Abstract

Using transmission and reflection measurements under normal incidence in one and three layers of a µm-scale metamaterial consisting of pairs of short-slabs and continuous wires, fabricated by a photolithography procedure, we demonstrate the occurrence of a negative refractive index regime in the far infrared range, ~2.4–3 THz. The negative index behavior in that system at ~2.4–3 THz is further confirmed by associated simulations, which are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 504 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left handed material that obeys Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Aydin, K. Guven, L. Zhang, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Left- and right-handed transmission peaks near the magnetic resonance frequency in composite metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 70, 201101(R) (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Li, S. J. McLean, R. B. Gregor, C. G. Parazzoli, and M. Tanielian, "Free-space focused-beam characterization of left handed materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2535 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic left-handed metamaterial," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. B. Gregor, C. G. Parazzoli, C. K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental determination and numerical simulation of the properties of negative index of refraction materials," Opt. Express 11, 688 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, W. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Bayindir, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Transmission properties of composite meta materials in free space," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 120 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103-1-4 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. F. Gundogdu, M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Simulation and micro-fabrication of optically switchable split ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 106112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far infrared frequency regime," Opt. Lett. 30, 1348 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, E. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling," Opt. Lett. 31, 1259-1261 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, "Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split ring resonator electromagnetic material," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. Gay-Balmaz and O. J. F. Martin, "Electromagnetic resonances in individual and coupled split-ring resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2929 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. V. M. Shalaev, W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, " Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Zhou, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Unifing approach to left-handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620 (2006)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  32. K. Guven, M. D. Caliskan, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental Observation of left-handed transmission in bilayer metamaterial under normal-to-plane propagation," Opt. Express 14, 8685 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. K. Guven, A. O. Cakmak, M. D. Caliskan, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Bilayer metamaterial: Analysis of left-handed transmission and retrieval of effective parameter," J. Opt. A. Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S361-S365 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. R. Smith, S. Shultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of left-handed behavior of composite metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct. 4, 1216 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. F. Gundogdu, M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Simulation and micro-fabrication of optically switchable split ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 106112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, A. O. Cakmak, M. D. Caliskan, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Bilayer metamaterial: Analysis of left-handed transmission and retrieval of effective parameter," J. Opt. A. Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S361-S365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (7)

R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of left-handed behavior of composite metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct. 4, 1216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling," Opt. Lett. 31, 1259-1261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Unifing approach to left-handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, M. D. Caliskan, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental Observation of left-handed transmission in bilayer metamaterial under normal-to-plane propagation," Opt. Express 14, 8685 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, "Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split ring resonator electromagnetic material," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, " Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far infrared frequency regime," Opt. Lett. 30, 1348 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, E. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, L. Zhang, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

K. Li, S. J. McLean, R. B. Gregor, C. G. Parazzoli, and M. Tanielian, "Free-space focused-beam characterization of left handed materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Gregor, C. G. Parazzoli, C. K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental determination and numerical simulation of the properties of negative index of refraction materials," Opt. Express 11, 688 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left handed material that obeys Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

M. Bayindir, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Transmission properties of composite meta materials in free space," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Shultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Gay-Balmaz and O. J. F. Martin, "Electromagnetic resonances in individual and coupled split-ring resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2929 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic left-handed metamaterial," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, W. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 504 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, L. Zhang, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bayindir, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Transmission properties of composite meta materials in free space," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103-1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayindir, M.

M. Bayindir, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Transmission properties of composite meta materials in free space," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brock, J. B.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left handed material that obeys Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulu, I.

M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103-1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burger, S.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, E. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W. S.

Cakmak, A. O.

K. Guven, A. O. Cakmak, M. D. Caliskan, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Bilayer metamaterial: Analysis of left-handed transmission and retrieval of effective parameter," J. Opt. A. Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S361-S365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caliskan, M. D.

K. Guven, A. O. Cakmak, M. D. Caliskan, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Bilayer metamaterial: Analysis of left-handed transmission and retrieval of effective parameter," J. Opt. A. Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S361-S365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, M. D. Caliskan, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental Observation of left-handed transmission in bilayer metamaterial under normal-to-plane propagation," Opt. Express 14, 8685 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casse, B. D. F.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, "Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split ring resonator electromagnetic material," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chettiar, U. K.

Chuang, I. L.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left handed material that obeys Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolling, G.

Drachev, V. P.

Economou, E. N.

J. Zhou, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Unifing approach to left-handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of left-handed behavior of composite metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct. 4, 1216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far infrared frequency regime," Opt. Lett. 30, 1348 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Left- and right-handed transmission peaks near the magnetic resonance frequency in composite metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 70, 201101(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling," Opt. Lett. 31, 1259-1261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, E. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gay-Balmaz, P.

P. Gay-Balmaz and O. J. F. Martin, "Electromagnetic resonances in individual and coupled split-ring resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2929 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gökkavas, M.

T. F. Gundogdu, M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Simulation and micro-fabrication of optically switchable split ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 106112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103-1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Greegor, R. B.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregor, R. B.

Gregor, R. B.

K. Li, S. J. McLean, R. B. Gregor, C. G. Parazzoli, and M. Tanielian, "Free-space focused-beam characterization of left handed materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gundogdu, T. F.

T. F. Gundogdu, M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Simulation and micro-fabrication of optically switchable split ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 106112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, A. O. Cakmak, M. D. Caliskan, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Bilayer metamaterial: Analysis of left-handed transmission and retrieval of effective parameter," J. Opt. A. Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S361-S365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of left-handed behavior of composite metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct. 4, 1216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far infrared frequency regime," Opt. Lett. 30, 1348 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guven, K.

T. F. Gundogdu, M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Simulation and micro-fabrication of optically switchable split ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 106112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, A. O. Cakmak, M. D. Caliskan, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Bilayer metamaterial: Analysis of left-handed transmission and retrieval of effective parameter," J. Opt. A. Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S361-S365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, M. D. Caliskan, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental Observation of left-handed transmission in bilayer metamaterial under normal-to-plane propagation," Opt. Express 14, 8685 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, L. Zhang, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103-1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A.

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, W. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houck, A. A.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left handed material that obeys Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

T. F. Gundogdu, M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Simulation and micro-fabrication of optically switchable split ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 106112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, A. O. Cakmak, M. D. Caliskan, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Bilayer metamaterial: Analysis of left-handed transmission and retrieval of effective parameter," J. Opt. A. Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S361-S365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of left-handed behavior of composite metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct. 4, 1216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far infrared frequency regime," Opt. Lett. 30, 1348 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, L. Zhang, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103-1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Left- and right-handed transmission peaks near the magnetic resonance frequency in composite metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 70, 201101(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Katsarakis, N.

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far infrared frequency regime," Opt. Lett. 30, 1348 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Left- and right-handed transmission peaks near the magnetic resonance frequency in composite metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 70, 201101(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Klein, M. W.

Koltenbah, B. E.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koltenbah, B. E. C.

Konstantinidis, G.

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far infrared frequency regime," Opt. Lett. 30, 1348 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koschny, T.

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, E. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far infrared frequency regime," Opt. Lett. 30, 1348 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Left- and right-handed transmission peaks near the magnetic resonance frequency in composite metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 70, 201101(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, Th.

Kostopoulos, A.

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far infrared frequency regime," Opt. Lett. 30, 1348 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C. K.

Li, K.

K. Li, S. J. McLean, R. B. Gregor, C. G. Parazzoli, and M. Tanielian, "Free-space focused-beam characterization of left handed materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling," Opt. Lett. 31, 1259-1261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, E. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markos, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Shultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Markoš, P.

M. Bayindir, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Transmission properties of composite meta materials in free space," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Gay-Balmaz and O. J. F. Martin, "Electromagnetic resonances in individual and coupled split-ring resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2929 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McLean, S. J.

K. Li, S. J. McLean, R. B. Gregor, C. G. Parazzoli, and M. Tanielian, "Free-space focused-beam characterization of left handed materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moser, H. O.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, "Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split ring resonator electromagnetic material," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic left-handed metamaterial," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

T. F. Gundogdu, M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Simulation and micro-fabrication of optically switchable split ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 106112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, A. O. Cakmak, M. D. Caliskan, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Bilayer metamaterial: Analysis of left-handed transmission and retrieval of effective parameter," J. Opt. A. Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S361-S365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, M. D. Caliskan, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental Observation of left-handed transmission in bilayer metamaterial under normal-to-plane propagation," Opt. Express 14, 8685 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, L. Zhang, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bayindir, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Transmission properties of composite meta materials in free space," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103-1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Left- and right-handed transmission peaks near the magnetic resonance frequency in composite metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 70, 201101(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parazzoli, C. G.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Gregor, C. G. Parazzoli, C. K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental determination and numerical simulation of the properties of negative index of refraction materials," Opt. Express 11, 688 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Parazzoli, C. G.

K. Li, S. J. McLean, R. B. Gregor, C. G. Parazzoli, and M. Tanielian, "Free-space focused-beam characterization of left handed materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Penciu, R. S.

R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of left-handed behavior of composite metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct. 4, 1216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far infrared frequency regime," Opt. Lett. 30, 1348 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103-1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, W. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, D.

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

Saw, B. T.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, "Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split ring resonator electromagnetic material," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, E.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, E. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic left-handed metamaterial," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic left-handed metamaterial," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Shultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Shultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic left-handed metamaterial," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

T. F. Gundogdu, M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Simulation and micro-fabrication of optically switchable split ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 106112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, A. O. Cakmak, M. D. Caliskan, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Bilayer metamaterial: Analysis of left-handed transmission and retrieval of effective parameter," J. Opt. A. Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S361-S365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of left-handed behavior of composite metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct. 4, 1216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Unifing approach to left-handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling," Opt. Lett. 31, 1259-1261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far infrared frequency regime," Opt. Lett. 30, 1348 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, E. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, L. Zhang, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Shultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayindir, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Transmission properties of composite meta materials in free space," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103-1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Left- and right-handed transmission peaks near the magnetic resonance frequency in composite metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 70, 201101(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W.

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, W. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanielian, M.

K. Li, S. J. McLean, R. B. Gregor, C. G. Parazzoli, and M. Tanielian, "Free-space focused-beam characterization of left handed materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Gregor, C. G. Parazzoli, C. K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental determination and numerical simulation of the properties of negative index of refraction materials," Opt. Express 11, 688 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsiapa, I.

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle, G.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 504 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling," Opt. Lett. 31, 1259-1261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, E. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilhelmi, O.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, "Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split ring resonator electromagnetic material," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, W. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H. K.

Zhang, L.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, L. Zhang, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Unifing approach to left-handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, E. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zschiedrich, L.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, E. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

K. Li, S. J. McLean, R. B. Gregor, C. G. Parazzoli, and M. Tanielian, "Free-space focused-beam characterization of left handed materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic left-handed metamaterial," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayindir, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Transmission properties of composite meta materials in free space," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Gay-Balmaz and O. J. F. Martin, "Electromagnetic resonances in individual and coupled split-ring resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2929 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A. Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

K. Guven, A. O. Cakmak, M. D. Caliskan, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Bilayer metamaterial: Analysis of left-handed transmission and retrieval of effective parameter," J. Opt. A. Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S361-S365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Photon. Nanostruct. (2)

T. F. Gundogdu, M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Simulation and micro-fabrication of optically switchable split ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 106112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of left-handed behavior of composite metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct. 4, 1216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

D. R. Smith, S. Shultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, "Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split ring resonator electromagnetic material," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, E. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, W. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left handed material that obeys Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 504 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Gökkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103-1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Left- and right-handed transmission peaks near the magnetic resonance frequency in composite metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 70, 201101(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). A single unit cell of the slab-pair metamaterial under study, (b) k-H cross section of the slab-pair metamaterial, passing through the middle of the u.c. along E direction (metal thickness 0.1 µm, polyimide 0.5 µm, Silicon 0.7 µm). The figure scaling in the two different dimensions is dissimilar. CW denotes the continuous wires.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Measured reflection spectra for our slab-pairs metamaterial, for one u.c, at close to normal incidence (77°) as defined in Fig.1, (b) corresponding measured transmission spectra.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated transmission (dashed line) and reflection (solid line) vs. frequency for one u.c. of our slab-pair metamaterial.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Real (solid line) and imaginary (dashed line) parts of the effective permittivity [panel (a)], permeability [panel (b)] and refractive index [panel (c)] calculated from the transmission and reflection data shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Measured reflection spectra of three u.c. slab-pairs metamaterial at close to normal incidence (77°), (b) measured transmission spectra for three u.c. of the metamaterial.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calculated transmission (dashed line) and reflection (solid line) vs. frequency for the three u.c. slab-pairs metamaterial.

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