-1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McConnell, G.

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, G. McConnell, A. M. Gurney, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754-2756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McKendry, J.

B. R. Rae, C. Griffin, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, E. Charbon, M. D. Dawson, and R. K. Henderson, "CMOS driven micro-pixel LEDs integrated with single photon avalanche diodes for time resolved fluorescence measurements," J. Phys. D: Applied Physics 41, 094011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

Neil, M. A. A.

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54, 2650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D. S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diode," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. W. Jeon, Z. Gong, M. D. Dawson, M. A. A. Neil, and P. M. W. French, "Microstripe-array InGaN light-emitting diodes with individually addressable elements,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1681-1683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nurmikko, A. V.

H. Peng, E. Makarona, Y. He, Y. K. Song, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Su, Z. Ren, M. Gherasimova, S.-R. Jeon, G. Cui, J. Han, "Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes operating in the 340nm wavelength range and application to time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Ozden, M. Diagne, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Han, and T. Takeuchi, "Matrix-addressable 1024 element blue light emitting InGaN QW diode array," Phys. Stat. Solidi(a) 188, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oddos, S.

Ohta, A. T.

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta and M. C. Wu, Nature, "Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images," Nature 436, 370-372, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozden, I.

I. Ozden, M. Diagne, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Han, and T. Takeuchi, "Matrix-addressable 1024 element blue light emitting InGaN QW diode array," Phys. Stat. Solidi(a) 188, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peng, H.

H. Peng, E. Makarona, Y. He, Y. K. Song, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Su, Z. Ren, M. Gherasimova, S.-R. Jeon, G. Cui, J. Han, "Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes operating in the 340nm wavelength range and application to time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pethrick, R. A.

E. Gu, H. X. Zhang, H. D. Sun, M. D. Dawson, A. R. Mackintosh, A. J. C. Kuehne, R. A. Pethrick, C. Belton and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic microstructured light-emitting diodes produced using photocurable polymer blends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pflumm, C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, "Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poher, V.

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54, 2650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D. S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diode," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rae, B. R.

B. R. Rae, C. Griffin, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, E. Charbon, M. D. Dawson, and R. K. Henderson, "CMOS driven micro-pixel LEDs integrated with single photon avalanche diodes for time resolved fluorescence measurements," J. Phys. D: Applied Physics 41, 094011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rattunde, M.

Ren, Z.

H. Peng, E. Makarona, Y. He, Y. K. Song, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Su, Z. Ren, M. Gherasimova, S.-R. Jeon, G. Cui, J. Han, "Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes operating in the 340nm wavelength range and application to time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Renshaw, D.

B. R. Rae, C. Griffin, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, E. Charbon, M. D. Dawson, and R. K. Henderson, "CMOS driven micro-pixel LEDs integrated with single photon avalanche diodes for time resolved fluorescence measurements," J. Phys. D: Applied Physics 41, 094011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sands, T. D.

J. A. Chediak, Z. Luo, J. Seo, N. Cheung, L. P. Lee, and T. D. Sands, "Heterogeneous integration of CdS filters with GaN LEDs for fluorescence detection microsystems," Sens. Actuators A. 111, 1-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, "Current crowding and optical saturation effects in GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on insulating substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3337-3339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, N.

Seo, J.

J. A. Chediak, Z. Luo, J. Seo, N. Cheung, L. P. Lee, and T. D. Sands, "Heterogeneous integration of CdS filters with GaN LEDs for fluorescence detection microsystems," Sens. Actuators A. 111, 1-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, "III-nitride blue microdisplay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1303-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shatalov, M. S.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, and M. A. Khan, "High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838-1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simin, G.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, and M. A. Khan, "High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838-1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. K.

H. Peng, E. Makarona, Y. He, Y. K. Song, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Su, Z. Ren, M. Gherasimova, S.-R. Jeon, G. Cui, J. Han, "Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes operating in the 340nm wavelength range and application to time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Srivastaka, S.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastaka, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hybride vapor phase eptaxially grown AlN/Sapphire templates," Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 46, L537-L539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Su, J.

H. Peng, E. Makarona, Y. He, Y. K. Song, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Su, Z. Ren, M. Gherasimova, S.-R. Jeon, G. Cui, J. Han, "Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes operating in the 340nm wavelength range and application to time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.-C.

Sun, H. D.

E. Gu, H. X. Zhang, H. D. Sun, M. D. Dawson, A. R. Mackintosh, A. J. C. Kuehne, R. A. Pethrick, C. Belton and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic microstructured light-emitting diodes produced using photocurable polymer blends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W. H.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, and M. A. Khan, "High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838-1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, M.

K. Kawasaki, C. Koike, Y. Aoyagi, and M. Takeuchi, "Vertical AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diode emitting at 322nm fabricated by the laser lift-off technique," Appl Phys. Lett. 89, 261114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

I. Ozden, M. Diagne, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Han, and T. Takeuchi, "Matrix-addressable 1024 element blue light emitting InGaN QW diode array," Phys. Stat. Solidi(a) 188, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J.

Wang, J.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, "Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watson, I. M.

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, G. McConnell, A. M. Gurney, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754-2756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, T.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, "Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wokosin, D. L.

Wu, M. C.

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta and M. C. Wu, Nature, "Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images," Nature 436, 370-372, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, and M. A. Khan, "High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838-1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. W.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, and M. A. Khan, "High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838-1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. X.

B. R. Rae, C. Griffin, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, E. Charbon, M. D. Dawson, and R. K. Henderson, "CMOS driven micro-pixel LEDs integrated with single photon avalanche diodes for time resolved fluorescence measurements," J. Phys. D: Applied Physics 41, 094011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54, 2650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D. S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diode," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gu, H. X. Zhang, H. D. Sun, M. D. Dawson, A. R. Mackintosh, A. J. C. Kuehne, R. A. Pethrick, C. Belton and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic microstructured light-emitting diodes produced using photocurable polymer blends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. W. Jeon, Z. Gong, M. D. Dawson, M. A. A. Neil, and P. M. W. French, "Microstripe-array InGaN light-emitting diodes with individually addressable elements,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1681-1683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Griffin, E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, J. M. Girkin, and M. D. Dawson, "Beam divergence measurements of InGaN/GaN micro-array light emitting diodes using confocal microscopy," Appl Phys. Lett. 86, 041111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawasaki, C. Koike, Y. Aoyagi, and M. Takeuchi, "Vertical AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diode emitting at 322nm fabricated by the laser lift-off technique," Appl Phys. Lett. 89, 261114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, "III-nitride blue microdisplay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1303-1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, and M. A. Khan, "High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838-1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Jeon, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, "Mask-free photolithographic exposure using a matrix-addressable micropixellated AlInGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Peng, E. Makarona, Y. He, Y. K. Song, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Su, Z. Ren, M. Gherasimova, S.-R. Jeon, G. Cui, J. Han, "Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes operating in the 340nm wavelength range and application to time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Gu, H. X. Zhang, H. D. Sun, M. D. Dawson, A. R. Mackintosh, A. J. C. Kuehne, R. A. Pethrick, C. Belton and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic microstructured light-emitting diodes produced using photocurable polymer blends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, "Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, "Current crowding and optical saturation effects in GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on insulating substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3337-3339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, G. McConnell, A. M. Gurney, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754-2756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. (1)

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "High-resolution 128x96 nitride microdisplay," IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 25, 277-279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. W. Jeon, Z. Gong, M. D. Dawson, M. A. A. Neil, and P. M. W. French, "Microstripe-array InGaN light-emitting diodes with individually addressable elements,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1681-1683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Jeon, H. W. Choi, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, "High-density matrix-addressable AlInGaN-based 368nm microarray light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2421-2423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54, 2650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Applied Physics (1)

B. R. Rae, C. Griffin, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, E. Charbon, M. D. Dawson, and R. K. Henderson, "CMOS driven micro-pixel LEDs integrated with single photon avalanche diodes for time resolved fluorescence measurements," J. Phys. D: Applied Physics 41, 094011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn J. Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastaka, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hybride vapor phase eptaxially grown AlN/Sapphire templates," Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 46, L537-L539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta and M. C. Wu, Nature, "Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images," Nature 436, 370-372, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Stat. Solidi (1)

I. Ozden, M. Diagne, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Han, and T. Takeuchi, "Matrix-addressable 1024 element blue light emitting InGaN QW diode array," Phys. Stat. Solidi(a) 188, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A. (1)

J. A. Chediak, Z. Luo, J. Seo, N. Cheung, L. P. Lee, and T. D. Sands, "Heterogeneous integration of CdS filters with GaN LEDs for fluorescence detection microsystems," Sens. Actuators A. 111, 1-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Microscope image of a typical type A device taken through the polished sapphire substrate and showing a portion of the 16×16 micro-pixel array with two n-pads (on the left and top sides of the image), (b) a representative single operating blue pixel from a type A device with in inset the light distribution along the dashed line, and (c) light emitted by two close pixels from a type A device.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Microscope images taken through the sapphire substrate of, respectively, (a) a representative single operating UV pixel and (b) representative pair of UV pixels. Both images are from a type A device.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Single pixel I–V characteristics of blue and UV flip-chip micro-LED type A and B devices.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Typical intensities versus injection current densities for blue and UV flip-chip micro-LEDs in type A and B device formats (densities calculated from the pixel area).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Typical peak intensities versus pulsed current density characteristics per pixel for both types of devices at both wavelengths. The repetition rate was fixed at 10.5kHz with an electrical pulse width of 18ns.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Characteristic X-Y optical section (false color image) of a single pixel micro-LED output beam taken in air at the sapphire substrate surface for a blue type A device using confocal microscopy.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Normalized irradiance versus the radial distance from the beam center for blue type A and B devices. The intensity was averaged around the beam center. The beam radii at 1/e2 of the maximum intensity are also indicated.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Typical electrical and optical characteristics per pixel for type A and type B devices at 470nm and 370nm.

Metrics