Abstract

This work presents the design of a planoconcave parabolic negative index metamaterial lens operating at millimeter wavelengths fabricated by using stacked subwavelength hole arrays. A staircase approximation to the ideal parabola profile has been done by removing step by step one lattice in each dimension of the transversal section. Theory predicts power concentration at the focal point of the parabola when the refractive index equals -1. Both simulation and measurement results exhibit an excellent agreement and an asymmetrical focus has been observed. The possibility to design similar planoconcave devices in the terahertz and optical wavelengths could be a reality in the near future.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2008 (2)

M. Navarro-Cía, M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and I. Campillo, "Negative Refraction in a Prism Made Of Stacked Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Opt. Express 16, 560-566 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Yannopapas, "Subwavelength imaging of light by arrays of metal-coated semiconductor nanoparticles: a theoretical study," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20, 255201-1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

V. Yannopapas, "Negative refractive index in the near-UV from Au-coated CuCl nanoparticle superlattices," Phys. Stat. Sol.(RRL) 1, 208-210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, M. Navarro-Cía, F. Falcone, I. Campillo, and V. Lomakin, "Extraordinary Transmission and Left-Handed Propagation in miniaturized stacks of doubly periodic subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 15, 1107-1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, D. C. Vier, S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, and D. Schurig, "Microwave focusing and beam collimation using negative index of refraction lenses, " IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 1, 108-115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (5)

N. Engheta and R. W. Ziolkowski, "A Positive Future for Double-Negative Metamaterials," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 1535-1556 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, A. F. Starr, and D. Schurig, "Gradient index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, and D. R. Smith, "Simulation and testing of a graded negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, and S. Sridar, "Focusing by planoconcave lens using negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, K. Li, A. M. Vetter, M. H. Taniliean, and D. C. Vier, "Performance of a negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3232-3234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, I. Campillo, J. S. Dolado, L. Martín-Moreno, J. Bravo-Abad, and F. J. García-Vidal, "Enhanced millimetre wave transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 29, 2500-2502 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The Electrodynamics of Substances with Simultaneously Negative Values of ? and ?," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Beruete, M.

Bravo-Abad, J.

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campillo, I.

Dolado, J. S.

Dolling, G.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

N. Engheta and R. W. Ziolkowski, "A Positive Future for Double-Negative Metamaterials," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 1535-1556 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enoch, S.

Falcone, F.

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gralak, B.

Greegor, R. B.

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, D. C. Vier, S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, and D. Schurig, "Microwave focusing and beam collimation using negative index of refraction lenses, " IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 1, 108-115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, B. E. C. Koltenbah, R. B. Greegor, T. A. Lam, and M. H. Tanielian, "Eikonal equation for a general anisotropic or chiral medium: application to a negative-graded index-of-refraction lens with an anisotropic material," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 439-450 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, and D. R. Smith, "Simulation and testing of a graded negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, K. Li, A. M. Vetter, M. H. Taniliean, and D. C. Vier, "Performance of a negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3232-3234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koltenbah, B. E. C.

Lam, T. A.

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, K. Li, A. M. Vetter, M. H. Taniliean, and D. C. Vier, "Performance of a negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3232-3234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lomakin, V.

Lu, W. T.

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, and S. Sridar, "Focusing by planoconcave lens using negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

Mock, J. J.

D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, A. F. Starr, and D. Schurig, "Gradient index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Navarro-Cía, M.

Nielsen, J. A.

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, D. C. Vier, S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, and D. Schurig, "Microwave focusing and beam collimation using negative index of refraction lenses, " IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 1, 108-115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, and D. R. Smith, "Simulation and testing of a graded negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, K. Li, A. M. Vetter, M. H. Taniliean, and D. C. Vier, "Performance of a negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3232-3234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parazzoli, C. G.

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, D. C. Vier, S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, and D. Schurig, "Microwave focusing and beam collimation using negative index of refraction lenses, " IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 1, 108-115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, B. E. C. Koltenbah, R. B. Greegor, T. A. Lam, and M. H. Tanielian, "Eikonal equation for a general anisotropic or chiral medium: application to a negative-graded index-of-refraction lens with an anisotropic material," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 439-450 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, and D. R. Smith, "Simulation and testing of a graded negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, K. Li, A. M. Vetter, M. H. Taniliean, and D. C. Vier, "Performance of a negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3232-3234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parimi, P. V.

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, and S. Sridar, "Focusing by planoconcave lens using negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, D. C. Vier, S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, and D. Schurig, "Microwave focusing and beam collimation using negative index of refraction lenses, " IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 1, 108-115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, D. C. Vier, S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, and D. Schurig, "Microwave focusing and beam collimation using negative index of refraction lenses, " IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 1, 108-115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, A. F. Starr, and D. Schurig, "Gradient index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nature Photon. 1, 41-48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, D. C. Vier, S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, and D. Schurig, "Microwave focusing and beam collimation using negative index of refraction lenses, " IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 1, 108-115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, A. F. Starr, and D. Schurig, "Gradient index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, and D. R. Smith, "Simulation and testing of a graded negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorolla, M.

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sridar, S.

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, and S. Sridar, "Focusing by planoconcave lens using negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, A. F. Starr, and D. Schurig, "Gradient index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanielian, M. H.

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, D. C. Vier, S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, and D. Schurig, "Microwave focusing and beam collimation using negative index of refraction lenses, " IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 1, 108-115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, B. E. C. Koltenbah, R. B. Greegor, T. A. Lam, and M. H. Tanielian, "Eikonal equation for a general anisotropic or chiral medium: application to a negative-graded index-of-refraction lens with an anisotropic material," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 439-450 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, and D. R. Smith, "Simulation and testing of a graded negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taniliean, M. H.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, K. Li, A. M. Vetter, M. H. Taniliean, and D. C. Vier, "Performance of a negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3232-3234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tayeb, G.

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. A.

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, D. C. Vier, S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, and D. Schurig, "Microwave focusing and beam collimation using negative index of refraction lenses, " IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 1, 108-115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, and D. R. Smith, "Simulation and testing of a graded negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, K. Li, A. M. Vetter, M. H. Taniliean, and D. C. Vier, "Performance of a negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3232-3234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The Electrodynamics of Substances with Simultaneously Negative Values of ? and ?," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vetter, A. M.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, K. Li, A. M. Vetter, M. H. Taniliean, and D. C. Vier, "Performance of a negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3232-3234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, D. C. Vier, S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, and D. Schurig, "Microwave focusing and beam collimation using negative index of refraction lenses, " IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 1, 108-115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, K. Li, A. M. Vetter, M. H. Taniliean, and D. C. Vier, "Performance of a negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3232-3234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vodo, P.

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, and S. Sridar, "Focusing by planoconcave lens using negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yannopapas, V.

V. Yannopapas, "Subwavelength imaging of light by arrays of metal-coated semiconductor nanoparticles: a theoretical study," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20, 255201-1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Yannopapas, "Negative refractive index in the near-UV from Au-coated CuCl nanoparticle superlattices," Phys. Stat. Sol.(RRL) 1, 208-210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziolkowski, R. W.

N. Engheta and R. W. Ziolkowski, "A Positive Future for Double-Negative Metamaterials," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 1535-1556 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, K. Li, A. M. Vetter, M. H. Taniliean, and D. C. Vier, "Performance of a negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3232-3234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, and S. Sridar, "Focusing by planoconcave lens using negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, and D. R. Smith, "Simulation and testing of a graded negative index of refraction lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Engheta and R. W. Ziolkowski, "A Positive Future for Double-Negative Metamaterials," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 1535-1556 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IET Microw. Antennas Propag. (1)

R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, J. A. Nielsen, M. A. Thompson, M. H. Tanielian, D. C. Vier, S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, and D. Schurig, "Microwave focusing and beam collimation using negative index of refraction lenses, " IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 1, 108-115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

V. Yannopapas, "Subwavelength imaging of light by arrays of metal-coated semiconductor nanoparticles: a theoretical study," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20, 255201-1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photon. (1)

V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nature Photon. 1, 41-48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, A. F. Starr, and D. Schurig, "Gradient index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J. B. Pendry, "Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Stat. Sol. (1)

V. Yannopapas, "Negative refractive index in the near-UV from Au-coated CuCl nanoparticle superlattices," Phys. Stat. Sol.(RRL) 1, 208-210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The Electrodynamics of Substances with Simultaneously Negative Values of ? and ?," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Cornbleet, Microwave Optics-The Optics of Microwave Antenna Design (Academic Press, 1976).

A. Papoulis, Systems and Transforms with Applications in Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(top left) Sketch with the step by step stair-case fabrication of the planoconcave lens with parameters, a=2.5 mm, dx =3 mm, dy =5 mm, and dz =1.5 mm, (bottom) a picture of the real prototype and (top right) the corresponding longitudinal dispersion diagram for this structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated power density evolution along (a) x-z and (b) y-z planes when a plane wave is impinging on the planoconcave lens at 53.5 GHz. Note that the power is focused at 50 mm. (c) Staircase approximation of a planoconcave parabolic lens with homogeneous material of refractive index n=-1. (d) Ideal planoconcave parabolic lens.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Sketch of the experimental set-up. Measurements of the planoconcave lens constructed by stacked subwavelength hole arrays along the H-plane (left) and E-plane (right).

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