Abstract

We demonstrate a polarization independent negative-index metamaterial (NIM) at microwave frequencies. Transmission measurements and simulations predict a left-handed transmission band with negative permittivity and negative permeability. A negative-index is verified by using the retrieval procedure. Effective parameters of single-layer and two-layer NIMs are shown to be different. Negative phase advance is verified within the negative-index regime by measuring the phase shift between different sized negative-index metamaterials. Backward wave propagation is observed in the numerical simulations at frequencies where the phase advance is negative.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, and K. Guven, "Metamaterials with negative permeability and negative refractive index: experiments and simulations," J. Opt. A: Pure and Appl. Opt. 9, S301-S307 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative index materials: New frontiers in optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nature Photonics 1, 41-48 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase advance in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peak in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Aydin, I. Bulu and E. Ozbay, "Subwavelength resolution with a negative-index metamaterial superlens," Appl. Phys. Lett 90, 254102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Gokkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, R. Penciu, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100 GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 THz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, Hsiao-Kuan Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Zhou, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Unifying approach to left-handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620-3622 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. Guven, M. D. Caliskan, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of left-handed transmission in a bilayer metamaterial under normal-to-plane propagation," Opt. Express 14, 8685 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group advance of light in a metamaterial," Science 12, 892-894 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. D. Lam, J. B. Kim, S. J. Lee, and Y. P. Lee, "Left-handed behavior of combined and fishnet structures," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Size dependence and convergence of the retrieval parameters of metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct: Fundam. Appl. 6, 96-101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Dolling, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, "Realization of a three-functional-layer negative-index photonic metamaterial," Opt. Lett. 32, 551-553 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Materials 7, 31 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B. 65, 195104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Koschny, P. Markoš, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of the inherent periodic structure on the effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of left-handed behavior of composite metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct: Fund. Appl. 4, 12-16 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct: Fundam. Appl. 5, 149-155 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008

V. D. Lam, J. B. Kim, S. J. Lee, and Y. P. Lee, "Left-handed behavior of combined and fishnet structures," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Size dependence and convergence of the retrieval parameters of metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct: Fundam. Appl. 6, 96-101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Materials 7, 31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, "Realization of a three-functional-layer negative-index photonic metamaterial," Opt. Lett. 32, 551-553 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct: Fundam. Appl. 5, 149-155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, and K. Guven, "Metamaterials with negative permeability and negative refractive index: experiments and simulations," J. Opt. A: Pure and Appl. Opt. 9, S301-S307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nature Photonics 1, 41-48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, I. Bulu and E. Ozbay, "Subwavelength resolution with a negative-index metamaterial superlens," Appl. Phys. Lett 90, 254102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Gokkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, R. Penciu, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100 GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative index materials: New frontiers in optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Unifying approach to left-handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620-3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Guven, M. D. Caliskan, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of left-handed transmission in a bilayer metamaterial under normal-to-plane propagation," Opt. Express 14, 8685 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of left-handed behavior of composite metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct: Fund. Appl. 4, 12-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group advance of light in a metamaterial," Science 12, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of the inherent periodic structure on the effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase advance in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, Hsiao-Kuan Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peak in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 THz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B. 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, and K. Guven, "Metamaterials with negative permeability and negative refractive index: experiments and simulations," J. Opt. A: Pure and Appl. Opt. 9, S301-S307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, I. Bulu and E. Ozbay, "Subwavelength resolution with a negative-index metamaterial superlens," Appl. Phys. Lett 90, 254102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Gokkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, R. Penciu, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100 GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase advance in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peak in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulu, I.

K. Aydin, I. Bulu and E. Ozbay, "Subwavelength resolution with a negative-index metamaterial superlens," Appl. Phys. Lett 90, 254102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Gokkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, R. Penciu, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100 GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

Caliskan, M. D.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Dolling, G.

Economou, E. N.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct: Fundam. Appl. 5, 149-155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of left-handed behavior of composite metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct: Fund. Appl. 4, 12-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Unifying approach to left-handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620-3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative index materials: New frontiers in optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of the inherent periodic structure on the effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group advance of light in a metamaterial," Science 12, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 THz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Materials 7, 31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Materials 7, 31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gokkavas, M.

M. Gokkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, R. Penciu, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100 GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gundogdu, T. F.

R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of left-handed behavior of composite metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct: Fund. Appl. 4, 12-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Materials 7, 31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guven, K.

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, and K. Guven, "Metamaterials with negative permeability and negative refractive index: experiments and simulations," J. Opt. A: Pure and Appl. Opt. 9, S301-S307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Gokkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, R. Penciu, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100 GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, M. D. Caliskan, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of left-handed transmission in a bilayer metamaterial under normal-to-plane propagation," Opt. Express 14, 8685 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase advance in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peak in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao-Kuan Yuan, U. K.

Kafesaki, M.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Size dependence and convergence of the retrieval parameters of metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct: Fundam. Appl. 6, 96-101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct: Fundam. Appl. 5, 149-155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of left-handed behavior of composite metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct: Fund. Appl. 4, 12-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative index materials: New frontiers in optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Gokkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, R. Penciu, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100 GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peak in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Materials 7, 31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Katsarakis, N.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct: Fundam. Appl. 5, 149-155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. B.

V. D. Lam, J. B. Kim, S. J. Lee, and Y. P. Lee, "Left-handed behavior of combined and fishnet structures," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Size dependence and convergence of the retrieval parameters of metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct: Fundam. Appl. 6, 96-101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Unifying approach to left-handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620-3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of the inherent periodic structure on the effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 THz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, V. D.

V. D. Lam, J. B. Kim, S. J. Lee, and Y. P. Lee, "Left-handed behavior of combined and fishnet structures," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

V. D. Lam, J. B. Kim, S. J. Lee, and Y. P. Lee, "Left-handed behavior of combined and fishnet structures," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. P.

V. D. Lam, J. B. Kim, S. J. Lee, and Y. P. Lee, "Left-handed behavior of combined and fishnet structures," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Materials 7, 31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markos, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B. 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Markoš, P.

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of the inherent periodic structure on the effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, and K. Guven, "Metamaterials with negative permeability and negative refractive index: experiments and simulations," J. Opt. A: Pure and Appl. Opt. 9, S301-S307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, I. Bulu and E. Ozbay, "Subwavelength resolution with a negative-index metamaterial superlens," Appl. Phys. Lett 90, 254102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Gokkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, R. Penciu, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100 GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, M. D. Caliskan, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of left-handed transmission in a bilayer metamaterial under normal-to-plane propagation," Opt. Express 14, 8685 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase advance in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peak in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacheco, J.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penciu, R.

M. Gokkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, R. Penciu, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100 GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Penciu, R. S.

R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of left-handed behavior of composite metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct: Fund. Appl. 4, 12-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B. 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Materials 7, 31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Smith, D. R.

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of the inherent periodic structure on the effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B. 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Size dependence and convergence of the retrieval parameters of metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct: Fundam. Appl. 6, 96-101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct: Fundam. Appl. 5, 149-155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group advance of light in a metamaterial," Science 12, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of left-handed behavior of composite metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct: Fund. Appl. 4, 12-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative index materials: New frontiers in optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Gokkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, R. Penciu, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100 GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Unifying approach to left-handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620-3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase advance in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of the inherent periodic structure on the effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peak in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 THz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B. 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsiapa, I.

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct: Fundam. Appl. 5, 149-155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle, G.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of the inherent periodic structure on the effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, B.-I.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peak in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Size dependence and convergence of the retrieval parameters of metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct: Fundam. Appl. 6, 96-101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Unifying approach to left-handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620-3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 THz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

Adv. Mater.

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative index materials: New frontiers in optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett

K. Aydin, I. Bulu and E. Ozbay, "Subwavelength resolution with a negative-index metamaterial superlens," Appl. Phys. Lett 90, 254102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase advance in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

V. D. Lam, J. B. Kim, S. J. Lee, and Y. P. Lee, "Left-handed behavior of combined and fishnet structures," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure and Appl. Opt.

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, and K. Guven, "Metamaterials with negative permeability and negative refractive index: experiments and simulations," J. Opt. A: Pure and Appl. Opt. 9, S301-S307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature Materials

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Materials 7, 31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics

V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nature Photonics 1, 41-48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photon. Nanostruct: Fund. Appl.

R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of left-handed behavior of composite metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct: Fund. Appl. 4, 12-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Nanostruct: Fundam. Appl.

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct: Fundam. Appl. 5, 149-155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Size dependence and convergence of the retrieval parameters of metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct: Fundam. Appl. 6, 96-101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of the inherent periodic structure on the effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Gokkavas, K. Guven, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, R. Penciu, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of a left-handed metamaterial operating at 100 GHz," Phys. Rev. B 73, 193103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B. 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group advance of light in a metamaterial," Science 12, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
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S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 THz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: GIF (1417 KB)     
» Media 2: GIF (1219 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic drawings of (a) a fishnet unit cell, and (b) a multi-layer fishnet metamaterial structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured (blue line) and simulated (red line) transmission spectra of a single layer fishnet metamaterial. The photograph of the real structure is shown in the inset.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured (blue line) and simulated (red line) transmission spectra of (a) two-layer and (b) five-layer fishnet metamaterial.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Retrieved effective parameters of a (left) single-layer and a (right) two-layer fishnet metamaterials. The real (blue line) and imaginary (red dashed line) parts of effective permittivity (top), permeability (middle), and refractive index (bottom) are shown.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Real part of retrieved refractive index and (b) figure of merit for a single-layer (blue line) and two-layer metamaterial (red line).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmitted phase of metamaterial structure for two (blue line), three (red line), four (green line), and five (purple line) NIM layers between (a) 14.2 and 14.8 GHz (left-handed transmission regime) and (b) 18.9 and 19.4 GHz (right-handed transmission regime).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Schematic drawing of a simulated NIM structure with an alternative unit cell. The structure had three unit cells along x and five unit cells along z axis. (b) Simulated E-field profile at 14.42 GHz where the wave propagates along the -z direction inside the fishnet structure (see video 1) (c) Simulated E-field profile at 17.00 GHz where the wave propagates along the +z direction inside the fishnet structure (see video 2). [Media 1][Media 2]

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