Abstract

We present the study of optical limiting in iron oxide nanoparticles of diameters 31, 44, and 61 nm dispersed in toluene under exposure to nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm. In the low fluence region smaller size nanoparticles show better optical limiting compared to larger size nanoparticles while in the high fluence region all the three samples show same limiting performance. Experimental results were compared with the well reported limiter fullerene C60 dissolved in toluene. Iron oxide nanoparticles show better optical limiting compared to C60 in the intermediate fluence region and comparable performance in the high fluence region. The pico-second Z-scan studies indicate that the contribution of electronic nonlinear refractive index and the two-photon absorption to the optical limiting is negligible. Our observations further indicate that the dominant mechanism for the optical limiting in iron oxide nanoparticles is nonlinear scattering.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2007 (4)

R. B. Martin, M. J. Meziani, P. Pathak, J. E. Riggs, D. E. Cook, S. Perera and Y. P. Sun, "Optical limiting of silver-containing nanoparticles," Opt. Mater. 29, 788-793 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, Q. Chang, H. Ye, W. Jiao, Y. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Song and D. Zhu, "Size effect of optical limiting in gold nanoparticles," Chem. Phys. 336, 99-102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. King, S. Chaure, J. Doyle, A. Coli, A. C. Ferrari, and W. J. Blau, "Scattering induced optical limiting in Si/SiO2 nanostructure dispersions," Opt. Commun. 276, 305-309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alverez, E. Bjorkman, C. Lopes, A. Eriksson, S. Svensson, and M. Muhammed, "Synthesis and nonlinear light scattering of microemulsions and nanoparticle suspensions," J. Nano. Res. 9, 647-652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Wang, and W. Sun, "Optical limiting of gold nanoparticle aggregates induced by electrolytes," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 20901-20905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. K. Gupta and M. Gupta, "Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications," Biomaterials 26, 3995-4021(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

W. Jia, E. P. Douglas, F. Guo and W. Suna, "Optical limiting of semiconductor nanoparticles for nanosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6326-63268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma and W. Ji, "Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1455-1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Ong, S. S. Lee, L. H. Van, M. H. Hong, T. H. Chong, "Optical limiting properties of silver nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation," Proc. SPIE 5662, 67-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

K. P. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori1, V. Ramakrishnan, M. Umadevi, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, "Nonlinear optical absorption in silver nanosol," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 1242-1245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. O???Flaherty, R. Murphy, S. V. Hold, M. Cadek, J. N. Coleman and W. J. Blau, "Material investigation and optical limiting properties of carbon nanotube and nanoparticle dispersions," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 958-964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, "Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles," J. Mag. Mag. Mater. 258-259, 354-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Hradila, T. Grygara, J. Hradilová, and P. Bezdicka, "Clay and iron oxide pigments in the history of painting," Appl. Clay Sci. 22, 223-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, G. Yang, Z. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, and G. Yang, "Nonlinear optical properties of Fe/BaTiO3 composite thin films prepared by two-target pulsed-laser deposition,"J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1342-1345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Tiwari, M. P. Joshi, S. Nath, and S. C. Mehendale, "Salt-induced aggregation and enhanced optical limiting in carbon-black suspensions," J. Non. Opt. Phys. Mat. 12, 335-339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

G. S. Maciel, N. Rakov, and CidB. de Araújo, "Enhanced optical limiting performance of a nonlinear absorber in a solution containing scattering nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 27, 740-742 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Z. Jina, L. Huangb, S. H. Goh, G. Xua, and W. Jib "Size-dependent optical limiting behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 352, 328-333 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Qu, Y. Song, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, S. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Li, D. Zhu, "A theoretical and experimental study on optical limiting in platinum nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 203, 283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, A. P. Alivisatos, "Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells," Science 29, 2425 - 2427 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J. T. Lue, "A review of characterization and physical property studies of metallic nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1599-1612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Guo, Q. Huang, X. Li, S. Yang, "Iron nanoparticles: Synthesis and applications in surface enhanced Raman scattering and electrocatalysis," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 3, 1661-1665 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Curtis and C. Wilkinson, "Nantotechniques and approaches in biotechnology," Trends Biotech. 19, 97-101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

B. Yu, C. Zhu, F. Gan, "Large nonlinear optical properties of Fe2O3 nanoparticles," Physica E 8, 360-364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. François, M. Mostafavi, J. Belloni, J. F. Delouis, J. Delaire, and P. Feneyron, "Optical limitation induced by gold clusters. Size Effect," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6133-6137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj and C. N. R. Rao, "Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions," Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510-514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, "Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2548-2551 (1999)
[CrossRef]

M. C. Roco, "Nanoparticles and nanotechnology research," J. Nanoparticle Res. 1, 1-6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins and R. Guduru, "Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 77-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Babes, B. Denizot1, G. Tanguy, J. L. Jeune, and P. Jallet, "Synthesis of iron oxide noparticles used as MRI contrast agents: A parametric study," J. Colloidal Interface Sci. 212, 474-482 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

W. X. Zhang, C. B. Wang and H. L. Lien, "Treatment of chlorinated organic contaminants with nanoscale bimetallic particles," Catalyst. Today 40, 387-395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. Yu, C. Zhu, F. Gan, X. Wu, G. Zhang, G. Tang, and W. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mat. 8, 249-254 (1997)
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshi, and S. C. Mehendale, "On the contribution of nonlinear scattering to optical limiting in C60 solution," Appl. Phys. A 63, 223-226 (1996)

S. Couris, E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, and S. Leach, "Sub-picosecond studies of the third-order optical nonlinearities of C60 toluene solutions," J. Phys. B 29, 5033-5041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, and K. C. Rustagi, "Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1763-1765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, "A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials," Prog. Quantum. Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Alivisatos, A. P.

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, A. P. Alivisatos, "Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells," Science 29, 2425 - 2427 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alverez, A. S.

A. S. Alverez, E. Bjorkman, C. Lopes, A. Eriksson, S. Svensson, and M. Muhammed, "Synthesis and nonlinear light scattering of microemulsions and nanoparticle suspensions," J. Nano. Res. 9, 647-652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Babes, L.

L. Babes, B. Denizot1, G. Tanguy, J. L. Jeune, and P. Jallet, "Synthesis of iron oxide noparticles used as MRI contrast agents: A parametric study," J. Colloidal Interface Sci. 212, 474-482 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, R.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj and C. N. R. Rao, "Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions," Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510-514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Belloni, J.

L. François, M. Mostafavi, J. Belloni, J. F. Delouis, J. Delaire, and P. Feneyron, "Optical limitation induced by gold clusters. Size Effect," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6133-6137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bezdicka, P.

D. Hradila, T. Grygara, J. Hradilová, and P. Bezdicka, "Clay and iron oxide pigments in the history of painting," Appl. Clay Sci. 22, 223-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkman, E.

A. S. Alverez, E. Bjorkman, C. Lopes, A. Eriksson, S. Svensson, and M. Muhammed, "Synthesis and nonlinear light scattering of microemulsions and nanoparticle suspensions," J. Nano. Res. 9, 647-652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W. J.

S. M. King, S. Chaure, J. Doyle, A. Coli, A. C. Ferrari, and W. J. Blau, "Scattering induced optical limiting in Si/SiO2 nanostructure dispersions," Opt. Commun. 276, 305-309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. O???Flaherty, R. Murphy, S. V. Hold, M. Cadek, J. N. Coleman and W. J. Blau, "Material investigation and optical limiting properties of carbon nanotube and nanoparticle dispersions," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 958-964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, "A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials," Prog. Quantum. Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cadek, M.

S. M. O???Flaherty, R. Murphy, S. V. Hold, M. Cadek, J. N. Coleman and W. J. Blau, "Material investigation and optical limiting properties of carbon nanotube and nanoparticle dispersions," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 958-964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Q.

Y. Gao, Q. Chang, H. Ye, W. Jiao, Y. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Song and D. Zhu, "Size effect of optical limiting in gold nanoparticles," Chem. Phys. 336, 99-102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chaure, S.

S. M. King, S. Chaure, J. Doyle, A. Coli, A. C. Ferrari, and W. J. Blau, "Scattering induced optical limiting in Si/SiO2 nanostructure dispersions," Opt. Commun. 276, 305-309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. X.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma and W. Ji, "Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1455-1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, "Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2548-2551 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

B. Yu, C. Zhu, F. Gan, X. Wu, G. Zhang, G. Tang, and W. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mat. 8, 249-254 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Chong, T. C.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma and W. Ji, "Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1455-1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chong, T. H.

T. S. Ong, S. S. Lee, L. H. Van, M. H. Hong, T. H. Chong, "Optical limiting properties of silver nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation," Proc. SPIE 5662, 67-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cid, N.

Coleman, J. N.

S. M. O???Flaherty, R. Murphy, S. V. Hold, M. Cadek, J. N. Coleman and W. J. Blau, "Material investigation and optical limiting properties of carbon nanotube and nanoparticle dispersions," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 958-964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coli, A.

S. M. King, S. Chaure, J. Doyle, A. Coli, A. C. Ferrari, and W. J. Blau, "Scattering induced optical limiting in Si/SiO2 nanostructure dispersions," Opt. Commun. 276, 305-309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cook, D. E.

R. B. Martin, M. J. Meziani, P. Pathak, J. E. Riggs, D. E. Cook, S. Perera and Y. P. Sun, "Optical limiting of silver-containing nanoparticles," Opt. Mater. 29, 788-793 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Couris, S.

S. Couris, E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, and S. Leach, "Sub-picosecond studies of the third-order optical nonlinearities of C60 toluene solutions," J. Phys. B 29, 5033-5041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, A.

A. Curtis and C. Wilkinson, "Nantotechniques and approaches in biotechnology," Trends Biotech. 19, 97-101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Delaire, J.

L. François, M. Mostafavi, J. Belloni, J. F. Delouis, J. Delaire, and P. Feneyron, "Optical limitation induced by gold clusters. Size Effect," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6133-6137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Delouis, J. F.

L. François, M. Mostafavi, J. Belloni, J. F. Delouis, J. Delaire, and P. Feneyron, "Optical limitation induced by gold clusters. Size Effect," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6133-6137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Denizot, B.

L. Babes, B. Denizot1, G. Tanguy, J. L. Jeune, and P. Jallet, "Synthesis of iron oxide noparticles used as MRI contrast agents: A parametric study," J. Colloidal Interface Sci. 212, 474-482 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Dittmer, J. J.

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, A. P. Alivisatos, "Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells," Science 29, 2425 - 2427 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dong, F.

S. Couris, E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, and S. Leach, "Sub-picosecond studies of the third-order optical nonlinearities of C60 toluene solutions," J. Phys. B 29, 5033-5041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Douglas, E. P.

W. Jia, E. P. Douglas, F. Guo and W. Suna, "Optical limiting of semiconductor nanoparticles for nanosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6326-63268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, J.

S. M. King, S. Chaure, J. Doyle, A. Coli, A. C. Ferrari, and W. J. Blau, "Scattering induced optical limiting in Si/SiO2 nanostructure dispersions," Opt. Commun. 276, 305-309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Elim, H. I.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma and W. Ji, "Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1455-1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, A.

A. S. Alverez, E. Bjorkman, C. Lopes, A. Eriksson, S. Svensson, and M. Muhammed, "Synthesis and nonlinear light scattering of microemulsions and nanoparticle suspensions," J. Nano. Res. 9, 647-652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feneyron, P.

L. François, M. Mostafavi, J. Belloni, J. F. Delouis, J. Delaire, and P. Feneyron, "Optical limitation induced by gold clusters. Size Effect," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6133-6137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

S. M. King, S. Chaure, J. Doyle, A. Coli, A. C. Ferrari, and W. J. Blau, "Scattering induced optical limiting in Si/SiO2 nanostructure dispersions," Opt. Commun. 276, 305-309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

François, L.

L. François, M. Mostafavi, J. Belloni, J. F. Delouis, J. Delaire, and P. Feneyron, "Optical limitation induced by gold clusters. Size Effect," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6133-6137 (2000).
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Gan, F.

B. Yu, C. Zhu, F. Gan, "Large nonlinear optical properties of Fe2O3 nanoparticles," Physica E 8, 360-364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Yu, C. Zhu, F. Gan, X. Wu, G. Zhang, G. Tang, and W. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mat. 8, 249-254 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, Q. Chang, H. Ye, W. Jiao, Y. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Song and D. Zhu, "Size effect of optical limiting in gold nanoparticles," Chem. Phys. 336, 99-102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Qu, Y. Song, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, S. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Li, D. Zhu, "A theoretical and experimental study on optical limiting in platinum nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 203, 283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gendlerb, T. S.

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, "Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles," J. Mag. Mag. Mater. 258-259, 354-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goh, S. H.

Z. Jina, L. Huangb, S. H. Goh, G. Xua, and W. Jib "Size-dependent optical limiting behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 352, 328-333 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Govindaraj, A.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj and C. N. R. Rao, "Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions," Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510-514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grygara, T.

D. Hradila, T. Grygara, J. Hradilová, and P. Bezdicka, "Clay and iron oxide pigments in the history of painting," Appl. Clay Sci. 22, 223-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guduru, R.

Y. P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins and R. Guduru, "Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 77-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guo, F.

W. Jia, E. P. Douglas, F. Guo and W. Suna, "Optical limiting of semiconductor nanoparticles for nanosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6326-63268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

L. Guo, Q. Huang, X. Li, S. Yang, "Iron nanoparticles: Synthesis and applications in surface enhanced Raman scattering and electrocatalysis," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 3, 1661-1665 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, A. K.

A. K. Gupta and M. Gupta, "Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications," Biomaterials 26, 3995-4021(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, M.

A. K. Gupta and M. Gupta, "Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications," Biomaterials 26, 3995-4021(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hold, S. V.

S. M. O???Flaherty, R. Murphy, S. V. Hold, M. Cadek, J. N. Coleman and W. J. Blau, "Material investigation and optical limiting properties of carbon nanotube and nanoparticle dispersions," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 958-964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M. H.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma and W. Ji, "Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1455-1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Ong, S. S. Lee, L. H. Van, M. H. Hong, T. H. Chong, "Optical limiting properties of silver nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation," Proc. SPIE 5662, 67-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hradila, D.

D. Hradila, T. Grygara, J. Hradilová, and P. Bezdicka, "Clay and iron oxide pigments in the history of painting," Appl. Clay Sci. 22, 223-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hradilová, J.

D. Hradila, T. Grygara, J. Hradilová, and P. Bezdicka, "Clay and iron oxide pigments in the history of painting," Appl. Clay Sci. 22, 223-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Q.

L. Guo, Q. Huang, X. Li, S. Yang, "Iron nanoparticles: Synthesis and applications in surface enhanced Raman scattering and electrocatalysis," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 3, 1661-1665 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huangb, L.

Z. Jina, L. Huangb, S. H. Goh, G. Xua, and W. Jib "Size-dependent optical limiting behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 352, 328-333 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huynh, W. U.

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, A. P. Alivisatos, "Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells," Science 29, 2425 - 2427 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma and W. Ji, "Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1455-1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, "Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2548-2551 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Jia, W.

W. Jia, E. P. Douglas, F. Guo and W. Suna, "Optical limiting of semiconductor nanoparticles for nanosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6326-63268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, W.

Y. Gao, Q. Chang, H. Ye, W. Jiao, Y. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Song and D. Zhu, "Size effect of optical limiting in gold nanoparticles," Chem. Phys. 336, 99-102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jib, W.

Z. Jina, L. Huangb, S. H. Goh, G. Xua, and W. Jib "Size-dependent optical limiting behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 352, 328-333 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jina, Z.

Z. Jina, L. Huangb, S. H. Goh, G. Xua, and W. Jib "Size-dependent optical limiting behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 352, 328-333 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, M. P.

S. K. Tiwari, M. P. Joshi, S. Nath, and S. C. Mehendale, "Salt-induced aggregation and enhanced optical limiting in carbon-black suspensions," J. Non. Opt. Phys. Mat. 12, 335-339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshi, and S. C. Mehendale, "On the contribution of nonlinear scattering to optical limiting in C60 solution," Appl. Phys. A 63, 223-226 (1996)

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, and K. C. Rustagi, "Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1763-1765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

King, S. M.

S. M. King, S. Chaure, J. Doyle, A. Coli, A. C. Ferrari, and W. J. Blau, "Scattering induced optical limiting in Si/SiO2 nanostructure dispersions," Opt. Commun. 276, 305-309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kiselevaa, T. Y.

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, "Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles," J. Mag. Mag. Mater. 258-259, 354-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koudoumas, E.

S. Couris, E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, and S. Leach, "Sub-picosecond studies of the third-order optical nonlinearities of C60 toluene solutions," J. Phys. B 29, 5033-5041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lanchinskayaa, V. Y.

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, "Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles," J. Mag. Mag. Mater. 258-259, 354-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leach, S.

S. Couris, E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, and S. Leach, "Sub-picosecond studies of the third-order optical nonlinearities of C60 toluene solutions," J. Phys. B 29, 5033-5041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

T. S. Ong, S. S. Lee, L. H. Van, M. H. Hong, T. H. Chong, "Optical limiting properties of silver nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation," Proc. SPIE 5662, 67-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

L. Guo, Q. Huang, X. Li, S. Yang, "Iron nanoparticles: Synthesis and applications in surface enhanced Raman scattering and electrocatalysis," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 3, 1661-1665 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Gao, Q. Chang, H. Ye, W. Jiao, Y. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Song and D. Zhu, "Size effect of optical limiting in gold nanoparticles," Chem. Phys. 336, 99-102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Qu, Y. Song, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, S. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Li, D. Zhu, "A theoretical and experimental study on optical limiting in platinum nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 203, 283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lien, H. L.

W. X. Zhang, C. B. Wang and H. L. Lien, "Treatment of chlorinated organic contaminants with nanoscale bimetallic particles," Catalyst. Today 40, 387-395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, "Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2548-2551 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

S. Qu, Y. Song, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, S. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Li, D. Zhu, "A theoretical and experimental study on optical limiting in platinum nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 203, 283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

S. Qu, Y. Song, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, S. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Li, D. Zhu, "A theoretical and experimental study on optical limiting in platinum nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 203, 283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lopes, C.

A. S. Alverez, E. Bjorkman, C. Lopes, A. Eriksson, S. Svensson, and M. Muhammed, "Synthesis and nonlinear light scattering of microemulsions and nanoparticle suspensions," J. Nano. Res. 9, 647-652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

Lue, J. T.

J. T. Lue, "A review of characterization and physical property studies of metallic nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1599-1612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ma, G. H.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma and W. Ji, "Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1455-1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maciel, G. S.

Mansour, K.

Martin, R. B.

R. B. Martin, M. J. Meziani, P. Pathak, J. E. Riggs, D. E. Cook, S. Perera and Y. P. Sun, "Optical limiting of silver-containing nanoparticles," Opt. Mater. 29, 788-793 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mehendale, S. C.

S. K. Tiwari, M. P. Joshi, S. Nath, and S. C. Mehendale, "Salt-induced aggregation and enhanced optical limiting in carbon-black suspensions," J. Non. Opt. Phys. Mat. 12, 335-339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj and C. N. R. Rao, "Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions," Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510-514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshi, and S. C. Mehendale, "On the contribution of nonlinear scattering to optical limiting in C60 solution," Appl. Phys. A 63, 223-226 (1996)

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, and K. C. Rustagi, "Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1763-1765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meziani, M. J.

R. B. Martin, M. J. Meziani, P. Pathak, J. E. Riggs, D. E. Cook, S. Perera and Y. P. Sun, "Optical limiting of silver-containing nanoparticles," Opt. Mater. 29, 788-793 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, S. R.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj and C. N. R. Rao, "Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions," Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510-514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshi, and S. C. Mehendale, "On the contribution of nonlinear scattering to optical limiting in C60 solution," Appl. Phys. A 63, 223-226 (1996)

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, and K. C. Rustagi, "Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1763-1765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moskvinaa, M. A.

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, "Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles," J. Mag. Mag. Mater. 258-259, 354-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mostafavi, M.

L. François, M. Mostafavi, J. Belloni, J. F. Delouis, J. Delaire, and P. Feneyron, "Optical limitation induced by gold clusters. Size Effect," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6133-6137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Muhammed, M.

A. S. Alverez, E. Bjorkman, C. Lopes, A. Eriksson, S. Svensson, and M. Muhammed, "Synthesis and nonlinear light scattering of microemulsions and nanoparticle suspensions," J. Nano. Res. 9, 647-652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, R.

S. M. O???Flaherty, R. Murphy, S. V. Hold, M. Cadek, J. N. Coleman and W. J. Blau, "Material investigation and optical limiting properties of carbon nanotube and nanoparticle dispersions," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 958-964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nashold, K. M.

Nath, S.

S. K. Tiwari, M. P. Joshi, S. Nath, and S. C. Mehendale, "Salt-induced aggregation and enhanced optical limiting in carbon-black suspensions," J. Non. Opt. Phys. Mat. 12, 335-339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Novakova, A. A.

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, "Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles," J. Mag. Mag. Mater. 258-259, 354-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O???Flaherty, S. M.

S. M. O???Flaherty, R. Murphy, S. V. Hold, M. Cadek, J. N. Coleman and W. J. Blau, "Material investigation and optical limiting properties of carbon nanotube and nanoparticle dispersions," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 958-964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ong, T. S.

T. S. Ong, S. S. Lee, L. H. Van, M. H. Hong, T. H. Chong, "Optical limiting properties of silver nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation," Proc. SPIE 5662, 67-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pathak, P.

R. B. Martin, M. J. Meziani, P. Pathak, J. E. Riggs, D. E. Cook, S. Perera and Y. P. Sun, "Optical limiting of silver-containing nanoparticles," Opt. Mater. 29, 788-793 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perera, S.

R. B. Martin, M. J. Meziani, P. Pathak, J. E. Riggs, D. E. Cook, S. Perera and Y. P. Sun, "Optical limiting of silver-containing nanoparticles," Opt. Mater. 29, 788-793 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qu, S.

S. Qu, Y. Song, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, S. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Li, D. Zhu, "A theoretical and experimental study on optical limiting in platinum nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 203, 283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rakov, N.

Rao, C. N. R.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj and C. N. R. Rao, "Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions," Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510-514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rawat, H. S.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj and C. N. R. Rao, "Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions," Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510-514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshi, and S. C. Mehendale, "On the contribution of nonlinear scattering to optical limiting in C60 solution," Appl. Phys. A 63, 223-226 (1996)

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, and K. C. Rustagi, "Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1763-1765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Riggs, J. E.

R. B. Martin, M. J. Meziani, P. Pathak, J. E. Riggs, D. E. Cook, S. Perera and Y. P. Sun, "Optical limiting of silver-containing nanoparticles," Opt. Mater. 29, 788-793 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins and R. Guduru, "Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 77-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roco, M. C.

M. C. Roco, "Nanoparticles and nanotechnology research," J. Nanoparticle Res. 1, 1-6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, H. W.

Y. P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins and R. Guduru, "Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 77-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rustagi, K. C.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj and C. N. R. Rao, "Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions," Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510-514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, and K. C. Rustagi, "Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1763-1765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

Song, Y.

Y. Gao, Q. Chang, H. Ye, W. Jiao, Y. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Song and D. Zhu, "Size effect of optical limiting in gold nanoparticles," Chem. Phys. 336, 99-102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Qu, Y. Song, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, S. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Li, D. Zhu, "A theoretical and experimental study on optical limiting in platinum nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 203, 283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sood, A. K.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj and C. N. R. Rao, "Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions," Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510-514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

G. Wang, and W. Sun, "Optical limiting of gold nanoparticle aggregates induced by electrolytes," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 20901-20905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, "Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2548-2551 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. P.

R. B. Martin, M. J. Meziani, P. Pathak, J. E. Riggs, D. E. Cook, S. Perera and Y. P. Sun, "Optical limiting of silver-containing nanoparticles," Opt. Mater. 29, 788-793 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins and R. Guduru, "Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 77-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suna, W.

W. Jia, E. P. Douglas, F. Guo and W. Suna, "Optical limiting of semiconductor nanoparticles for nanosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6326-63268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Svensson, S.

A. S. Alverez, E. Bjorkman, C. Lopes, A. Eriksson, S. Svensson, and M. Muhammed, "Synthesis and nonlinear light scattering of microemulsions and nanoparticle suspensions," J. Nano. Res. 9, 647-652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tan, K. L.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, "Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2548-2551 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Tang, G.

B. Yu, C. Zhu, F. Gan, X. Wu, G. Zhang, G. Tang, and W. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mat. 8, 249-254 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Tiwari, S. K.

S. K. Tiwari, M. P. Joshi, S. Nath, and S. C. Mehendale, "Salt-induced aggregation and enhanced optical limiting in carbon-black suspensions," J. Non. Opt. Phys. Mat. 12, 335-339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, "A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials," Prog. Quantum. Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Unnikrishnan, K. P.

K. P. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori1, V. Ramakrishnan, M. Umadevi, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, "Nonlinear optical absorption in silver nanosol," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 1242-1245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van, L. H.

T. S. Ong, S. S. Lee, L. H. Van, M. H. Hong, T. H. Chong, "Optical limiting properties of silver nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation," Proc. SPIE 5662, 67-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

VanStryland, E. W.

Volkova, A. V.

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, "Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles," J. Mag. Mag. Mater. 258-259, 354-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walter, D. P.

Wang, C. B.

W. X. Zhang, C. B. Wang and H. L. Lien, "Treatment of chlorinated organic contaminants with nanoscale bimetallic particles," Catalyst. Today 40, 387-395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, and W. Sun, "Optical limiting of gold nanoparticle aggregates induced by electrolytes," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 20901-20905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

Wang, Y.

Y. Gao, Q. Chang, H. Ye, W. Jiao, Y. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Song and D. Zhu, "Size effect of optical limiting in gold nanoparticles," Chem. Phys. 336, 99-102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Qu, Y. Song, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, S. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Li, D. Zhu, "A theoretical and experimental study on optical limiting in platinum nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 203, 283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, C.

A. Curtis and C. Wilkinson, "Nantotechniques and approaches in biotechnology," Trends Biotech. 19, 97-101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, "Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2548-2551 (1999)
[CrossRef]

B. Yu, C. Zhu, F. Gan, X. Wu, G. Zhang, G. Tang, and W. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mat. 8, 249-254 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Xua, G.

Z. Jina, L. Huangb, S. H. Goh, G. Xua, and W. Jib "Size-dependent optical limiting behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 352, 328-333 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

Yang, S.

L. Guo, Q. Huang, X. Li, S. Yang, "Iron nanoparticles: Synthesis and applications in surface enhanced Raman scattering and electrocatalysis," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 3, 1661-1665 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ye, H.

Y. Gao, Q. Chang, H. Ye, W. Jiao, Y. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Song and D. Zhu, "Size effect of optical limiting in gold nanoparticles," Chem. Phys. 336, 99-102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B.

B. Yu, C. Zhu, F. Gan, "Large nonlinear optical properties of Fe2O3 nanoparticles," Physica E 8, 360-364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Yu, C. Zhu, F. Gan, X. Wu, G. Zhang, G. Tang, and W. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mat. 8, 249-254 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Zezin, S. B.

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, "Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles," J. Mag. Mag. Mater. 258-259, 354-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

B. Yu, C. Zhu, F. Gan, X. Wu, G. Zhang, G. Tang, and W. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mat. 8, 249-254 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. X.

W. X. Zhang, C. B. Wang and H. L. Lien, "Treatment of chlorinated organic contaminants with nanoscale bimetallic particles," Catalyst. Today 40, 387-395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

S. Qu, Y. Song, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, S. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Li, D. Zhu, "A theoretical and experimental study on optical limiting in platinum nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 203, 283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, C.

B. Yu, C. Zhu, F. Gan, "Large nonlinear optical properties of Fe2O3 nanoparticles," Physica E 8, 360-364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Yu, C. Zhu, F. Gan, X. Wu, G. Zhang, G. Tang, and W. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mat. 8, 249-254 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D.

Y. Gao, Q. Chang, H. Ye, W. Jiao, Y. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Song and D. Zhu, "Size effect of optical limiting in gold nanoparticles," Chem. Phys. 336, 99-102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Qu, Y. Song, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, S. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Li, D. Zhu, "A theoretical and experimental study on optical limiting in platinum nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 203, 283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Clay Sci. (1)

D. Hradila, T. Grygara, J. Hradilová, and P. Bezdicka, "Clay and iron oxide pigments in the history of painting," Appl. Clay Sci. 22, 223-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshi, and S. C. Mehendale, "On the contribution of nonlinear scattering to optical limiting in C60 solution," Appl. Phys. A 63, 223-226 (1996)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. Jia, E. P. Douglas, F. Guo and W. Suna, "Optical limiting of semiconductor nanoparticles for nanosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6326-63268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, and K. C. Rustagi, "Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1763-1765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Biomaterials (1)

A. K. Gupta and M. Gupta, "Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications," Biomaterials 26, 3995-4021(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catalyst. Today (1)

W. X. Zhang, C. B. Wang and H. L. Lien, "Treatment of chlorinated organic contaminants with nanoscale bimetallic particles," Catalyst. Today 40, 387-395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

Y. Gao, Q. Chang, H. Ye, W. Jiao, Y. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Song and D. Zhu, "Size effect of optical limiting in gold nanoparticles," Chem. Phys. 336, 99-102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj and C. N. R. Rao, "Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions," Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510-514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jina, L. Huangb, S. H. Goh, G. Xua, and W. Jib "Size-dependent optical limiting behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 352, 328-333 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma and W. Ji, "Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1455-1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloidal Interface Sci. (1)

L. Babes, B. Denizot1, G. Tanguy, J. L. Jeune, and P. Jallet, "Synthesis of iron oxide noparticles used as MRI contrast agents: A parametric study," J. Colloidal Interface Sci. 212, 474-482 (1999)
[CrossRef]

J. Mag. Mag. Mater. (1)

A. A. Novakova, V. Y. Lanchinskayaa, A. V. Volkova, T. S. Gendlerb, T. Y. Kiselevaa, M. A. Moskvinaa, and S. B. Zezin, "Magnetic properties of polymer nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles," J. Mag. Mag. Mater. 258-259, 354-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Nano. Res. (1)

A. S. Alverez, E. Bjorkman, C. Lopes, A. Eriksson, S. Svensson, and M. Muhammed, "Synthesis and nonlinear light scattering of microemulsions and nanoparticle suspensions," J. Nano. Res. 9, 647-652 (2007).
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J. Nanoparticle Res. (1)

M. C. Roco, "Nanoparticles and nanotechnology research," J. Nanoparticle Res. 1, 1-6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Non. Opt. Phys. Mat. (1)

S. K. Tiwari, M. P. Joshi, S. Nath, and S. C. Mehendale, "Salt-induced aggregation and enhanced optical limiting in carbon-black suspensions," J. Non. Opt. Phys. Mat. 12, 335-339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. B (1)

S. Couris, E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, and S. Leach, "Sub-picosecond studies of the third-order optical nonlinearities of C60 toluene solutions," J. Phys. B 29, 5033-5041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (4)

L. François, M. Mostafavi, J. Belloni, J. F. Delouis, J. Delaire, and P. Feneyron, "Optical limitation induced by gold clusters. Size Effect," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6133-6137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, and W. Sun, "Optical limiting of gold nanoparticle aggregates induced by electrolytes," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 20901-20905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. O???Flaherty, R. Murphy, S. V. Hold, M. Cadek, J. N. Coleman and W. J. Blau, "Material investigation and optical limiting properties of carbon nanotube and nanoparticle dispersions," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 958-964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins and R. Guduru, "Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 77-82 (1999).
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J. T. Lue, "A review of characterization and physical property studies of metallic nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1599-1612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

K. P. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori1, V. Ramakrishnan, M. Umadevi, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, "Nonlinear optical absorption in silver nanosol," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 1242-1245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

S. M. King, S. Chaure, J. Doyle, A. Coli, A. C. Ferrari, and W. J. Blau, "Scattering induced optical limiting in Si/SiO2 nanostructure dispersions," Opt. Commun. 276, 305-309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Qu, Y. Song, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, S. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Li, D. Zhu, "A theoretical and experimental study on optical limiting in platinum nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 203, 283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mat. (1)

B. Yu, C. Zhu, F. Gan, X. Wu, G. Zhang, G. Tang, and W. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mat. 8, 249-254 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

R. B. Martin, M. J. Meziani, P. Pathak, J. E. Riggs, D. E. Cook, S. Perera and Y. P. Sun, "Optical limiting of silver-containing nanoparticles," Opt. Mater. 29, 788-793 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Guo, Q. Huang, X. Li, S. Yang, "Iron nanoparticles: Synthesis and applications in surface enhanced Raman scattering and electrocatalysis," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 3, 1661-1665 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, "Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2548-2551 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Physica E (1)

B. Yu, C. Zhu, F. Gan, "Large nonlinear optical properties of Fe2O3 nanoparticles," Physica E 8, 360-364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. S. Ong, S. S. Lee, L. H. Van, M. H. Hong, T. H. Chong, "Optical limiting properties of silver nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation," Proc. SPIE 5662, 67-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum. Electron. (1)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, "A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials," Prog. Quantum. Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, A. P. Alivisatos, "Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells," Science 29, 2425 - 2427 (2002).
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Trends Biotech. (1)

A. Curtis and C. Wilkinson, "Nantotechniques and approaches in biotechnology," Trends Biotech. 19, 97-101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. M. Bhalerao, A. K. Sinha, and A. K. Srivastava, " Synthesis of monodispersed ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles using ferrocene as a novel precursor," International conference on Nanoscience and Technology, 27-29 Feb. 2008, India.

J. W. Perry, Nonlinear optics of organic molecules and polymers (CRC Press NewYork, 1997), Chap. 13

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM Image and (b) Absorption spectra of 31 nm size iron oxide nano-particles (solid line), toluene (dotted line) and fullerene C60 (dashed line).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Variation in transmission of laser beam at 532 nm with variation in input fluence in geometry (i) for iron oxide nanoparticles of 31 nm (circles), 44 nm (stars) and 61 nm (triangles) and for C60 (Squares).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Variation in transmission of laser beam at 532 nm with variation in input fluence in geometry (ii) for iron oxide nanoparticles of 31 nm (circles), 44 nm (stars) and 61 nm (triangles) and for C60 (Squares).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Variation of normalized scattered signal in the backward direction with variation in input fluence for iron oxide nanoparticles of 44 nm (squares), C60 (triangles) and pure toluene (circles). The crosses represent the scattering from iron oxide nanoparticles when each laser pulse is exposed to fresh position in the sample.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Polar plot of scattering signal (arbitrary units) as a function of angular position of the detecting photo diode for iron oxide nanoparticles (squares), C60(plus sign) and toluene (triangles) (b) magnified view of part of the plot.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Time profiles of input (dashed line) and output (solid line) pulses in (a) iron oxide nanoparticle sample and (b) C60.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Open (squares) and Closed (circles) aperture Z-scan profiles for iron oxide nanoparticle solution in toluene with nanosecond laser pulses.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Closed aperture Z-scan for (a) iron oxide nanoparticle solution in toluene and (b) for pure toluene with picosecond pulses. Squares are the experimental data points and solid lines are theoretically fitted curves.

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