Abstract

We report the initial results from a 4X reduction interferometric lithography technique using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from a new undulator on the Aladdin storage ring at the Synchrotron Radiation Center of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. We have extended traditional interferometric lithography by using 2nd diffraction orders instead of 1st orders. This change considerably simplifies mask fabrication by reducing the requirements for mask resolution. Interferometric fringes reduced by 4X (from 70 nm half-period grating to 17.5 nm) have been recorded in a 50 nm thick hydrogen silsesquioxane photoresist using 13.4 nm wavelength EUV radiation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. J. Lin, "Sober view on extreme ultraviolet lithography," J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 5, 033005 (2006), and the references there in.
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. H. Anderson, K. Komatsu, and H. I. Smith, "Achromatic holographic lithography in the deep ultraviolet," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 216 (1988)
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Yen, E. H. Anderson, R. A. Ghanbari, M. L. Schattenburg, and H. I. Smith, "Achromatic holographic configuration for 100-nm-period lithography," Appl. Opt. 31, 4540 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Wei, D. T. Attwood, T. K. Gustafson, and E. H. Anderson, "Patterning a 50-nm Period Grating using Soft Xray Spatial Frequency Multiplication," J. Vac. Sci. Tech.,  12/6, 3648-3652 (1994).
  5. M. L. Schattenburg, C. Chen, P. N. Everett, J. Ferrera, P. Konkola, and H. I. Smith, "Sub-100 nm metrology using interferometrically produced fiducials," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2692-2697 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. H. Solak, D. He, W. Li, S. Singh-Gasson, F. Cerrina, B. H. Sohn, X. M. Yang, and P. Nealey, "Exposure of 38 nm period grating patterns with extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2328 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, J. Wallace, M. Khan, and F. Cerrina, "Extreme Ultraviolet Holographic Lithography: Initial Results," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 023116 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, F. Cerrina, and S. Bollepalli, "Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric and holographic lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2145 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, "Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 67-68, 56 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Eidmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Characterization of pinhole transmission gratings," J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 259-273 (1990)
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. W. Schnopper, L. P. Van Speybroeck, J. P. Delvaille, A. Epstein, E. Kallne, R. Z. Bachrach, J. Dijkstra, and L. Lantward, "Diffraction grating transmission efficiencies for XUV and soft x rays," Appl. Opt. 16, 1088 (1977).
    [PubMed]
  12. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th Edition (Macmillan, New York, 1964), Chap. 8, p. 412.
  13. L. E. Ruggles, M. E. Cuneo, J. L. Porter, D. F. Wenger, and W. W. Simpson, "Measurement of the efficiency of gold transmission gratings in the 100 to 5000 eV photon energy range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1218 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, M. Efremov, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, ???Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography at the University of Wisconsin," Proc. SPIE 6921, 6921R (2008).
  15. J. Wallacea, Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, Q. Leonard, M. Fisher, M. Green, J. Bisognano, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, "A novel EUV exposure station for nanotechnology studies," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582, 254-257, (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Goldstein, Sematech (private communication).

2008 (1)

A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, M. Efremov, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, ???Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography at the University of Wisconsin," Proc. SPIE 6921, 6921R (2008).

2007 (3)

J. Wallacea, Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, Q. Leonard, M. Fisher, M. Green, J. Bisognano, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, "A novel EUV exposure station for nanotechnology studies," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582, 254-257, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, J. Wallace, M. Khan, and F. Cerrina, "Extreme Ultraviolet Holographic Lithography: Initial Results," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 023116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, F. Cerrina, and S. Bollepalli, "Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric and holographic lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. J. Lin, "Sober view on extreme ultraviolet lithography," J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 5, 033005 (2006), and the references there in.
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, "Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 67-68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. E. Ruggles, M. E. Cuneo, J. L. Porter, D. F. Wenger, and W. W. Simpson, "Measurement of the efficiency of gold transmission gratings in the 100 to 5000 eV photon energy range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. L. Schattenburg, C. Chen, P. N. Everett, J. Ferrera, P. Konkola, and H. I. Smith, "Sub-100 nm metrology using interferometrically produced fiducials," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2692-2697 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Solak, D. He, W. Li, S. Singh-Gasson, F. Cerrina, B. H. Sohn, X. M. Yang, and P. Nealey, "Exposure of 38 nm period grating patterns with extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Wei, D. T. Attwood, T. K. Gustafson, and E. H. Anderson, "Patterning a 50-nm Period Grating using Soft Xray Spatial Frequency Multiplication," J. Vac. Sci. Tech.,  12/6, 3648-3652 (1994).

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

K. Eidmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Characterization of pinhole transmission gratings," J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 259-273 (1990)
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

E. H. Anderson, K. Komatsu, and H. I. Smith, "Achromatic holographic lithography in the deep ultraviolet," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 216 (1988)
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

Anderson, E. H.

M. Wei, D. T. Attwood, T. K. Gustafson, and E. H. Anderson, "Patterning a 50-nm Period Grating using Soft Xray Spatial Frequency Multiplication," J. Vac. Sci. Tech.,  12/6, 3648-3652 (1994).

A. Yen, E. H. Anderson, R. A. Ghanbari, M. L. Schattenburg, and H. I. Smith, "Achromatic holographic configuration for 100-nm-period lithography," Appl. Opt. 31, 4540 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Anderson, K. Komatsu, and H. I. Smith, "Achromatic holographic lithography in the deep ultraviolet," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 216 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

M. Wei, D. T. Attwood, T. K. Gustafson, and E. H. Anderson, "Patterning a 50-nm Period Grating using Soft Xray Spatial Frequency Multiplication," J. Vac. Sci. Tech.,  12/6, 3648-3652 (1994).

Bachrach, R. Z.

Bisognano, J.

J. Wallacea, Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, Q. Leonard, M. Fisher, M. Green, J. Bisognano, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, "A novel EUV exposure station for nanotechnology studies," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582, 254-257, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bollepalli, S.

A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, F. Cerrina, and S. Bollepalli, "Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric and holographic lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cerrina, F.

A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, M. Efremov, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, ???Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography at the University of Wisconsin," Proc. SPIE 6921, 6921R (2008).

A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, F. Cerrina, and S. Bollepalli, "Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric and holographic lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, J. Wallace, M. Khan, and F. Cerrina, "Extreme Ultraviolet Holographic Lithography: Initial Results," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 023116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Wallacea, Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, Q. Leonard, M. Fisher, M. Green, J. Bisognano, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, "A novel EUV exposure station for nanotechnology studies," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582, 254-257, (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, "Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 67-68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Solak, D. He, W. Li, S. Singh-Gasson, F. Cerrina, B. H. Sohn, X. M. Yang, and P. Nealey, "Exposure of 38 nm period grating patterns with extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

M. L. Schattenburg, C. Chen, P. N. Everett, J. Ferrera, P. Konkola, and H. I. Smith, "Sub-100 nm metrology using interferometrically produced fiducials," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2692-2697 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.-C.

A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, M. Efremov, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, ???Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography at the University of Wisconsin," Proc. SPIE 6921, 6921R (2008).

J. Wallacea, Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, Q. Leonard, M. Fisher, M. Green, J. Bisognano, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, "A novel EUV exposure station for nanotechnology studies," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582, 254-257, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, J. Wallace, M. Khan, and F. Cerrina, "Extreme Ultraviolet Holographic Lithography: Initial Results," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 023116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, F. Cerrina, and S. Bollepalli, "Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric and holographic lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cuneo, M. E.

L. E. Ruggles, M. E. Cuneo, J. L. Porter, D. F. Wenger, and W. W. Simpson, "Measurement of the efficiency of gold transmission gratings in the 100 to 5000 eV photon energy range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, "Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 67-68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delvaille, J. P.

Dijkstra, J.

Efremov, M.

A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, M. Efremov, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, ???Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography at the University of Wisconsin," Proc. SPIE 6921, 6921R (2008).

Eidmann, K.

K. Eidmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Characterization of pinhole transmission gratings," J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 259-273 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Epstein, A.

Everett, P. N.

M. L. Schattenburg, C. Chen, P. N. Everett, J. Ferrera, P. Konkola, and H. I. Smith, "Sub-100 nm metrology using interferometrically produced fiducials," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2692-2697 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferrera, J.

M. L. Schattenburg, C. Chen, P. N. Everett, J. Ferrera, P. Konkola, and H. I. Smith, "Sub-100 nm metrology using interferometrically produced fiducials," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2692-2697 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, M.

J. Wallacea, Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, Q. Leonard, M. Fisher, M. Green, J. Bisognano, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, "A novel EUV exposure station for nanotechnology studies," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582, 254-257, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghanbari, R. A.

Gobrecht, J.

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, "Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 67-68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Golovkina, V.

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, "Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 67-68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Green, M.

J. Wallacea, Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, Q. Leonard, M. Fisher, M. Green, J. Bisognano, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, "A novel EUV exposure station for nanotechnology studies," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582, 254-257, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, T. K.

M. Wei, D. T. Attwood, T. K. Gustafson, and E. H. Anderson, "Patterning a 50-nm Period Grating using Soft Xray Spatial Frequency Multiplication," J. Vac. Sci. Tech.,  12/6, 3648-3652 (1994).

He, D.

H. H. Solak, D. He, W. Li, S. Singh-Gasson, F. Cerrina, B. H. Sohn, X. M. Yang, and P. Nealey, "Exposure of 38 nm period grating patterns with extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Isoyan, A.

A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, M. Efremov, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, ???Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography at the University of Wisconsin," Proc. SPIE 6921, 6921R (2008).

J. Wallacea, Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, Q. Leonard, M. Fisher, M. Green, J. Bisognano, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, "A novel EUV exposure station for nanotechnology studies," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582, 254-257, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, J. Wallace, M. Khan, and F. Cerrina, "Extreme Ultraviolet Holographic Lithography: Initial Results," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 023116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, F. Cerrina, and S. Bollepalli, "Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric and holographic lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, F.

A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, M. Efremov, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, ???Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography at the University of Wisconsin," Proc. SPIE 6921, 6921R (2008).

A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, F. Cerrina, and S. Bollepalli, "Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric and holographic lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kallne, E.

Khan, M.

Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, J. Wallace, M. Khan, and F. Cerrina, "Extreme Ultraviolet Holographic Lithography: Initial Results," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 023116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. O.

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, "Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 67-68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, K.

E. H. Anderson, K. Komatsu, and H. I. Smith, "Achromatic holographic lithography in the deep ultraviolet," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 216 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Konkola, P.

M. L. Schattenburg, C. Chen, P. N. Everett, J. Ferrera, P. Konkola, and H. I. Smith, "Sub-100 nm metrology using interferometrically produced fiducials," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2692-2697 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuhne, M.

K. Eidmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Characterization of pinhole transmission gratings," J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 259-273 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Lantward, L.

Leonard, Q.

J. Wallacea, Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, Q. Leonard, M. Fisher, M. Green, J. Bisognano, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, "A novel EUV exposure station for nanotechnology studies," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582, 254-257, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

H. H. Solak, D. He, W. Li, S. Singh-Gasson, F. Cerrina, B. H. Sohn, X. M. Yang, and P. Nealey, "Exposure of 38 nm period grating patterns with extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B. J.

B. J. Lin, "Sober view on extreme ultraviolet lithography," J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 5, 033005 (2006), and the references there in.
[CrossRef]

Muller, P.

K. Eidmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Characterization of pinhole transmission gratings," J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 259-273 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Nealey, P.

A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, M. Efremov, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, ???Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography at the University of Wisconsin," Proc. SPIE 6921, 6921R (2008).

J. Wallacea, Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, Q. Leonard, M. Fisher, M. Green, J. Bisognano, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, "A novel EUV exposure station for nanotechnology studies," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582, 254-257, (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Solak, D. He, W. Li, S. Singh-Gasson, F. Cerrina, B. H. Sohn, X. M. Yang, and P. Nealey, "Exposure of 38 nm period grating patterns with extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nealey, P. F.

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, "Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 67-68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Porter, J. L.

L. E. Ruggles, M. E. Cuneo, J. L. Porter, D. F. Wenger, and W. W. Simpson, "Measurement of the efficiency of gold transmission gratings in the 100 to 5000 eV photon energy range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ruggles, L. E.

L. E. Ruggles, M. E. Cuneo, J. L. Porter, D. F. Wenger, and W. W. Simpson, "Measurement of the efficiency of gold transmission gratings in the 100 to 5000 eV photon energy range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schattenburg, M. L.

M. L. Schattenburg, C. Chen, P. N. Everett, J. Ferrera, P. Konkola, and H. I. Smith, "Sub-100 nm metrology using interferometrically produced fiducials," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2692-2697 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Yen, E. H. Anderson, R. A. Ghanbari, M. L. Schattenburg, and H. I. Smith, "Achromatic holographic configuration for 100-nm-period lithography," Appl. Opt. 31, 4540 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnopper, H. W.

Simpson, W. W.

L. E. Ruggles, M. E. Cuneo, J. L. Porter, D. F. Wenger, and W. W. Simpson, "Measurement of the efficiency of gold transmission gratings in the 100 to 5000 eV photon energy range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Singh-Gasson, S.

H. H. Solak, D. He, W. Li, S. Singh-Gasson, F. Cerrina, B. H. Sohn, X. M. Yang, and P. Nealey, "Exposure of 38 nm period grating patterns with extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

M. L. Schattenburg, C. Chen, P. N. Everett, J. Ferrera, P. Konkola, and H. I. Smith, "Sub-100 nm metrology using interferometrically produced fiducials," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2692-2697 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Yen, E. H. Anderson, R. A. Ghanbari, M. L. Schattenburg, and H. I. Smith, "Achromatic holographic configuration for 100-nm-period lithography," Appl. Opt. 31, 4540 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Anderson, K. Komatsu, and H. I. Smith, "Achromatic holographic lithography in the deep ultraviolet," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 216 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Sohn, B. H.

H. H. Solak, D. He, W. Li, S. Singh-Gasson, F. Cerrina, B. H. Sohn, X. M. Yang, and P. Nealey, "Exposure of 38 nm period grating patterns with extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solak, H. H.

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, "Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 67-68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Solak, D. He, W. Li, S. Singh-Gasson, F. Cerrina, B. H. Sohn, X. M. Yang, and P. Nealey, "Exposure of 38 nm period grating patterns with extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsakiris, G. D.

K. Eidmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Characterization of pinhole transmission gratings," J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 259-273 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Van Speybroeck, L. P.

Wallace, J.

A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, M. Efremov, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, ???Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography at the University of Wisconsin," Proc. SPIE 6921, 6921R (2008).

A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, F. Cerrina, and S. Bollepalli, "Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric and holographic lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, J. Wallace, M. Khan, and F. Cerrina, "Extreme Ultraviolet Holographic Lithography: Initial Results," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 023116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wallacea, J.

J. Wallacea, Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, Q. Leonard, M. Fisher, M. Green, J. Bisognano, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, "A novel EUV exposure station for nanotechnology studies," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582, 254-257, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, M.

M. Wei, D. T. Attwood, T. K. Gustafson, and E. H. Anderson, "Patterning a 50-nm Period Grating using Soft Xray Spatial Frequency Multiplication," J. Vac. Sci. Tech.,  12/6, 3648-3652 (1994).

Wenger, D. F.

L. E. Ruggles, M. E. Cuneo, J. L. Porter, D. F. Wenger, and W. W. Simpson, "Measurement of the efficiency of gold transmission gratings in the 100 to 5000 eV photon energy range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. M.

H. H. Solak, D. He, W. Li, S. Singh-Gasson, F. Cerrina, B. H. Sohn, X. M. Yang, and P. Nealey, "Exposure of 38 nm period grating patterns with extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yen, A.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. H. Solak, D. He, W. Li, S. Singh-Gasson, F. Cerrina, B. H. Sohn, X. M. Yang, and P. Nealey, "Exposure of 38 nm period grating patterns with extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, J. Wallace, M. Khan, and F. Cerrina, "Extreme Ultraviolet Holographic Lithography: Initial Results," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 023116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. (1)

B. J. Lin, "Sober view on extreme ultraviolet lithography," J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 5, 033005 (2006), and the references there in.
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Tech. (1)

M. Wei, D. T. Attwood, T. K. Gustafson, and E. H. Anderson, "Patterning a 50-nm Period Grating using Soft Xray Spatial Frequency Multiplication," J. Vac. Sci. Tech.,  12/6, 3648-3652 (1994).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (3)

M. L. Schattenburg, C. Chen, P. N. Everett, J. Ferrera, P. Konkola, and H. I. Smith, "Sub-100 nm metrology using interferometrically produced fiducials," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2692-2697 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Anderson, K. Komatsu, and H. I. Smith, "Achromatic holographic lithography in the deep ultraviolet," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 216 (1988)
[CrossRef]

A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, F. Cerrina, and S. Bollepalli, "Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric and holographic lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Eidmann, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Characterization of pinhole transmission gratings," J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 259-273 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, "Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 67-68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

J. Wallacea, Y.-C. Cheng, A. Isoyan, Q. Leonard, M. Fisher, M. Green, J. Bisognano, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, "A novel EUV exposure station for nanotechnology studies," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582, 254-257, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Isoyan, Y.-C. Cheng, F. Jiang, J. Wallace, M. Efremov, P. Nealey, and F. Cerrina, ???Progress in extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography at the University of Wisconsin," Proc. SPIE 6921, 6921R (2008).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

L. E. Ruggles, M. E. Cuneo, J. L. Porter, D. F. Wenger, and W. W. Simpson, "Measurement of the efficiency of gold transmission gratings in the 100 to 5000 eV photon energy range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th Edition (Macmillan, New York, 1964), Chap. 8, p. 412.

M. Goldstein, Sematech (private communication).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Sample figure EUV-IL detail showing the regions where the beams overlap for the synthesis of 1st and 2nd order. Right, (b) SEM images of the mask grating structure, (c) 1st and (d) 2nd order diffraction exposure interference fringes recorded in PMMA resist. Notice the relative period of the images. The 1st order working distance (WD) is 400 µm and the 2nd order optimal WD is 132 µm. The scale bar indicates 200 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM image of 17.5nm half-period 4X reduced 2nd order EUV-IL interference fringes recorded in a 50 nm thick hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM image of 27.5 nm half-period grating in PMMA resist: (a) “Leakage” caused distortion of the peaks in the interference pattern; notice the alternating narrower and wider lines. (b) Intensity of the SEM scans; (c) Predicted fringe intensity, explaining the corresponding linewidth modulation. The lines have been added to aid the eye.

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