Abstract

Using the photoluminescence from GeGaSe:Er to pump GeGaS:Er, we examine the efficiency of light trapping. By measuring the photoluminescence decay time in powdered materials with varying particle size, we are able to exclude the influence of light trapping and to pinpoint the effect of self-quenching. The critical concentrations of Er for efficient self-quenching are determined by fitting experimental data to existing models. These values are found to be much larger than the concentrations inducing the formation of Er-clusters.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Auzel and P. Goldner, "Towards rare-earth clustering control in doped glasses," Opt. Maters. 16, 93-103 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Th. Förster, "Transfer mechanisms of electronic excitation," Discuss. Faraday. Soc. 27, 7-17 (1959).
  3. D. L. Dexter, "A theory of Sensitized Luminescence in Solids," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953)
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. C. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence in Er doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses," J. Lumin. 112, 92-96 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Munzar, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, S. O. Kasap, T. Sakai, K. Maeda. T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. DeCorby and J. N. McMullin, "Influence of Ga on the optical and thermal properties of Er2S3 doped stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric Ge-Ga-Se glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 46, 215-219 (2005).
  6. C. Koughia, D. Saitou, T. Aoki, M. Munzar, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence lifetime spectrum in erbium doped Ge-Ga-S glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2420-2424 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. S. Sumida and T. Y. Fan, "Effect of radiation trapping on fluorescence lifetime and emission cross section measurements in solid-state laser media," Opt. Lett. 19, 1343-1345 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. P. R. Ehrmann and J. H. Campbell, "Nonradiative energy losses and radiation trapping in neodymium-doped phosphate laser glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1061-1069 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. A. Milne, "The diffusion of imprisoned radiation through a gas," J. London Math. Soc. 1, 40-51 (1926).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of Er-doped Gax(Ge0.3Se0.7)100-x glasses," Opt. Maters. 28, 225-230 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Cagliari, and G. Baldacchini, "The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of cavity," J. Luminescence 94-95, 293-297 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Yu. Ivanova, A. A. Man??shina, A. V. Kurochkin, Yu. S. Tver??yanovich, and V. B. Smirnov, "Er3+ to glass matrix energy transfer in Ga-Ge-S:Er3+ system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 7-14 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C.  Koughia, M.  Munzar, T.  Aoki, and S. O.  Kasap, "Photoluminescence spectra and lifetimes of 4I13/2 ?? 4I15/2 and 4I11/2 ?? 4I15/2 transitions in erbium doped GeGaSe and GeGaS glasses," J. Maters. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, (Supplement Issue), S153-S157 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C.  Koughia, M.  Munzar, T.  Aoki, and S. O.  Kasap, "Photoluminescence spectra and lifetimes of 4I13/2 ?? 4I15/2 and 4I11/2 ?? 4I15/2 transitions in erbium doped GeGaSe and GeGaS glasses," J. Maters. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, (Supplement Issue), S153-S157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of Er-doped Gax(Ge0.3Se0.7)100-x glasses," Opt. Maters. 28, 225-230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Koughia, D. Saitou, T. Aoki, M. Munzar, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence lifetime spectrum in erbium doped Ge-Ga-S glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2420-2424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, L. Zampedri, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. C. Righini, L. M. Fortes, M. C. Gonçalves, L. F. Santos and R. M. Almeida, "Self-absorption and radiation trapping in Er3 + -doped TeO2-based glasses," Europhys. Lett. 71, 394-399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. C. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence in Er doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses," J. Lumin. 112, 92-96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Munzar, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, S. O. Kasap, T. Sakai, K. Maeda. T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. DeCorby and J. N. McMullin, "Influence of Ga on the optical and thermal properties of Er2S3 doped stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric Ge-Ga-Se glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 46, 215-219 (2005).

2002 (2)

P. R. Ehrmann and J. H. Campbell, "Nonradiative energy losses and radiation trapping in neodymium-doped phosphate laser glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1061-1069 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Yu. Ivanova, A. A. Man??shina, A. V. Kurochkin, Yu. S. Tver??yanovich, and V. B. Smirnov, "Er3+ to glass matrix energy transfer in Ga-Ge-S:Er3+ system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 7-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Cagliari, and G. Baldacchini, "The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of cavity," J. Luminescence 94-95, 293-297 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and P. Goldner, "Towards rare-earth clustering control in doped glasses," Opt. Maters. 16, 93-103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1959 (1)

Th. Förster, "Transfer mechanisms of electronic excitation," Discuss. Faraday. Soc. 27, 7-17 (1959).

1953 (1)

D. L. Dexter, "A theory of Sensitized Luminescence in Solids," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953)
[CrossRef]

1926 (1)

E. A. Milne, "The diffusion of imprisoned radiation through a gas," J. London Math. Soc. 1, 40-51 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, R. M.

M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, L. Zampedri, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. C. Righini, L. M. Fortes, M. C. Gonçalves, L. F. Santos and R. M. Almeida, "Self-absorption and radiation trapping in Er3 + -doped TeO2-based glasses," Europhys. Lett. 71, 394-399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

C.  Koughia, M.  Munzar, T.  Aoki, and S. O.  Kasap, "Photoluminescence spectra and lifetimes of 4I13/2 ?? 4I15/2 and 4I11/2 ?? 4I15/2 transitions in erbium doped GeGaSe and GeGaS glasses," J. Maters. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, (Supplement Issue), S153-S157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Koughia, D. Saitou, T. Aoki, M. Munzar, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence lifetime spectrum in erbium doped Ge-Ga-S glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2420-2424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Cagliari, and G. Baldacchini, "The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of cavity," J. Luminescence 94-95, 293-297 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and P. Goldner, "Towards rare-earth clustering control in doped glasses," Opt. Maters. 16, 93-103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baldacchini, G.

F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Cagliari, and G. Baldacchini, "The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of cavity," J. Luminescence 94-95, 293-297 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bonfigli, F.

F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Cagliari, and G. Baldacchini, "The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of cavity," J. Luminescence 94-95, 293-297 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cagliari, S.

F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Cagliari, and G. Baldacchini, "The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of cavity," J. Luminescence 94-95, 293-297 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. H.

P. R. Ehrmann and J. H. Campbell, "Nonradiative energy losses and radiation trapping in neodymium-doped phosphate laser glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1061-1069 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chiasera, A.

M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, L. Zampedri, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. C. Righini, L. M. Fortes, M. C. Gonçalves, L. F. Santos and R. M. Almeida, "Self-absorption and radiation trapping in Er3 + -doped TeO2-based glasses," Europhys. Lett. 71, 394-399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Decorby, R.

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of Er-doped Gax(Ge0.3Se0.7)100-x glasses," Opt. Maters. 28, 225-230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. C. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence in Er doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses," J. Lumin. 112, 92-96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, "A theory of Sensitized Luminescence in Solids," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953)
[CrossRef]

Ehrmann, P. R.

P. R. Ehrmann and J. H. Campbell, "Nonradiative energy losses and radiation trapping in neodymium-doped phosphate laser glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1061-1069 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

Ferrari, M.

M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, L. Zampedri, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. C. Righini, L. M. Fortes, M. C. Gonçalves, L. F. Santos and R. M. Almeida, "Self-absorption and radiation trapping in Er3 + -doped TeO2-based glasses," Europhys. Lett. 71, 394-399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Förster, Th.

Th. Förster, "Transfer mechanisms of electronic excitation," Discuss. Faraday. Soc. 27, 7-17 (1959).

Fortes, L. M.

M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, L. Zampedri, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. C. Righini, L. M. Fortes, M. C. Gonçalves, L. F. Santos and R. M. Almeida, "Self-absorption and radiation trapping in Er3 + -doped TeO2-based glasses," Europhys. Lett. 71, 394-399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goldner, P.

F. Auzel and P. Goldner, "Towards rare-earth clustering control in doped glasses," Opt. Maters. 16, 93-103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gonçalves, M. C.

M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, L. Zampedri, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. C. Righini, L. M. Fortes, M. C. Gonçalves, L. F. Santos and R. M. Almeida, "Self-absorption and radiation trapping in Er3 + -doped TeO2-based glasses," Europhys. Lett. 71, 394-399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, C.

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of Er-doped Gax(Ge0.3Se0.7)100-x glasses," Opt. Maters. 28, 225-230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. C. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence in Er doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses," J. Lumin. 112, 92-96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ikari, T.

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of Er-doped Gax(Ge0.3Se0.7)100-x glasses," Opt. Maters. 28, 225-230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ivanova, T. Yu.

T. Yu. Ivanova, A. A. Man??shina, A. V. Kurochkin, Yu. S. Tver??yanovich, and V. B. Smirnov, "Er3+ to glass matrix energy transfer in Ga-Ge-S:Er3+ system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 7-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kasap, S. O.

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of Er-doped Gax(Ge0.3Se0.7)100-x glasses," Opt. Maters. 28, 225-230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Koughia, D. Saitou, T. Aoki, M. Munzar, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence lifetime spectrum in erbium doped Ge-Ga-S glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2420-2424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. C. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence in Er doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses," J. Lumin. 112, 92-96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Munzar, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, S. O. Kasap, T. Sakai, K. Maeda. T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. DeCorby and J. N. McMullin, "Influence of Ga on the optical and thermal properties of Er2S3 doped stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric Ge-Ga-Se glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 46, 215-219 (2005).

Kasap, S. O.

C.  Koughia, M.  Munzar, T.  Aoki, and S. O.  Kasap, "Photoluminescence spectra and lifetimes of 4I13/2 ?? 4I15/2 and 4I11/2 ?? 4I15/2 transitions in erbium doped GeGaSe and GeGaS glasses," J. Maters. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, (Supplement Issue), S153-S157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koughia, C.

C.  Koughia, M.  Munzar, T.  Aoki, and S. O.  Kasap, "Photoluminescence spectra and lifetimes of 4I13/2 ?? 4I15/2 and 4I11/2 ?? 4I15/2 transitions in erbium doped GeGaSe and GeGaS glasses," J. Maters. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, (Supplement Issue), S153-S157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of Er-doped Gax(Ge0.3Se0.7)100-x glasses," Opt. Maters. 28, 225-230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Koughia, D. Saitou, T. Aoki, M. Munzar, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence lifetime spectrum in erbium doped Ge-Ga-S glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2420-2424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. C. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence in Er doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses," J. Lumin. 112, 92-96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koughia, K.

M. Munzar, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, S. O. Kasap, T. Sakai, K. Maeda. T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. DeCorby and J. N. McMullin, "Influence of Ga on the optical and thermal properties of Er2S3 doped stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric Ge-Ga-Se glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 46, 215-219 (2005).

Kurochkin, A. V.

T. Yu. Ivanova, A. A. Man??shina, A. V. Kurochkin, Yu. S. Tver??yanovich, and V. B. Smirnov, "Er3+ to glass matrix energy transfer in Ga-Ge-S:Er3+ system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 7-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, K.

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of Er-doped Gax(Ge0.3Se0.7)100-x glasses," Opt. Maters. 28, 225-230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Munzar, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, S. O. Kasap, T. Sakai, K. Maeda. T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. DeCorby and J. N. McMullin, "Influence of Ga on the optical and thermal properties of Er2S3 doped stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric Ge-Ga-Se glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 46, 215-219 (2005).

Man??shina, A. A.

T. Yu. Ivanova, A. A. Man??shina, A. V. Kurochkin, Yu. S. Tver??yanovich, and V. B. Smirnov, "Er3+ to glass matrix energy transfer in Ga-Ge-S:Er3+ system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 7-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mattarelli, M.

M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, L. Zampedri, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. C. Righini, L. M. Fortes, M. C. Gonçalves, L. F. Santos and R. M. Almeida, "Self-absorption and radiation trapping in Er3 + -doped TeO2-based glasses," Europhys. Lett. 71, 394-399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McMullin, J. C.

C. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. C. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence in Er doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses," J. Lumin. 112, 92-96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McMullin, J. N.

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of Er-doped Gax(Ge0.3Se0.7)100-x glasses," Opt. Maters. 28, 225-230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Milne, E. A.

E. A. Milne, "The diffusion of imprisoned radiation through a gas," J. London Math. Soc. 1, 40-51 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Montagna, M.

M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, L. Zampedri, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. C. Righini, L. M. Fortes, M. C. Gonçalves, L. F. Santos and R. M. Almeida, "Self-absorption and radiation trapping in Er3 + -doped TeO2-based glasses," Europhys. Lett. 71, 394-399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Munzar, M.

C.  Koughia, M.  Munzar, T.  Aoki, and S. O.  Kasap, "Photoluminescence spectra and lifetimes of 4I13/2 ?? 4I15/2 and 4I11/2 ?? 4I15/2 transitions in erbium doped GeGaSe and GeGaS glasses," J. Maters. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, (Supplement Issue), S153-S157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of Er-doped Gax(Ge0.3Se0.7)100-x glasses," Opt. Maters. 28, 225-230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Koughia, D. Saitou, T. Aoki, M. Munzar, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence lifetime spectrum in erbium doped Ge-Ga-S glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2420-2424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. C. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence in Er doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses," J. Lumin. 112, 92-96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Munzar, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, S. O. Kasap, T. Sakai, K. Maeda. T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. DeCorby and J. N. McMullin, "Influence of Ga on the optical and thermal properties of Er2S3 doped stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric Ge-Ga-Se glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 46, 215-219 (2005).

Righini, G. C.

M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, L. Zampedri, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. C. Righini, L. M. Fortes, M. C. Gonçalves, L. F. Santos and R. M. Almeida, "Self-absorption and radiation trapping in Er3 + -doped TeO2-based glasses," Europhys. Lett. 71, 394-399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saitou, D.

C. Koughia, D. Saitou, T. Aoki, M. Munzar, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence lifetime spectrum in erbium doped Ge-Ga-S glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2420-2424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, T.

M. Munzar, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, S. O. Kasap, T. Sakai, K. Maeda. T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. DeCorby and J. N. McMullin, "Influence of Ga on the optical and thermal properties of Er2S3 doped stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric Ge-Ga-Se glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 46, 215-219 (2005).

Santos, L. F.

M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, L. Zampedri, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. C. Righini, L. M. Fortes, M. C. Gonçalves, L. F. Santos and R. M. Almeida, "Self-absorption and radiation trapping in Er3 + -doped TeO2-based glasses," Europhys. Lett. 71, 394-399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, V. B.

T. Yu. Ivanova, A. A. Man??shina, A. V. Kurochkin, Yu. S. Tver??yanovich, and V. B. Smirnov, "Er3+ to glass matrix energy transfer in Ga-Ge-S:Er3+ system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 7-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sumida, D. S.

Tonchev, D.

M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda, T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of Er-doped Gax(Ge0.3Se0.7)100-x glasses," Opt. Maters. 28, 225-230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. C. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence in Er doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses," J. Lumin. 112, 92-96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Munzar, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, S. O. Kasap, T. Sakai, K. Maeda. T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. DeCorby and J. N. McMullin, "Influence of Ga on the optical and thermal properties of Er2S3 doped stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric Ge-Ga-Se glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 46, 215-219 (2005).

Tver??yanovich, Yu. S.

T. Yu. Ivanova, A. A. Man??shina, A. V. Kurochkin, Yu. S. Tver??yanovich, and V. B. Smirnov, "Er3+ to glass matrix energy transfer in Ga-Ge-S:Er3+ system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 7-14 (2002).
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C. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, J. C. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence in Er doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses," J. Lumin. 112, 92-96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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C.  Koughia, M.  Munzar, T.  Aoki, and S. O.  Kasap, "Photoluminescence spectra and lifetimes of 4I13/2 ?? 4I15/2 and 4I11/2 ?? 4I15/2 transitions in erbium doped GeGaSe and GeGaS glasses," J. Maters. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, (Supplement Issue), S153-S157 (2007).
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T. Yu. Ivanova, A. A. Man??shina, A. V. Kurochkin, Yu. S. Tver??yanovich, and V. B. Smirnov, "Er3+ to glass matrix energy transfer in Ga-Ge-S:Er3+ system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298, 7-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Koughia, D. Saitou, T. Aoki, M. Munzar, and S. O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence lifetime spectrum in erbium doped Ge-Ga-S glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2420-2424 (2006).
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Phys. Chem. Glasses (1)

M. Munzar, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, S. O. Kasap, T. Sakai, K. Maeda. T. Ikari, C. Haugen, R. DeCorby and J. N. McMullin, "Influence of Ga on the optical and thermal properties of Er2S3 doped stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric Ge-Ga-Se glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 46, 215-219 (2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). PL decay in GeGaS:Er (1) and GeGaSe:Er (3) glasses after the interruption of excitation, measured in configurations shown in insets (1)–(3) of Fig. (a). In configuration (2), the PL emitted by GeGaSe:Er glass is used to pump the PL in GeGaS:Er. The exact composition of GeGaSe:Er glass is Ge28Ga6.2Se64.5S0.8:Er0.5. A small amount of S appears from Er2S3 which is the dopant used. The composition of GeGaS:Er is Ge28Ga6.2S65.3:Er0.5. The glass thicknesses are 0.7 mm for GeGaSe:Er and 1.78 mm for GeGaS:Er, respectively. The PL has been excited by a laser diode operating at 808 nm. The broken lines present the decomposition of the PL decay (2) as a sum of two “fast” and “slow” exponentials.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

PL decays after cessation of excitation as a function of average particle size (<L>) in bulk and powdered samples of GeGaSe:Er (a) and GeGaS:Er (b) glasses. The glass compositions are the same as in Fig. 1. All experiments are done under an excitation at 808 nm. (c) summarizes the dependence of PL decay times (τ D) on <L>. The broken lines are least square fits to experimental data 1.80+4.27×10-4<L> for GeGaSe:Er (blue) and 2.55+6.75×10-4<L> for GeGaS:Er (red).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The symbols show the dependence of PL decay rate which is the inverse of τ 0 (τ 0 is the limit of τ D at <L>→0) vs. the squared concentration of Er3+ in two series of GeGaSe(S):Er glasses with different concentrations of Ga, 6 and 12 at.%, respectively. The lines present least-square fits of Eq. (2) to experimental values. The values (C Er)0 and τ w are used as adjustable parameters and are listed in Table 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

PL decay time (τ D) vs. average size of powder particles for the two series of glasses. The symbols are the experimental data. The lines are the best fits to experimental data using Eq. (3). The values (C Er)0N o and σ are summarized in Tables 1 and 2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The “collapse” of optical absorption band with the increase of Er-concentration in Ga6 series. The inset shows the TEM detected microstructure of the sample with C Er=2 at.%. White inclusions are Er enriched precipitates. The size of the view field is ~240×170 µm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Compositions of samples for two series of GeGaSe(S) glasses Ga6 and Ga12. The concentration of Er is presented in at.% and ion number density. The Judd-Ofelt parameters Ω2,4,6 and corresponding radiative lifetimes τ JO of 4I13/24I15/2 transitions in Er3+ ions are calculated using methods described elsewhere [11,13]. The values σ are the effective cross-sections appearing in Eq. (3).

Tables Icon

Table 2. Critical concentrations (C Er)0 and lifetimes τ w for the two series of glasses. The radiative lifetimes τ JO are calculated as the average of Judd-Ofelt lifetimes presented in the Table 1.

Equations (3)

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τ D ( L ) = τ 0 ( 1 + σ L C Er )
τ 0 ( C Er ) = τ w 1 + 9 2 π ( C Er ( C Er ) 0 ) 2
τ 0 ( C Er , L ) = τ w 1 + σ L C Er 1 + 9 2 π ( C Er ( C Er ) 0 ) 2

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