Abstract

We report broad bandwidth, mid-IR supercontinuum generation using a sub-cm (8 mm) length of highly nonlinear tellurite microstructured photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We pump the fiber at telecommunication wavelengths by using 1550 nm, 100 fs pulses of energy E=1.9 nJ. When coupled in the PCF, these pulses result in a supercontinuum (SC) bandwidth of 4080 nm extending from 789 to 4870 nm measured at 20 dBm below the peak spectral power. This bandwidth is comparable or in excess of previously reported spectra for other nonlinear glass fiber formulations despite the significantly shorter fiber length. In addition, besides offering a convenient pump wavelength, short fiber lengths enable smoother SC spectra, lower dispersion, and reduced material absorption at longer wavelengths making the use of this PCF particularly interesting.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (1)

2007 (4)

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Extruded singlemode, High-nonlinearity, tellurite glass holey fibre," Electron. Lett. 41, 835-837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. George, J. Knight, and P. Russell, "Tellurite photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 11, 2641-2645 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-20-2641.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Z. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Monnier, "Optical interferometry in astronomy," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789-857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901-1 -171901-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

P. Rolfe, "In vivo near-infrared spectroscopy", Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 02, 715-754 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, Y. D. West, D. W. Hewak, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Chalcogenide holey fibres," Electron. Lett. 36, 1998-2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, "Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

L. G. Cohen, "Comparison of single-mode fiber dispersion measurement techniques," J. Lightwave Tech. 6958-966 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

B. T. Soifer and J. L. Pipher, "Instrumentation for Infrared Astronomy," Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 16, 335-369 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, "Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aozasa, S.

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Z. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asobe, M.

Austin, D. R.

Brambilla, G.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepreim, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropolis, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 738-750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, N. G. R.

T. M. Monro, Y. D. West, D. W. Hewak, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Chalcogenide holey fibres," Electron. Lett. 36, 1998-2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. G.

Cheng, M. -Y.

Cho, A. Y.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L. G.

L. G. Cohen, "Comparison of single-mode fiber dispersion measurement techniques," J. Lightwave Tech. 6958-966 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepreim, H.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepreim, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropolis, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 738-750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, A.

Eggleton, B. J.

Feng, X.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepreim, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropolis, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 738-750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Extruded singlemode, High-nonlinearity, tellurite glass holey fibre," Electron. Lett. 41, 835-837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Finazzi, V.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepreim, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropolis, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 738-750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Extruded singlemode, High-nonlinearity, tellurite glass holey fibre," Electron. Lett. 41, 835-837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Flanagan, J. C.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepreim, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropolis, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 738-750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frampton, K.

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Extruded singlemode, High-nonlinearity, tellurite glass holey fibre," Electron. Lett. 41, 835-837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, M. J.

Galvanauskas, A.

Gattass, R. R.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Z. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

George, A.

George, A. K.

Gmachl, C.

Griebner, U.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901-1 -171901-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, B.

He, S.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Z. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hegde, R. S.

Herrmann, J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901-1 -171901-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hewak, D. W.

T. M. Monro, Y. D. West, D. W. Hewak, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Chalcogenide holey fibres," Electron. Lett. 36, 1998-2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Horak, P.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepreim, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropolis, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 738-750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Husakou, A.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901-1 -171901-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishizawa, A.

Islam, M. N.

Joly, N. Y.

Karlsson, M.

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, "Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J.

Knight, J. C.

F. G. Omenetto, N. A. Wolchover, M. R. Wehner, M. Ross, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell, "Spectrally smooth supercontinuum from 350 nm to 3 ?m in sub-centimeter lengths of soft-glass photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 14, 4928-4934 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901-1 -171901-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korn, G.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901-1 -171901-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, O. P.

Kumar, M.

Kumar, V. V. R. K.

Le, H. Q.

Leong, Y. Y.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepreim, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropolis, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 738-750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Z. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, G. P.

Martijn de Sterke, C.

Maxwell, I. Z.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Z. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazé, G.

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Z. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moeser, J.

Monnier, J. D.

J. D. Monnier, "Optical interferometry in astronomy," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789-857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepreim, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropolis, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 738-750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Extruded singlemode, High-nonlinearity, tellurite glass holey fibre," Electron. Lett. 41, 835-837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, Y. D. West, D. W. Hewak, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Chalcogenide holey fibres," Electron. Lett. 36, 1998-2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moore, R. C.

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Extruded singlemode, High-nonlinearity, tellurite glass holey fibre," Electron. Lett. 41, 835-837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mori, A.

Nakano, H.

Nickel, D.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901-1 -171901-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishikawa, T.

Omenetto, F. G.

Peabody, M. L.

Peng, C.

Petropolis, P.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepreim, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropolis, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 738-750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Extruded singlemode, High-nonlinearity, tellurite glass holey fibre," Electron. Lett. 41, 835-837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pipher, J. L.

B. T. Soifer and J. L. Pipher, "Instrumentation for Infrared Astronomy," Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 16, 335-369 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Poletti, F.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepreim, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropolis, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 738-750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poulain, M.

Price, J. H. V.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepreim, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropolis, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 738-750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepreim, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropolis, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 738-750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Extruded singlemode, High-nonlinearity, tellurite glass holey fibre," Electron. Lett. 41, 835-837 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, Y. D. West, D. W. Hewak, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Chalcogenide holey fibres," Electron. Lett. 36, 1998-2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rolfe, P.

P. Rolfe, "In vivo near-infrared spectroscopy", Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 02, 715-754 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ross, M.

Russell, P.

Russell, P. St. J.

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J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901-1 -171901-4 (2002).
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J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901-1 -171901-4 (2002).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(top) A schematic of the experimental arrangement used to generate and deliver fs pump pulses to the tellurite PCF for SC generation. (bottom) The cross sectional profile of the tellurite PCF in electron (b) and optical microscopy (a, c). Scale bar in (b) is 1µm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(top) Transmittance of a 3 mm billet of bulk tellurite glass. The resulting fiber has a minimum of 1.8 dBm-1 loss at 1420 nm which increases to 8 dBm-1 at 1750 nm (bottom) Dispersion curve of the tellurite PCF. The zero dispersion wavelength is 1380 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral response of the SC generated by the 8 mm segment of Tellurite PCF. The wavelength regions analyzed by the OSA and the monochromator with lead selenide (PbSe) or mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detectors are indicated. Also indicated is the pump wavelength of 1550 nm.

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