Abstract

Dermis is the major source of the fluorescence and light scattering of skin. Tumor-induced degradation of the dermis is expected to change the fluorescence and light scattering properties of skin. To investigate how these fluorescence and light scattering properties are changed, human skin dermis was degraded with enzymes to mimic tumor invasion. The enzymatic erosion process was investigated with fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy. Dermis degradation by the enzymes resulted in a decrease in fluorescence emission and light scattering in the dermis. Fluorescence anisotropy, however, could not detect the change in the dermis induced by the enzyme treatments.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2003 (3)

B. Mayinger, M. Jordan, P. Horner, C. Gerlach, S. Muehldorfer, B. R. Bittorf, K. E. Matzel, W. Hohenberger, E. G. Hahn, and K. Guenther, "Endoscopic light-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and adenoma," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 70, 13-20 (2003).

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. E. Julius, S. Overholt, and M. N. Phan, "Laser-induced fluorescence for the detection of esophageal and skin cancer," Adv. Biomed. Clin. Diagn. Syst. 4958, 67-70 (2003).

2002 (6)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).

M. Panjehpour, C. E. Julius, M. N. Phan, T. Vo-Dinh, and S. Overholt, "Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers," Laser Surg. Med. 31, 367-373 (2002).

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical spectroscopy for detection of neoplasia," Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 651-658 (2002).

X. Wang and L. V. Wang, "Propagation of polarized light in birefringent turbid media: A Monte Carlo study," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 279-290 (2002).

N. Kollias, G. Zonios, and G. N. Stamatas, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of skin," Shedding New Light on Disease: Optical Diagnostics for the New Millennium 28, 17-23 (2002).

2001 (3)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).

R. Na, I. M. Stender, and H. C. Wulf, "Can autofluorescence demarcate basal cell carcinoma from normal skin? A comparison with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence," Acta Derm.-Venereol. 81, 246-249 (2001).

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 178-183 (2001).

2000 (1)

N. Ramanujam, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues," Neoplasia 2, 89-117 (2000).

1999 (2)

D. R. Ralston, C. Layton, A. J. Dalley, S. G. Boyce, E. Freedlander, and S. Mac Neil, "The requirement for basement membrane antigens in the production of human epidermal/dermal composites in vitro," Brit. J. Dermatol. 140, 605-615 (1999).

B. Banerjee, B. E. Miedema, and H. R. Chandrasekhar, "Role of basement membrane collagen and elastin in the autofluorescence spectra of the colon," J. Invest. Med. 47, 326-332 (1999).

1998 (1)

N. Kollias, R. Gillies, M. Moran, I. E. Kochevar, and R. R. Anderson, "Endogenous skin fluorescence includes bands that may serve as quantitative markers of aging and photoaging," J. Invest. Dermatol. 111, 776-780 (1998).

1996 (1)

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, "Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555-606 (1996).

1995 (1)

T. J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, R. Petras, M. V. Sivak Jr., and J. R. Kramer Jr, "Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81-87 (1995).

1992 (1)

P. R. Odetti, A. Borgoglio, and R. Rolandi, "Age-related increase of collagen fluorescence in human subcutaneous tissue," Metabolism 41, 655-658 (1992).

1989 (1)

K. S. Stenn, R. Link, G. Moellmann, J. Madri, and E. Kuklinska, "Dispase, a neutral protease from Bacillus polymyxa, is a powerful fibronectinase and type IV collagenase," J. Invest. Dermatol. 93, 287-290 (1989).

1981 (1)

M. Regnier, M. Prunieras, and D. Woodley, "Growth and differentiation of adult human epidermal cells on dermal substrates," Front Matrix Biol. 9, 4-35 (1981).

1980 (1)

D. E. Woolley and C. A. Grafton, "Collagenase immunolocalization studies of cutaneous secondary melanomas," Brit. J. Cancer 42, 260-265 (1980).

1976 (1)

G. K. Steigleder and R. Uerdingen, "Response of collagenous tissue to pigmented tumors," Hautarzt 27, 153-154 (1976).

Anderson, R. R.

N. Kollias, R. Gillies, M. Moran, I. E. Kochevar, and R. R. Anderson, "Endogenous skin fluorescence includes bands that may serve as quantitative markers of aging and photoaging," J. Invest. Dermatol. 111, 776-780 (1998).

Backman, V.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).

Badizadegan, K.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).

Banerjee, B.

B. Banerjee, B. E. Miedema, and H. R. Chandrasekhar, "Role of basement membrane collagen and elastin in the autofluorescence spectra of the colon," J. Invest. Med. 47, 326-332 (1999).

Bittorf, B. R.

B. Mayinger, M. Jordan, P. Horner, C. Gerlach, S. Muehldorfer, B. R. Bittorf, K. E. Matzel, W. Hohenberger, E. G. Hahn, and K. Guenther, "Endoscopic light-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and adenoma," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 70, 13-20 (2003).

Boone, C. W.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).

Borgoglio, A.

P. R. Odetti, A. Borgoglio, and R. Rolandi, "Age-related increase of collagen fluorescence in human subcutaneous tissue," Metabolism 41, 655-658 (1992).

Boyce, S. G.

D. R. Ralston, C. Layton, A. J. Dalley, S. G. Boyce, E. Freedlander, and S. Mac Neil, "The requirement for basement membrane antigens in the production of human epidermal/dermal composites in vitro," Brit. J. Dermatol. 140, 605-615 (1999).

Brancaleon, L.

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 178-183 (2001).

Carr-Locke, D. L.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).

Chandrasekhar, H. R.

B. Banerjee, B. E. Miedema, and H. R. Chandrasekhar, "Role of basement membrane collagen and elastin in the autofluorescence spectra of the colon," J. Invest. Med. 47, 326-332 (1999).

Cothren, R. M.

T. J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, R. Petras, M. V. Sivak Jr., and J. R. Kramer Jr, "Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81-87 (1995).

Crum, C. P.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).

Dalley, A. J.

D. R. Ralston, C. Layton, A. J. Dalley, S. G. Boyce, E. Freedlander, and S. Mac Neil, "The requirement for basement membrane antigens in the production of human epidermal/dermal composites in vitro," Brit. J. Dermatol. 140, 605-615 (1999).

Dasari, R. R.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).

Drezek, R.

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).

Durkin, A. J.

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 178-183 (2001).

Fallon, J. D.

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 178-183 (2001).

Feld, M. S.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).

Fitzmaurice, M.

T. J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, R. Petras, M. V. Sivak Jr., and J. R. Kramer Jr, "Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81-87 (1995).

Follen, M.

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical spectroscopy for detection of neoplasia," Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 651-658 (2002).

Freedlander, E.

D. R. Ralston, C. Layton, A. J. Dalley, S. G. Boyce, E. Freedlander, and S. Mac Neil, "The requirement for basement membrane antigens in the production of human epidermal/dermal composites in vitro," Brit. J. Dermatol. 140, 605-615 (1999).

Georgakoudi, I.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).

Gerlach, C.

B. Mayinger, M. Jordan, P. Horner, C. Gerlach, S. Muehldorfer, B. R. Bittorf, K. E. Matzel, W. Hohenberger, E. G. Hahn, and K. Guenther, "Endoscopic light-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and adenoma," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 70, 13-20 (2003).

Gillies, R.

N. Kollias, R. Gillies, M. Moran, I. E. Kochevar, and R. R. Anderson, "Endogenous skin fluorescence includes bands that may serve as quantitative markers of aging and photoaging," J. Invest. Dermatol. 111, 776-780 (1998).

Grafton, C. A.

D. E. Woolley and C. A. Grafton, "Collagenase immunolocalization studies of cutaneous secondary melanomas," Brit. J. Cancer 42, 260-265 (1980).

Guenther, K.

B. Mayinger, M. Jordan, P. Horner, C. Gerlach, S. Muehldorfer, B. R. Bittorf, K. E. Matzel, W. Hohenberger, E. G. Hahn, and K. Guenther, "Endoscopic light-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and adenoma," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 70, 13-20 (2003).

Hahn, E. G.

B. Mayinger, M. Jordan, P. Horner, C. Gerlach, S. Muehldorfer, B. R. Bittorf, K. E. Matzel, W. Hohenberger, E. G. Hahn, and K. Guenther, "Endoscopic light-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and adenoma," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 70, 13-20 (2003).

Hohenberger, W.

B. Mayinger, M. Jordan, P. Horner, C. Gerlach, S. Muehldorfer, B. R. Bittorf, K. E. Matzel, W. Hohenberger, E. G. Hahn, and K. Guenther, "Endoscopic light-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and adenoma," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 70, 13-20 (2003).

Horner, P.

B. Mayinger, M. Jordan, P. Horner, C. Gerlach, S. Muehldorfer, B. R. Bittorf, K. E. Matzel, W. Hohenberger, E. G. Hahn, and K. Guenther, "Endoscopic light-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and adenoma," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 70, 13-20 (2003).

Jacobson, B. C.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).

Jordan, M.

B. Mayinger, M. Jordan, P. Horner, C. Gerlach, S. Muehldorfer, B. R. Bittorf, K. E. Matzel, W. Hohenberger, E. G. Hahn, and K. Guenther, "Endoscopic light-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and adenoma," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 70, 13-20 (2003).

Julius, C. E.

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. E. Julius, S. Overholt, and M. N. Phan, "Laser-induced fluorescence for the detection of esophageal and skin cancer," Adv. Biomed. Clin. Diagn. Syst. 4958, 67-70 (2003).

M. Panjehpour, C. E. Julius, M. N. Phan, T. Vo-Dinh, and S. Overholt, "Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers," Laser Surg. Med. 31, 367-373 (2002).

Kochevar, I. E.

N. Kollias, R. Gillies, M. Moran, I. E. Kochevar, and R. R. Anderson, "Endogenous skin fluorescence includes bands that may serve as quantitative markers of aging and photoaging," J. Invest. Dermatol. 111, 776-780 (1998).

Kollias, N.

N. Kollias, G. Zonios, and G. N. Stamatas, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of skin," Shedding New Light on Disease: Optical Diagnostics for the New Millennium 28, 17-23 (2002).

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 178-183 (2001).

N. Kollias, R. Gillies, M. Moran, I. E. Kochevar, and R. R. Anderson, "Endogenous skin fluorescence includes bands that may serve as quantitative markers of aging and photoaging," J. Invest. Dermatol. 111, 776-780 (1998).

Kramer, J. R.

T. J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, R. Petras, M. V. Sivak Jr., and J. R. Kramer Jr, "Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81-87 (1995).

Kuklinska, E.

K. S. Stenn, R. Link, G. Moellmann, J. Madri, and E. Kuklinska, "Dispase, a neutral protease from Bacillus polymyxa, is a powerful fibronectinase and type IV collagenase," J. Invest. Dermatol. 93, 287-290 (1989).

Layton, C.

D. R. Ralston, C. Layton, A. J. Dalley, S. G. Boyce, E. Freedlander, and S. Mac Neil, "The requirement for basement membrane antigens in the production of human epidermal/dermal composites in vitro," Brit. J. Dermatol. 140, 605-615 (1999).

Link, R.

K. S. Stenn, R. Link, G. Moellmann, J. Madri, and E. Kuklinska, "Dispase, a neutral protease from Bacillus polymyxa, is a powerful fibronectinase and type IV collagenase," J. Invest. Dermatol. 93, 287-290 (1989).

Mac Neil, S.

D. R. Ralston, C. Layton, A. J. Dalley, S. G. Boyce, E. Freedlander, and S. Mac Neil, "The requirement for basement membrane antigens in the production of human epidermal/dermal composites in vitro," Brit. J. Dermatol. 140, 605-615 (1999).

Madri, J.

K. S. Stenn, R. Link, G. Moellmann, J. Madri, and E. Kuklinska, "Dispase, a neutral protease from Bacillus polymyxa, is a powerful fibronectinase and type IV collagenase," J. Invest. Dermatol. 93, 287-290 (1989).

Malpica, A.

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).

Matzel, K. E.

B. Mayinger, M. Jordan, P. Horner, C. Gerlach, S. Muehldorfer, B. R. Bittorf, K. E. Matzel, W. Hohenberger, E. G. Hahn, and K. Guenther, "Endoscopic light-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and adenoma," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 70, 13-20 (2003).

Mayinger, B.

B. Mayinger, M. Jordan, P. Horner, C. Gerlach, S. Muehldorfer, B. R. Bittorf, K. E. Matzel, W. Hohenberger, E. G. Hahn, and K. Guenther, "Endoscopic light-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and adenoma," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 70, 13-20 (2003).

Menaker, G.

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 178-183 (2001).

Miedema, B. E.

B. Banerjee, B. E. Miedema, and H. R. Chandrasekhar, "Role of basement membrane collagen and elastin in the autofluorescence spectra of the colon," J. Invest. Med. 47, 326-332 (1999).

Moellmann, G.

K. S. Stenn, R. Link, G. Moellmann, J. Madri, and E. Kuklinska, "Dispase, a neutral protease from Bacillus polymyxa, is a powerful fibronectinase and type IV collagenase," J. Invest. Dermatol. 93, 287-290 (1989).

Moran, M.

N. Kollias, R. Gillies, M. Moran, I. E. Kochevar, and R. R. Anderson, "Endogenous skin fluorescence includes bands that may serve as quantitative markers of aging and photoaging," J. Invest. Dermatol. 111, 776-780 (1998).

Muehldorfer, S.

B. Mayinger, M. Jordan, P. Horner, C. Gerlach, S. Muehldorfer, B. R. Bittorf, K. E. Matzel, W. Hohenberger, E. G. Hahn, and K. Guenther, "Endoscopic light-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and adenoma," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 70, 13-20 (2003).

Muller, M. G.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).

Na, R.

R. Na, I. M. Stender, and H. C. Wulf, "Can autofluorescence demarcate basal cell carcinoma from normal skin? A comparison with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence," Acta Derm.-Venereol. 81, 246-249 (2001).

Odetti, P. R.

P. R. Odetti, A. Borgoglio, and R. Rolandi, "Age-related increase of collagen fluorescence in human subcutaneous tissue," Metabolism 41, 655-658 (1992).

Overholt, B. F.

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. E. Julius, S. Overholt, and M. N. Phan, "Laser-induced fluorescence for the detection of esophageal and skin cancer," Adv. Biomed. Clin. Diagn. Syst. 4958, 67-70 (2003).

Overholt, S.

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. E. Julius, S. Overholt, and M. N. Phan, "Laser-induced fluorescence for the detection of esophageal and skin cancer," Adv. Biomed. Clin. Diagn. Syst. 4958, 67-70 (2003).

M. Panjehpour, C. E. Julius, M. N. Phan, T. Vo-Dinh, and S. Overholt, "Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers," Laser Surg. Med. 31, 367-373 (2002).

Panjehpour, M.

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. E. Julius, S. Overholt, and M. N. Phan, "Laser-induced fluorescence for the detection of esophageal and skin cancer," Adv. Biomed. Clin. Diagn. Syst. 4958, 67-70 (2003).

M. Panjehpour, C. E. Julius, M. N. Phan, T. Vo-Dinh, and S. Overholt, "Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers," Laser Surg. Med. 31, 367-373 (2002).

Pavlova, I.

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).

Perelman, L. T.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).

Petras, R.

T. J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, R. Petras, M. V. Sivak Jr., and J. R. Kramer Jr, "Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81-87 (1995).

Phan, M. N.

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. E. Julius, S. Overholt, and M. N. Phan, "Laser-induced fluorescence for the detection of esophageal and skin cancer," Adv. Biomed. Clin. Diagn. Syst. 4958, 67-70 (2003).

M. Panjehpour, C. E. Julius, M. N. Phan, T. Vo-Dinh, and S. Overholt, "Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers," Laser Surg. Med. 31, 367-373 (2002).

Prunieras, M.

M. Regnier, M. Prunieras, and D. Woodley, "Growth and differentiation of adult human epidermal cells on dermal substrates," Front Matrix Biol. 9, 4-35 (1981).

Ralston, D. R.

D. R. Ralston, C. Layton, A. J. Dalley, S. G. Boyce, E. Freedlander, and S. Mac Neil, "The requirement for basement membrane antigens in the production of human epidermal/dermal composites in vitro," Brit. J. Dermatol. 140, 605-615 (1999).

Ramanujam, N.

N. Ramanujam, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues," Neoplasia 2, 89-117 (2000).

Regnier, M.

M. Regnier, M. Prunieras, and D. Woodley, "Growth and differentiation of adult human epidermal cells on dermal substrates," Front Matrix Biol. 9, 4-35 (1981).

Richards-Kortum, R.

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical spectroscopy for detection of neoplasia," Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 651-658 (2002).

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, "Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555-606 (1996).

T. J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, R. Petras, M. V. Sivak Jr., and J. R. Kramer Jr, "Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81-87 (1995).

Rolandi, R.

P. R. Odetti, A. Borgoglio, and R. Rolandi, "Age-related increase of collagen fluorescence in human subcutaneous tissue," Metabolism 41, 655-658 (1992).

Romer, T. J.

T. J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, R. Petras, M. V. Sivak Jr., and J. R. Kramer Jr, "Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81-87 (1995).

Sevick-Muraca, E.

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, "Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555-606 (1996).

Sheets, E. E.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).

Sivak, M. V.

T. J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, R. Petras, M. V. Sivak Jr., and J. R. Kramer Jr, "Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81-87 (1995).

Sokolov, K.

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical spectroscopy for detection of neoplasia," Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 651-658 (2002).

Stamatas, G. N.

N. Kollias, G. Zonios, and G. N. Stamatas, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of skin," Shedding New Light on Disease: Optical Diagnostics for the New Millennium 28, 17-23 (2002).

Steigleder, G. K.

G. K. Steigleder and R. Uerdingen, "Response of collagenous tissue to pigmented tumors," Hautarzt 27, 153-154 (1976).

Stender, I. M.

R. Na, I. M. Stender, and H. C. Wulf, "Can autofluorescence demarcate basal cell carcinoma from normal skin? A comparison with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence," Acta Derm.-Venereol. 81, 246-249 (2001).

Stenn, K. S.

K. S. Stenn, R. Link, G. Moellmann, J. Madri, and E. Kuklinska, "Dispase, a neutral protease from Bacillus polymyxa, is a powerful fibronectinase and type IV collagenase," J. Invest. Dermatol. 93, 287-290 (1989).

Sun, D.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).

Thomas, G. A.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).

Tu, J. H.

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 178-183 (2001).

Uerdingen, R.

G. K. Steigleder and R. Uerdingen, "Response of collagenous tissue to pigmented tumors," Hautarzt 27, 153-154 (1976).

Van Dam, J.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).

Vo-Dinh, T.

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. E. Julius, S. Overholt, and M. N. Phan, "Laser-induced fluorescence for the detection of esophageal and skin cancer," Adv. Biomed. Clin. Diagn. Syst. 4958, 67-70 (2003).

M. Panjehpour, C. E. Julius, M. N. Phan, T. Vo-Dinh, and S. Overholt, "Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers," Laser Surg. Med. 31, 367-373 (2002).

Wallace, M. B.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).

Wang, L. V.

X. Wang and L. V. Wang, "Propagation of polarized light in birefringent turbid media: A Monte Carlo study," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 279-290 (2002).

Wang, X.

X. Wang and L. V. Wang, "Propagation of polarized light in birefringent turbid media: A Monte Carlo study," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 279-290 (2002).

Woodley, D.

M. Regnier, M. Prunieras, and D. Woodley, "Growth and differentiation of adult human epidermal cells on dermal substrates," Front Matrix Biol. 9, 4-35 (1981).

Woolley, D. E.

D. E. Woolley and C. A. Grafton, "Collagenase immunolocalization studies of cutaneous secondary melanomas," Brit. J. Cancer 42, 260-265 (1980).

Wulf, H. C.

R. Na, I. M. Stender, and H. C. Wulf, "Can autofluorescence demarcate basal cell carcinoma from normal skin? A comparison with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence," Acta Derm.-Venereol. 81, 246-249 (2001).

Zhang, Q.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).

Zonios, G.

N. Kollias, G. Zonios, and G. N. Stamatas, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of skin," Shedding New Light on Disease: Optical Diagnostics for the New Millennium 28, 17-23 (2002).

Acta Derm.-Venereol. (1)

R. Na, I. M. Stender, and H. C. Wulf, "Can autofluorescence demarcate basal cell carcinoma from normal skin? A comparison with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence," Acta Derm.-Venereol. 81, 246-249 (2001).

Adv. Biomed. Clin. Diagn. Syst. (1)

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. E. Julius, S. Overholt, and M. N. Phan, "Laser-induced fluorescence for the detection of esophageal and skin cancer," Adv. Biomed. Clin. Diagn. Syst. 4958, 67-70 (2003).

Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1)

T. J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, R. Petras, M. V. Sivak Jr., and J. R. Kramer Jr, "Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81-87 (1995).

Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1)

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, "Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555-606 (1996).

Brit. J. Cancer (1)

D. E. Woolley and C. A. Grafton, "Collagenase immunolocalization studies of cutaneous secondary melanomas," Brit. J. Cancer 42, 260-265 (1980).

Brit. J. Dermatol. (1)

D. R. Ralston, C. Layton, A. J. Dalley, S. G. Boyce, E. Freedlander, and S. Mac Neil, "The requirement for basement membrane antigens in the production of human epidermal/dermal composites in vitro," Brit. J. Dermatol. 140, 605-615 (1999).

Cancer Res. (1)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).

Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. (1)

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical spectroscopy for detection of neoplasia," Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 651-658 (2002).

Front Matrix Biol. (1)

M. Regnier, M. Prunieras, and D. Woodley, "Growth and differentiation of adult human epidermal cells on dermal substrates," Front Matrix Biol. 9, 4-35 (1981).

Gastroenterology (1)

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