Abstract

Artificial BaTiO3 - SrTiO3 superlattices with stacking periodicity varying between 27 and 1670 Å in separate films were grown on MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Both the static and active optical properties were found to be sensitive on the stacking periodicity. Birefringence decreased with increasing individual layer thickness due to relaxation of the interface originated stress. The electro-optic response also showed a layer thickness dependence, reaching a maximum at an individual layer thickness of 13 unit cells.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  32. T. Harigai, D. Tanaka, H. Kakemoto, S. Wada, and T. Tsurumi, "Dielectric properties of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices measured with interdigital electrodes and electromagnetic field analysis," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7923-7925 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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  35. A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]

2007

S. Lisenkov and L. Bellaiche, "Phase diagrams of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices from first principles," Phys. Rev. B 76, 020102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Kim, T.-U. Kim, W. -J. Lee, J. H. Moon, B.-T. Lee, H. S. Kim, and J. H. Kim, "Effects of periodicity and oxygen partial pressure on the crystallinity and dielectric property of artificial SrTiO3/BaTiO3 superlattices integrated on Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition method," Thin Solid Films 515, 6438-6441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Sarkar, and S. B. Krupanidhi, "Ferroelectric interaction and polarization studies in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattice," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. A. Bellotti, W. Chang, S. B. Qadri, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, "Directionally dependent ferroelectric phase transition order of anisotropic epitaxial BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 012902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hiltunen, D. Seneviratne, R. Sun, M. Stolfi, H. L. Tuller, J. Lappalainen, and V. Lantto, "BaTiO3 - SrTiO3 multilayer thin film electro-optic waveguide modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 242904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhong, S. P. Alpay, and J. V. Mantese, "High dielectric tunability in ferroelectric-paraelectric bilayers and multilayer superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 132904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Z. Yuan, Y. Lin, J. Weaver, X. Chen, C. L. Chen, G. Subramanyam, J. C. Jiang, and E. I. Meletis, "Large dielectric tunability and microwave properties of Mn-doped (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 152901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Johnston, X. Huang, J. B. Neaton, and K. Rabe, "First-principles study of symmetry lowering and polarization in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices with in-plane expansion," Phys. Rev. B 71, 100103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Kim, J. Kim, U. V. Waghmare, D. Jung, and J. Lee, "Structural transition and dielectric response of an epitaxially strained BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattice: A first-principles study," Phys. Rev. B 72, 214121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Meng, Z. Z. Wang, and C. Chen, "Mechanism of the electro-optic effect in BaTiO3," Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 357-360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, A. L. Meier, D. J. Towner, and B. W. Wessels, "BaTiO3 thin-film waveguide modulator with a low voltage-length product at near-infrared wavelengths of 0.98 and 1.55µm," Opt. Lett. 30, 254-256 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, and B. W. Wessels, "Low-Loss Electrooptic BaTiO3 Thin Film Waveguide Modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1837-1839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu and R. J. Knize, "Enhanced dielectric and electro-optic effects in relaxor oxide heterostructured superlattices," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 2432-2436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. L. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen D. G. Schlom, and C. B. Eom, "Enhancement of Ferroelectricity in Strained BaTiO3 Thin Films," Science 306, 1005-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. Q. Jiang, J. F. Scott, H. Lu, and Z. Chen, "Phase transition and polarizations in epitaxial BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices studied by second-harmonic generation," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1180-1185 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Harigai, D. Tanaka, H. Kakemoto, S. Wada, and T. Tsurumi, "Dielectric properties of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices measured with interdigital electrodes and electromagnetic field analysis," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7923-7925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. S. Kim, J. Lee, L. Kim, and D. Jung, "Large nonlinear dielectric properties of artificial BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3581- 3583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Gevorgian, P. K. Petrov, Z. Ivanov, and E. Wikborg, "Tailoring the temperature coefficient of capacitance in ferroelectric varactors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1861-1863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Schlom, J. H. Haeni, J. Lettieri, C. D. Theis, W. Tian, J. C. Jiang, and X. Q. Pan, "Oxide nano-engineering using MBE," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 87, 282-291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Zhao, Z.-H. Chen, F. Chen, W.-S. Shi,H.-B. Lu, and G.-Z. Yang, "Enhancement of second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices," Phys. Rev. B 60, 1697-1700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, Q. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial Waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Pertsev, A. G. Zembilgotov, and A. K. Tagantsev, "Effect of Mechanical Boundary Conditions on Phase Diagrams of Epitaxial Ferroelectric Thin Films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1988-1991 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Buchal, L. Beckers, A. Eckau, J. Schubert, and W. Zander, "Epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 56, 234-238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

V. Srikant, E. J. Tarsa, D. R. Clarke, and J. S. Speck, "Crystallographic orientation of epitaxial BaTiO3 films: The role of thermal-expansion mismatch the substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 1517-1522 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

H. Tabata, H. Tanaka, and T. Kawai, "Formation of artificial BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices using pulsed laser deposition and their dielectric properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1970-1972 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. Adachi and K. Wasa, "Sputtering Preparation of Ferroelectric PLZT Thin Films and Their Optical Applications," IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 38, 645-655 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, H.

H. Adachi and K. Wasa, "Sputtering Preparation of Ferroelectric PLZT Thin Films and Their Optical Applications," IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 38, 645-655 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Alpay, S. P.

S. Zhong, S. P. Alpay, and J. V. Mantese, "High dielectric tunability in ferroelectric-paraelectric bilayers and multilayer superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 132904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, L.

Ch. Buchal, L. Beckers, A. Eckau, J. Schubert, and W. Zander, "Epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 56, 234-238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, Q. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial Waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bellaiche, L.

S. Lisenkov and L. Bellaiche, "Phase diagrams of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices from first principles," Phys. Rev. B 76, 020102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bellotti, J. A.

J. A. Bellotti, W. Chang, S. B. Qadri, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, "Directionally dependent ferroelectric phase transition order of anisotropic epitaxial BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 012902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biegalski, M.

K. J. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. L. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen D. G. Schlom, and C. B. Eom, "Enhancement of Ferroelectricity in Strained BaTiO3 Thin Films," Science 306, 1005-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruchhausen, A.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchal, Ch.

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Buchal, L. Beckers, A. Eckau, J. Schubert, and W. Zander, "Epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 56, 234-238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, Q. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial Waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cantarero, A.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

J. A. Bellotti, W. Chang, S. B. Qadri, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, "Directionally dependent ferroelectric phase transition order of anisotropic epitaxial BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 012902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

X. Y. Meng, Z. Z. Wang, and C. Chen, "Mechanism of the electro-optic effect in BaTiO3," Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 357-360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. L.

Z. Yuan, Y. Lin, J. Weaver, X. Chen, C. L. Chen, G. Subramanyam, J. C. Jiang, and E. I. Meletis, "Large dielectric tunability and microwave properties of Mn-doped (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 152901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

T. Zhao, Z.-H. Chen, F. Chen, W.-S. Shi,H.-B. Lu, and G.-Z. Yang, "Enhancement of second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices," Phys. Rev. B 60, 1697-1700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. Q.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Z. Yuan, Y. Lin, J. Weaver, X. Chen, C. L. Chen, G. Subramanyam, J. C. Jiang, and E. I. Meletis, "Large dielectric tunability and microwave properties of Mn-doped (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 152901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. B.

K. J. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. L. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen D. G. Schlom, and C. B. Eom, "Enhancement of Ferroelectricity in Strained BaTiO3 Thin Films," Science 306, 1005-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

A. Q. Jiang, J. F. Scott, H. Lu, and Z. Chen, "Phase transition and polarizations in epitaxial BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices studied by second-harmonic generation," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1180-1185 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.-H.

T. Zhao, Z.-H. Chen, F. Chen, W.-S. Shi,H.-B. Lu, and G.-Z. Yang, "Enhancement of second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices," Phys. Rev. B 60, 1697-1700 (1999).
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D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. L. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen D. G. Schlom, and C. B. Eom, "Enhancement of Ferroelectricity in Strained BaTiO3 Thin Films," Science 306, 1005-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choudhury, S.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarke, D. R.

V. Srikant, E. J. Tarsa, D. R. Clarke, and J. S. Speck, "Crystallographic orientation of epitaxial BaTiO3 films: The role of thermal-expansion mismatch the substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 1517-1522 (1995).
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Craigo, B.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckau, A.

Ch. Buchal, L. Beckers, A. Eckau, J. Schubert, and W. Zander, "Epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 56, 234-238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, Q. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial Waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eom, C. B.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fainstein, A.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gevorgian, S.

S. Gevorgian, P. K. Petrov, Z. Ivanov, and E. Wikborg, "Tailoring the temperature coefficient of capacitance in ferroelectric varactors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1861-1863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gopalan, V.

K. J. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. L. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen D. G. Schlom, and C. B. Eom, "Enhancement of Ferroelectricity in Strained BaTiO3 Thin Films," Science 306, 1005-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haeni, J. H.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Schlom, J. H. Haeni, J. Lettieri, C. D. Theis, W. Tian, J. C. Jiang, and X. Q. Pan, "Oxide nano-engineering using MBE," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 87, 282-291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harigai, T.

T. Harigai, D. Tanaka, H. Kakemoto, S. Wada, and T. Tsurumi, "Dielectric properties of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices measured with interdigital electrodes and electromagnetic field analysis," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7923-7925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hawley, M. E.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiltunen, J.

J. Hiltunen, D. Seneviratne, R. Sun, M. Stolfi, H. L. Tuller, J. Lappalainen, and V. Lantto, "BaTiO3 - SrTiO3 multilayer thin film electro-optic waveguide modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 242904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hiltunen, D. Seneviratne, R. Sun, M. Stolfi, H. L. Tuller, J. Lappalainen, and V. Lantto, "Optical properties of BaTiO3 thin films: Influence of oxygen pressure utilized during pulsed laser deposition," J. Electrocer. (published online, DOI 10.1007/s10832-008-9463-9).

Huang, X.

K. Johnston, X. Huang, J. B. Neaton, and K. Rabe, "First-principles study of symmetry lowering and polarization in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices with in-plane expansion," Phys. Rev. B 71, 100103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Irvin, P.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, Z.

S. Gevorgian, P. K. Petrov, Z. Ivanov, and E. Wikborg, "Tailoring the temperature coefficient of capacitance in ferroelectric varactors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1861-1863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Q. X.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, A. Q.

A. Q. Jiang, J. F. Scott, H. Lu, and Z. Chen, "Phase transition and polarizations in epitaxial BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices studied by second-harmonic generation," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1180-1185 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J. C.

Z. Yuan, Y. Lin, J. Weaver, X. Chen, C. L. Chen, G. Subramanyam, J. C. Jiang, and E. I. Meletis, "Large dielectric tunability and microwave properties of Mn-doped (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 152901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Schlom, J. H. Haeni, J. Lettieri, C. D. Theis, W. Tian, J. C. Jiang, and X. Q. Pan, "Oxide nano-engineering using MBE," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 87, 282-291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, K.

K. Johnston, X. Huang, J. B. Neaton, and K. Rabe, "First-principles study of symmetry lowering and polarization in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices with in-plane expansion," Phys. Rev. B 71, 100103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jung, D.

L. Kim, J. Kim, U. V. Waghmare, D. Jung, and J. Lee, "Structural transition and dielectric response of an epitaxially strained BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattice: A first-principles study," Phys. Rev. B 72, 214121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. S. Kim, J. Lee, L. Kim, and D. Jung, "Large nonlinear dielectric properties of artificial BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3581- 3583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kakemoto, H.

T. Harigai, D. Tanaka, H. Kakemoto, S. Wada, and T. Tsurumi, "Dielectric properties of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices measured with interdigital electrodes and electromagnetic field analysis," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7923-7925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Katiyar, R. S.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawai, T.

H. Tabata, H. Tanaka, and T. Kawai, "Formation of artificial BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices using pulsed laser deposition and their dielectric properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1970-1972 (1994).
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Kim, B. R.

B. R. Kim, T.-U. Kim, W. -J. Lee, J. H. Moon, B.-T. Lee, H. S. Kim, and J. H. Kim, "Effects of periodicity and oxygen partial pressure on the crystallinity and dielectric property of artificial SrTiO3/BaTiO3 superlattices integrated on Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition method," Thin Solid Films 515, 6438-6441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. M

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. S.

B. R. Kim, T.-U. Kim, W. -J. Lee, J. H. Moon, B.-T. Lee, H. S. Kim, and J. H. Kim, "Effects of periodicity and oxygen partial pressure on the crystallinity and dielectric property of artificial SrTiO3/BaTiO3 superlattices integrated on Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition method," Thin Solid Films 515, 6438-6441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

L. Kim, J. Kim, U. V. Waghmare, D. Jung, and J. Lee, "Structural transition and dielectric response of an epitaxially strained BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattice: A first-principles study," Phys. Rev. B 72, 214121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. S. Kim, J. Lee, L. Kim, and D. Jung, "Large nonlinear dielectric properties of artificial BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3581- 3583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

B. R. Kim, T.-U. Kim, W. -J. Lee, J. H. Moon, B.-T. Lee, H. S. Kim, and J. H. Kim, "Effects of periodicity and oxygen partial pressure on the crystallinity and dielectric property of artificial SrTiO3/BaTiO3 superlattices integrated on Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition method," Thin Solid Films 515, 6438-6441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, L.

L. Kim, J. Kim, U. V. Waghmare, D. Jung, and J. Lee, "Structural transition and dielectric response of an epitaxially strained BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattice: A first-principles study," Phys. Rev. B 72, 214121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. S. Kim, J. Lee, L. Kim, and D. Jung, "Large nonlinear dielectric properties of artificial BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3581- 3583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.-U.

B. R. Kim, T.-U. Kim, W. -J. Lee, J. H. Moon, B.-T. Lee, H. S. Kim, and J. H. Kim, "Effects of periodicity and oxygen partial pressure on the crystallinity and dielectric property of artificial SrTiO3/BaTiO3 superlattices integrated on Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition method," Thin Solid Films 515, 6438-6441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

J. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. S. Kim, J. Lee, L. Kim, and D. Jung, "Large nonlinear dielectric properties of artificial BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3581- 3583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

J. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. S. Kim, J. Lee, L. Kim, and D. Jung, "Large nonlinear dielectric properties of artificial BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3581- 3583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kirchoefer, S. W.

J. A. Bellotti, W. Chang, S. B. Qadri, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, "Directionally dependent ferroelectric phase transition order of anisotropic epitaxial BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 012902 (2006).
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J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knize, R. J.

Y. Lu and R. J. Knize, "Enhanced dielectric and electro-optic effects in relaxor oxide heterostructured superlattices," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 2432-2436 (2004).
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Krupanidhi, S. B.

A. Sarkar, and S. B. Krupanidhi, "Ferroelectric interaction and polarization studies in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattice," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lantto, V.

J. Hiltunen, D. Seneviratne, R. Sun, M. Stolfi, H. L. Tuller, J. Lappalainen, and V. Lantto, "BaTiO3 - SrTiO3 multilayer thin film electro-optic waveguide modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 242904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hiltunen, D. Seneviratne, R. Sun, M. Stolfi, H. L. Tuller, J. Lappalainen, and V. Lantto, "Optical properties of BaTiO3 thin films: Influence of oxygen pressure utilized during pulsed laser deposition," J. Electrocer. (published online, DOI 10.1007/s10832-008-9463-9).

Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lappalainen, J.

J. Hiltunen, D. Seneviratne, R. Sun, M. Stolfi, H. L. Tuller, J. Lappalainen, and V. Lantto, "BaTiO3 - SrTiO3 multilayer thin film electro-optic waveguide modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 242904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hiltunen, D. Seneviratne, R. Sun, M. Stolfi, H. L. Tuller, J. Lappalainen, and V. Lantto, "Optical properties of BaTiO3 thin films: Influence of oxygen pressure utilized during pulsed laser deposition," J. Electrocer. (published online, DOI 10.1007/s10832-008-9463-9).

Lee, B.-T.

B. R. Kim, T.-U. Kim, W. -J. Lee, J. H. Moon, B.-T. Lee, H. S. Kim, and J. H. Kim, "Effects of periodicity and oxygen partial pressure on the crystallinity and dielectric property of artificial SrTiO3/BaTiO3 superlattices integrated on Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition method," Thin Solid Films 515, 6438-6441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

L. Kim, J. Kim, U. V. Waghmare, D. Jung, and J. Lee, "Structural transition and dielectric response of an epitaxially strained BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattice: A first-principles study," Phys. Rev. B 72, 214121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. S. Kim, J. Lee, L. Kim, and D. Jung, "Large nonlinear dielectric properties of artificial BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3581- 3583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. -J.

B. R. Kim, T.-U. Kim, W. -J. Lee, J. H. Moon, B.-T. Lee, H. S. Kim, and J. H. Kim, "Effects of periodicity and oxygen partial pressure on the crystallinity and dielectric property of artificial SrTiO3/BaTiO3 superlattices integrated on Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition method," Thin Solid Films 515, 6438-6441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leinenbach, P.

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, Q. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial Waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lettieri, J.

D. G. Schlom, J. H. Haeni, J. Lettieri, C. D. Theis, W. Tian, J. C. Jiang, and X. Q. Pan, "Oxide nano-engineering using MBE," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 87, 282-291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Levy, J.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. L.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. L. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen D. G. Schlom, and C. B. Eom, "Enhancement of Ferroelectricity in Strained BaTiO3 Thin Films," Science 306, 1005-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.

Z. Yuan, Y. Lin, J. Weaver, X. Chen, C. L. Chen, G. Subramanyam, J. C. Jiang, and E. I. Meletis, "Large dielectric tunability and microwave properties of Mn-doped (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 152901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lisenkov, S.

S. Lisenkov and L. Bellaiche, "Phase diagrams of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices from first principles," Phys. Rev. B 76, 020102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

A. Q. Jiang, J. F. Scott, H. Lu, and Z. Chen, "Phase transition and polarizations in epitaxial BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices studied by second-harmonic generation," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1180-1185 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.-B.

T. Zhao, Z.-H. Chen, F. Chen, W.-S. Shi,H.-B. Lu, and G.-Z. Yang, "Enhancement of second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices," Phys. Rev. B 60, 1697-1700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu and R. J. Knize, "Enhanced dielectric and electro-optic effects in relaxor oxide heterostructured superlattices," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 2432-2436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mantese, J. V.

S. Zhong, S. P. Alpay, and J. V. Mantese, "High dielectric tunability in ferroelectric-paraelectric bilayers and multilayer superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 132904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meier, A. L.

P. Tang, A. L. Meier, D. J. Towner, and B. W. Wessels, "BaTiO3 thin-film waveguide modulator with a low voltage-length product at near-infrared wavelengths of 0.98 and 1.55µm," Opt. Lett. 30, 254-256 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, and B. W. Wessels, "Low-Loss Electrooptic BaTiO3 Thin Film Waveguide Modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1837-1839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meletis, E. I.

Z. Yuan, Y. Lin, J. Weaver, X. Chen, C. L. Chen, G. Subramanyam, J. C. Jiang, and E. I. Meletis, "Large dielectric tunability and microwave properties of Mn-doped (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 152901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X. Y.

X. Y. Meng, Z. Z. Wang, and C. Chen, "Mechanism of the electro-optic effect in BaTiO3," Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 357-360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. H.

B. R. Kim, T.-U. Kim, W. -J. Lee, J. H. Moon, B.-T. Lee, H. S. Kim, and J. H. Kim, "Effects of periodicity and oxygen partial pressure on the crystallinity and dielectric property of artificial SrTiO3/BaTiO3 superlattices integrated on Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition method," Thin Solid Films 515, 6438-6441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakhmanson, S. M.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neaton, J. B.

K. Johnston, X. Huang, J. B. Neaton, and K. Rabe, "First-principles study of symmetry lowering and polarization in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices with in-plane expansion," Phys. Rev. B 71, 100103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, X. Q.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. L. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen D. G. Schlom, and C. B. Eom, "Enhancement of Ferroelectricity in Strained BaTiO3 Thin Films," Science 306, 1005-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Schlom, J. H. Haeni, J. Lettieri, C. D. Theis, W. Tian, J. C. Jiang, and X. Q. Pan, "Oxide nano-engineering using MBE," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 87, 282-291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pertsev, N. A.

N. A. Pertsev, A. G. Zembilgotov, and A. K. Tagantsev, "Effect of Mechanical Boundary Conditions on Phase Diagrams of Epitaxial Ferroelectric Thin Films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1988-1991 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petraru, A.

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, P. K.

S. Gevorgian, P. K. Petrov, Z. Ivanov, and E. Wikborg, "Tailoring the temperature coefficient of capacitance in ferroelectric varactors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1861-1863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pond, J. M.

J. A. Bellotti, W. Chang, S. B. Qadri, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, "Directionally dependent ferroelectric phase transition order of anisotropic epitaxial BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 012902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qadri, S. B.

J. A. Bellotti, W. Chang, S. B. Qadri, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, "Directionally dependent ferroelectric phase transition order of anisotropic epitaxial BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 012902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rabe, K.

K. Johnston, X. Huang, J. B. Neaton, and K. Rabe, "First-principles study of symmetry lowering and polarization in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices with in-plane expansion," Phys. Rev. B 71, 100103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rabe, K. M.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiche, P.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. L. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen D. G. Schlom, and C. B. Eom, "Enhancement of Ferroelectricity in Strained BaTiO3 Thin Films," Science 306, 1005-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarkar, A.

A. Sarkar, and S. B. Krupanidhi, "Ferroelectric interaction and polarization studies in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattice," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schlom, D. G.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Schlom, J. H. Haeni, J. Lettieri, C. D. Theis, W. Tian, J. C. Jiang, and X. Q. Pan, "Oxide nano-engineering using MBE," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 87, 282-291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, M.

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, J.

K. J. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. L. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen D. G. Schlom, and C. B. Eom, "Enhancement of Ferroelectricity in Strained BaTiO3 Thin Films," Science 306, 1005-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Buchal, L. Beckers, A. Eckau, J. Schubert, and W. Zander, "Epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 56, 234-238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, Q. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial Waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. F.

A. Q. Jiang, J. F. Scott, H. Lu, and Z. Chen, "Phase transition and polarizations in epitaxial BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices studied by second-harmonic generation," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1180-1185 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seneviratne, D.

J. Hiltunen, D. Seneviratne, R. Sun, M. Stolfi, H. L. Tuller, J. Lappalainen, and V. Lantto, "BaTiO3 - SrTiO3 multilayer thin film electro-optic waveguide modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 242904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hiltunen, D. Seneviratne, R. Sun, M. Stolfi, H. L. Tuller, J. Lappalainen, and V. Lantto, "Optical properties of BaTiO3 thin films: Influence of oxygen pressure utilized during pulsed laser deposition," J. Electrocer. (published online, DOI 10.1007/s10832-008-9463-9).

Sharan, A.

K. J. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. L. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen D. G. Schlom, and C. B. Eom, "Enhancement of Ferroelectricity in Strained BaTiO3 Thin Films," Science 306, 1005-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, W.-S.

T. Zhao, Z.-H. Chen, F. Chen, W.-S. Shi,H.-B. Lu, and G.-Z. Yang, "Enhancement of second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices," Phys. Rev. B 60, 1697-1700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Soukissan, A.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speck, J. S.

V. Srikant, E. J. Tarsa, D. R. Clarke, and J. S. Speck, "Crystallographic orientation of epitaxial BaTiO3 films: The role of thermal-expansion mismatch the substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 1517-1522 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Srikant, V.

V. Srikant, E. J. Tarsa, D. R. Clarke, and J. S. Speck, "Crystallographic orientation of epitaxial BaTiO3 films: The role of thermal-expansion mismatch the substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 1517-1522 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stolfi, M.

J. Hiltunen, D. Seneviratne, R. Sun, M. Stolfi, H. L. Tuller, J. Lappalainen, and V. Lantto, "BaTiO3 - SrTiO3 multilayer thin film electro-optic waveguide modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 242904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hiltunen, D. Seneviratne, R. Sun, M. Stolfi, H. L. Tuller, J. Lappalainen, and V. Lantto, "Optical properties of BaTiO3 thin films: Influence of oxygen pressure utilized during pulsed laser deposition," J. Electrocer. (published online, DOI 10.1007/s10832-008-9463-9).

Streiffer, S. K.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subramanyam, G.

Z. Yuan, Y. Lin, J. Weaver, X. Chen, C. L. Chen, G. Subramanyam, J. C. Jiang, and E. I. Meletis, "Large dielectric tunability and microwave properties of Mn-doped (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 152901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. P.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, R.

J. Hiltunen, D. Seneviratne, R. Sun, M. Stolfi, H. L. Tuller, J. Lappalainen, and V. Lantto, "BaTiO3 - SrTiO3 multilayer thin film electro-optic waveguide modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 242904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hiltunen, D. Seneviratne, R. Sun, M. Stolfi, H. L. Tuller, J. Lappalainen, and V. Lantto, "Optical properties of BaTiO3 thin films: Influence of oxygen pressure utilized during pulsed laser deposition," J. Electrocer. (published online, DOI 10.1007/s10832-008-9463-9).

Tabata, H.

H. Tabata, H. Tanaka, and T. Kawai, "Formation of artificial BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices using pulsed laser deposition and their dielectric properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1970-1972 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tagantsev, A. K.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Pertsev, A. G. Zembilgotov, and A. K. Tagantsev, "Effect of Mechanical Boundary Conditions on Phase Diagrams of Epitaxial Ferroelectric Thin Films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1988-1991 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, D.

T. Harigai, D. Tanaka, H. Kakemoto, S. Wada, and T. Tsurumi, "Dielectric properties of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices measured with interdigital electrodes and electromagnetic field analysis," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7923-7925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

H. Tabata, H. Tanaka, and T. Kawai, "Formation of artificial BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices using pulsed laser deposition and their dielectric properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1970-1972 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tang, P.

P. Tang, A. L. Meier, D. J. Towner, and B. W. Wessels, "BaTiO3 thin-film waveguide modulator with a low voltage-length product at near-infrared wavelengths of 0.98 and 1.55µm," Opt. Lett. 30, 254-256 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, and B. W. Wessels, "Low-Loss Electrooptic BaTiO3 Thin Film Waveguide Modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1837-1839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tarsa, E. J.

V. Srikant, E. J. Tarsa, D. R. Clarke, and J. S. Speck, "Crystallographic orientation of epitaxial BaTiO3 films: The role of thermal-expansion mismatch the substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 1517-1522 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tenne, D. A.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Theis, C. D.

D. G. Schlom, J. H. Haeni, J. Lettieri, C. D. Theis, W. Tian, J. C. Jiang, and X. Q. Pan, "Oxide nano-engineering using MBE," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 87, 282-291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tian, W.

D. A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R. S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukissan, V. Vaithyanathan, J. H. Haeni, W. Tian, D. G. Schlom, K. J. Choi, D. M Kim, C. B. Eom, H. P. Sun, X. Q. Pan, Y. L. Li, L. Q. Chen, Q. X. Jia, S. M. Nakhmanson, K. M. Rabe, and X. X. Xi, "Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy," Science 313, 1614-1616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Schlom, J. H. Haeni, J. Lettieri, C. D. Theis, W. Tian, J. C. Jiang, and X. Q. Pan, "Oxide nano-engineering using MBE," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 87, 282-291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Towner, D. J.

P. Tang, A. L. Meier, D. J. Towner, and B. W. Wessels, "BaTiO3 thin-film waveguide modulator with a low voltage-length product at near-infrared wavelengths of 0.98 and 1.55µm," Opt. Lett. 30, 254-256 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, and B. W. Wessels, "Low-Loss Electrooptic BaTiO3 Thin Film Waveguide Modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1837-1839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsurumi, T.

T. Harigai, D. Tanaka, H. Kakemoto, S. Wada, and T. Tsurumi, "Dielectric properties of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices measured with interdigital electrodes and electromagnetic field analysis," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7923-7925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tuller, H. L.

J. Hiltunen, D. Seneviratne, R. Sun, M. Stolfi, H. L. Tuller, J. Lappalainen, and V. Lantto, "BaTiO3 - SrTiO3 multilayer thin film electro-optic waveguide modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 242904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hiltunen, D. Seneviratne, R. Sun, M. Stolfi, H. L. Tuller, J. Lappalainen, and V. Lantto, "Optical properties of BaTiO3 thin films: Influence of oxygen pressure utilized during pulsed laser deposition," J. Electrocer. (published online, DOI 10.1007/s10832-008-9463-9).

Uecker, R.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, "Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3," Nature 430, 758-760 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. L. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen D. G. Schlom, and C. B. Eom, "Enhancement of Ferroelectricity in Strained BaTiO3 Thin Films," Science 306, 1005-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaithyanathan, V.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Perovskite unit cells of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3. The arrow points in the direction of the spontaneous polarization Ps in ferroelectric BaTiO3. (b) Illustration of the formation of a super cell. The arrows show the interface induced compressive and tensile stress in BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 cells, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Superlattice induced polarization state shift from linear to elliptical when light is transmitted through the test structure and (b) measurement setup used to characterize the shift of in-plane birefringence due to electro-optic effect.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated and measured X-ray diffraction θ-2θ patterns of BTO-STO thin film stacks with varying stacking periodicity. (a) The measured and simulated patterns of the structures with 3 & 4, 6 and 13 unit cell periodicity. The numbers on the peaks represent the multiples of the superlattice satellite reflections. In the lowest simulation pattern, the 3 and 4 unit cell plots are superimposed. (b) The measured scans of the stacks with periodicity of 314 and 1670 Å.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) In-plane and out-of-plane refractive indices of BTO-STO superlattices at 633 nm wavelength as a function of stacking periodicity and (b) corresponding birefringence behavior. The dashed line represents the trend line of the birefringence with increasing stacking periodicity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Field induced birefringence shift at 633 nm wavelength for BTO-STO superlattices with stacking periodicities ranging from 27-1670 Å and (b) corresponding electro-optic coefficient behavior.

Equations (1)

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δ Δ n = 1 2 n 3 r E ,

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