Abstract

We demonstrate the possibility of mapping the transverse spatial distribution of optical noise at the output of photonic devices. Maps of local low-frequency noise are obtained by using statistics on multiple-sampling data from near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). On selected laser diodes, the signatures of basic types of transverse mode instabilities (relative phase and amplitude of modes) are unambiguously obtained. On more complex systems, the types of mode instability can be identified and their intensity can be monitored. Such noise mapping opens a new path for analyzing noise origins and for optimizing device design.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

F. Dross, F. van Dijk and Ph. Gallion, "Discussion on the improvement of opto-RF link properties by using a bipolar cascade laser source," IET Optoelectronics 1, 9-15 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

K. Haneda, M. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, H. Yokohama, and Y. Ogawa, "Linewidth and relative intensity noise measurements of longitudinal modes in ultrahigh-speed mode-locked laser diodes," Opt.Lett. 30, 1000-1002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Dross, F. Van Dijk, O. Parillaud, B. Vinter, and N. Vodjdani, "Single-transverse-mode InGaAsP/InP edge-emitting bipolar cascade laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1356-1360 (2005);
[CrossRef]

T. Gensty, W. Elsä??er, and C. Mann, "Intensity noise properties of quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 13, 2032-2039 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-6-2032.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

P. Kappe, J. Kaiser, and W. Elssäser, "Spatially correlated light emission from a resonant-cavity light-emitting diode," Opt. Lett. 28, 49-51 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Schmidt, N. Lichtenstein, B. Sverdlov, N. Matuschek, S. Mohrdiek, T. Pliska, J. Mueller, S. Pawlik, S. Arlt, H. U. Pfeiffer, A. Fily, and C. Harder, " Further development of high-power pump laser diodes," Proc. SPIE 5248, 42-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

C. L. Garrido Alzar, S. M. de Paula, M. Martinelli, R. J. Horowicz, A. Z. Khoury, and G. A. Barbosa, "Transverse Fourier analysis of squeezed light in diode lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1189-1195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Wölfl, J. F. Ryan, A. M. Fox, A. D. Ashmore, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, "Intensity noise in quantum-dot laser diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3577-3579 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Ph. Poizat, T. Chang, and Ph. Grangier, "Quantum intensity noise of laser diodes and nonorthogonal spatial eigenmodes," Phys. Rev. A 61, 043807-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

J. Ph. Poizat, T. Chang, O. Ripoll, and Ph. Grangier, "Spatial quantum noise of laser diodes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1757-1761 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, "Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035-1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

I. Joindot, "Measurement of relative intensity noise (RIN) in semiconductor lasers," J. Phys. III France 2, 1591-1603 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Allovon, M.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, "Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035-1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arlt, S.

B. Schmidt, N. Lichtenstein, B. Sverdlov, N. Matuschek, S. Mohrdiek, T. Pliska, J. Mueller, S. Pawlik, S. Arlt, H. U. Pfeiffer, A. Fily, and C. Harder, " Further development of high-power pump laser diodes," Proc. SPIE 5248, 42-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ashmore, A. D.

F. Wölfl, J. F. Ryan, A. M. Fox, A. D. Ashmore, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, "Intensity noise in quantum-dot laser diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3577-3579 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbosa, G. A.

Barthe, F.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, "Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035-1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, "Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035-1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bourzeix, S.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, "Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035-1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bramati, A.

Bruno, A.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, "Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035-1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T.

J. Ph. Poizat, T. Chang, and Ph. Grangier, "Quantum intensity noise of laser diodes and nonorthogonal spatial eigenmodes," Phys. Rev. A 61, 043807-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Ph. Poizat, T. Chang, O. Ripoll, and Ph. Grangier, "Spatial quantum noise of laser diodes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1757-1761 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Paula, S. M.

Dross, F.

F. Dross, F. van Dijk and Ph. Gallion, "Discussion on the improvement of opto-RF link properties by using a bipolar cascade laser source," IET Optoelectronics 1, 9-15 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Dross, F. Van Dijk, O. Parillaud, B. Vinter, and N. Vodjdani, "Single-transverse-mode InGaAsP/InP edge-emitting bipolar cascade laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1356-1360 (2005);
[CrossRef]

Ebeling, K. J.

Elsä??er, W.

Elssäser, W.

Fily, A.

B. Schmidt, N. Lichtenstein, B. Sverdlov, N. Matuschek, S. Mohrdiek, T. Pliska, J. Mueller, S. Pawlik, S. Arlt, H. U. Pfeiffer, A. Fily, and C. Harder, " Further development of high-power pump laser diodes," Proc. SPIE 5248, 42-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fox, A. M.

F. Wölfl, J. F. Ryan, A. M. Fox, A. D. Ashmore, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, "Intensity noise in quantum-dot laser diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3577-3579 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gallion, Ph.

F. Dross, F. van Dijk and Ph. Gallion, "Discussion on the improvement of opto-RF link properties by using a bipolar cascade laser source," IET Optoelectronics 1, 9-15 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyay, S.

Garrido Alzar, C. L.

Gensty, T.

Giacobino, E.

Grangier, Ph.

Gray, G. R.

Haneda, K.

K. Haneda, M. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, H. Yokohama, and Y. Ogawa, "Linewidth and relative intensity noise measurements of longitudinal modes in ultrahigh-speed mode-locked laser diodes," Opt.Lett. 30, 1000-1002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harder, C.

B. Schmidt, N. Lichtenstein, B. Sverdlov, N. Matuschek, S. Mohrdiek, T. Pliska, J. Mueller, S. Pawlik, S. Arlt, H. U. Pfeiffer, A. Fily, and C. Harder, " Further development of high-power pump laser diodes," Proc. SPIE 5248, 42-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hermier, J. P.

Hill, G.

F. Wölfl, J. F. Ryan, A. M. Fox, A. D. Ashmore, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, "Intensity noise in quantum-dot laser diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3577-3579 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hopkinson, M.

F. Wölfl, J. F. Ryan, A. M. Fox, A. D. Ashmore, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, "Intensity noise in quantum-dot laser diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3577-3579 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Horowicz, R. J.

Joindot, I.

I. Joindot, "Measurement of relative intensity noise (RIN) in semiconductor lasers," J. Phys. III France 2, 1591-1603 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, J.

Kappe, P.

Khoury, A. Z.

Lichtenstein, N.

B. Schmidt, N. Lichtenstein, B. Sverdlov, N. Matuschek, S. Mohrdiek, T. Pliska, J. Mueller, S. Pawlik, S. Arlt, H. U. Pfeiffer, A. Fily, and C. Harder, " Further development of high-power pump laser diodes," Proc. SPIE 5248, 42-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Licoppe, C.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, "Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035-1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mann, C.

Martinelli, M.

Matuschek, N.

B. Schmidt, N. Lichtenstein, B. Sverdlov, N. Matuschek, S. Mohrdiek, T. Pliska, J. Mueller, S. Pawlik, S. Arlt, H. U. Pfeiffer, A. Fily, and C. Harder, " Further development of high-power pump laser diodes," Proc. SPIE 5248, 42-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mersali, B.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, "Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035-1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michalzik, R.

Mignard, F.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, "Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035-1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mohrdiek, S.

B. Schmidt, N. Lichtenstein, B. Sverdlov, N. Matuschek, S. Mohrdiek, T. Pliska, J. Mueller, S. Pawlik, S. Arlt, H. U. Pfeiffer, A. Fily, and C. Harder, " Further development of high-power pump laser diodes," Proc. SPIE 5248, 42-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moison, J. M.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, "Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035-1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mowbray, D. J.

F. Wölfl, J. F. Ryan, A. M. Fox, A. D. Ashmore, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, "Intensity noise in quantum-dot laser diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3577-3579 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J.

B. Schmidt, N. Lichtenstein, B. Sverdlov, N. Matuschek, S. Mohrdiek, T. Pliska, J. Mueller, S. Pawlik, S. Arlt, H. U. Pfeiffer, A. Fily, and C. Harder, " Further development of high-power pump laser diodes," Proc. SPIE 5248, 42-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

K. Haneda, M. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, H. Yokohama, and Y. Ogawa, "Linewidth and relative intensity noise measurements of longitudinal modes in ultrahigh-speed mode-locked laser diodes," Opt.Lett. 30, 1000-1002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogawa, Y.

K. Haneda, M. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, H. Yokohama, and Y. Ogawa, "Linewidth and relative intensity noise measurements of longitudinal modes in ultrahigh-speed mode-locked laser diodes," Opt.Lett. 30, 1000-1002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parillaud, O.

F. Dross, F. Van Dijk, O. Parillaud, B. Vinter, and N. Vodjdani, "Single-transverse-mode InGaAsP/InP edge-emitting bipolar cascade laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1356-1360 (2005);
[CrossRef]

Pawlik, S.

B. Schmidt, N. Lichtenstein, B. Sverdlov, N. Matuschek, S. Mohrdiek, T. Pliska, J. Mueller, S. Pawlik, S. Arlt, H. U. Pfeiffer, A. Fily, and C. Harder, " Further development of high-power pump laser diodes," Proc. SPIE 5248, 42-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, H. U.

B. Schmidt, N. Lichtenstein, B. Sverdlov, N. Matuschek, S. Mohrdiek, T. Pliska, J. Mueller, S. Pawlik, S. Arlt, H. U. Pfeiffer, A. Fily, and C. Harder, " Further development of high-power pump laser diodes," Proc. SPIE 5248, 42-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pliska, T.

B. Schmidt, N. Lichtenstein, B. Sverdlov, N. Matuschek, S. Mohrdiek, T. Pliska, J. Mueller, S. Pawlik, S. Arlt, H. U. Pfeiffer, A. Fily, and C. Harder, " Further development of high-power pump laser diodes," Proc. SPIE 5248, 42-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poizat, J. Ph.

J. Ph. Poizat, T. Chang, and Ph. Grangier, "Quantum intensity noise of laser diodes and nonorthogonal spatial eigenmodes," Phys. Rev. A 61, 043807-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Ph. Poizat, T. Chang, O. Ripoll, and Ph. Grangier, "Spatial quantum noise of laser diodes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1757-1761 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poizat, J.Ph.

Ripoll, O.

Ryan, J. F.

F. Wölfl, J. F. Ryan, A. M. Fox, A. D. Ashmore, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, "Intensity noise in quantum-dot laser diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3577-3579 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

B. Schmidt, N. Lichtenstein, B. Sverdlov, N. Matuschek, S. Mohrdiek, T. Pliska, J. Mueller, S. Pawlik, S. Arlt, H. U. Pfeiffer, A. Fily, and C. Harder, " Further development of high-power pump laser diodes," Proc. SPIE 5248, 42-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, P.

Skolnick, M. S.

F. Wölfl, J. F. Ryan, A. M. Fox, A. D. Ashmore, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, "Intensity noise in quantum-dot laser diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3577-3579 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sverdlov, B.

B. Schmidt, N. Lichtenstein, B. Sverdlov, N. Matuschek, S. Mohrdiek, T. Pliska, J. Mueller, S. Pawlik, S. Arlt, H. U. Pfeiffer, A. Fily, and C. Harder, " Further development of high-power pump laser diodes," Proc. SPIE 5248, 42-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tselikov, A. A.

van Dijk, F.

F. Dross, F. van Dijk and Ph. Gallion, "Discussion on the improvement of opto-RF link properties by using a bipolar cascade laser source," IET Optoelectronics 1, 9-15 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Dross, F. Van Dijk, O. Parillaud, B. Vinter, and N. Vodjdani, "Single-transverse-mode InGaAsP/InP edge-emitting bipolar cascade laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1356-1360 (2005);
[CrossRef]

Vinter, B.

F. Dross, F. Van Dijk, O. Parillaud, B. Vinter, and N. Vodjdani, "Single-transverse-mode InGaAsP/InP edge-emitting bipolar cascade laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1356-1360 (2005);
[CrossRef]

Vodjdani, N.

F. Dross, F. Van Dijk, O. Parillaud, B. Vinter, and N. Vodjdani, "Single-transverse-mode InGaAsP/InP edge-emitting bipolar cascade laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1356-1360 (2005);
[CrossRef]

Wilde, J. P.

Wölfl, F.

F. Wölfl, J. F. Ryan, A. M. Fox, A. D. Ashmore, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, "Intensity noise in quantum-dot laser diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3577-3579 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yokohama, H.

K. Haneda, M. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, H. Yokohama, and Y. Ogawa, "Linewidth and relative intensity noise measurements of longitudinal modes in ultrahigh-speed mode-locked laser diodes," Opt.Lett. 30, 1000-1002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, M.

K. Haneda, M. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, H. Yokohama, and Y. Ogawa, "Linewidth and relative intensity noise measurements of longitudinal modes in ultrahigh-speed mode-locked laser diodes," Opt.Lett. 30, 1000-1002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. Wölfl, J. F. Ryan, A. M. Fox, A. D. Ashmore, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, "Intensity noise in quantum-dot laser diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3577-3579 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, "Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035-1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Dross, F. Van Dijk, O. Parillaud, B. Vinter, and N. Vodjdani, "Single-transverse-mode InGaAsP/InP edge-emitting bipolar cascade laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1356-1360 (2005);
[CrossRef]

IET Optoelectronics (1)

F. Dross, F. van Dijk and Ph. Gallion, "Discussion on the improvement of opto-RF link properties by using a bipolar cascade laser source," IET Optoelectronics 1, 9-15 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. III France (1)

I. Joindot, "Measurement of relative intensity noise (RIN) in semiconductor lasers," J. Phys. III France 2, 1591-1603 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt.Lett. (1)

K. Haneda, M. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, H. Yokohama, and Y. Ogawa, "Linewidth and relative intensity noise measurements of longitudinal modes in ultrahigh-speed mode-locked laser diodes," Opt.Lett. 30, 1000-1002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Ph. Poizat, T. Chang, and Ph. Grangier, "Quantum intensity noise of laser diodes and nonorthogonal spatial eigenmodes," Phys. Rev. A 61, 043807-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Schmidt, N. Lichtenstein, B. Sverdlov, N. Matuschek, S. Mohrdiek, T. Pliska, J. Mueller, S. Pawlik, S. Arlt, H. U. Pfeiffer, A. Fily, and C. Harder, " Further development of high-power pump laser diodes," Proc. SPIE 5248, 42-54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

N. G. Van Kampen, Stochastic Processes in Physics and Chemistry (North Holland, Amsterdam 1981).

K. Peterman, Laser diode modulation and noise (Klüwer, Dordrecht 1991).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

11×5.5µm NSOM maps of test laser diodes. Top: laser #1 above threshold, (a) signal, (b) noise. Bottom: laser #2 below threshold, (c) signal, (d) noise. In all cases, the tip vibration is horizontal. Contour lines of the signal map are superimposed on noise maps.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Model noise maps for phase or amplitude instabilities between the generic rectangularsymmetry transverse mode (00) or (01) and its next higher-order model. Lateral waist is here twice the vertical one.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Vertical sections of signal (green dots) and noise (red dots) maps for lasers #1 (bottom) and #2 (top). Red lines indicate the prediction of noise sections for phase (bottom) and amplitude (top) instabilities. Please note that predictions (red lines) appear noisier than experimental data because their calculation involves second derivatives of the signal sections.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Evolution of signal and noise maps (left) and RIN* and global power (right) with injection current in laser #3.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

20×20µm NSOM images of an SMF mode: (left) signal map (center) noise map in vibrating-tip mode with horizontal inline displacement, (right) noise map in static-tip mode.

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