Abstract

Cs+-K+ ion exchanges were produced on KTiOPO4 crystals which is prior irradiated by Cu+ can H+ ions. The energy and dose of implanted Cu+ ions are 1.5 MeV and 0.5×1014 ions/cm2, and that of H+ are 300 keV and 1×1016 ions/cm2, respectively. The temperature of ions exchange is 430°C, and the time range from 15 minutes to 30 minutes. The prism coupling method is used to measure the dark mode spectra of the samples. Compared with results of ion exchange on the sample without irradiations, both the number of guided mode and its corresponding effective refractive index are decreased. The experimental results indicate that the ion exchange rate closely related with the lattice damage and the damage layers formed in the depth of maximum nuclear energy deposition act as a barrier to block the ions diffuse into the sample and the concentration of defects can modify the speed of ion exchange.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. D. Bierlein and H. Vanherzeele, "Potassium titanyl phosphate: properties and new applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 622-633 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Roth, N. Angert, M. Tseitlin, and A. Alexandrovski, "On the optical quality of KTP crystals for nonlinear optical and electro-optic applications," Opt. Mater. 16, 131-136 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. Jongerius, R. J. Bolt, and N. A. Sweep, "Blue second-harmonic generation in waveguides fabricated in undoped and scandium-doped KTiOPO4," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3316-3325 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Neagu, C. Ungureanu, R. Dabu, A. Stratan, C. Fenic, and L. Rusen, "Compact eye-safe laser sources based on OPOs with KTP or PPKTP crystals," Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 973-979 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, H. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "High-power optical parametric oscillation in large-aperture periodically poled KTiOPO4," Opt. Lett. 25, 174-176 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, "Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field," Electron. Lett. 30, 1516-1517 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. J. Van Poel, J. D. Bierlein, and J. B. Brown, "Efficient type I blue second-harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2074-2076 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, "Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4664-4670 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, "High efficiency quasi-phase matched frequency doubling waveguides in KTiOPO4 fabricated by electric field poling," Electron. Lett. 32, 107-108 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Laversenne, P. Hoffmann, M. Pollnau, P. Moretti, and J. Mugnier, "Designable buried waveguides in sapphire by proton implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5167-5169 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Lu, T. Zhang, G. Fu, X. Wang, K. Wang, D. Shen, and H. Ma, "Investigation and analysis of a single-mode waveguide formed by multienergy-implanted LiNbO3," Opt. Express 13, 2256-2262 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, D.-C. Hou, and Q.-M. Lu, "Optical channel waveguides with trapezoidal-shaped cross sections in KTiOPO4 crystal fabricated by ion implantation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1822-1824 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biesack, and U. Littmark "Computer code TRIM," http://www.srim.org.
  14. J. M. White and P. F. Heidrich, "Optical waveguide refractive index profiles determined from measurement of mode indices: a simple analysis," Appl. Opt. 15, 151-155 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. Lu, F. Wang, W. Li, J. Zhang, and K. Wang, "Annealing behavior of barriers ion-implanted LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 planar waveguide," Appl. Opt. 38, 5122-5126 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K.-M. Wang, F. Lu, M.-Q. Meng, B.-R. Shi, W. Li, F.-X. Wang, D.-Y. Shen,  and N. Cue, "Optical waveguide of MeV Hydrogen ion implantation KTiOPO4," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1055-L1057 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Opfermann, T. Höche, and W. Wesch, "Radiation damage in KTiOPO4 by ion implantation of light elements," Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. B 166-167, 309-313 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, D.-C. Hou, and Q.-M. Lu, "Optical channel waveguides with trapezoidal-shaped cross sections in KTiOPO4 crystal fabricated by ion implantation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1822-1824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. Neagu, C. Ungureanu, R. Dabu, A. Stratan, C. Fenic, and L. Rusen, "Compact eye-safe laser sources based on OPOs with KTP or PPKTP crystals," Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 973-979 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

L. Laversenne, P. Hoffmann, M. Pollnau, P. Moretti, and J. Mugnier, "Designable buried waveguides in sapphire by proton implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5167-5169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Roth, N. Angert, M. Tseitlin, and A. Alexandrovski, "On the optical quality of KTP crystals for nonlinear optical and electro-optic applications," Opt. Mater. 16, 131-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, H. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "High-power optical parametric oscillation in large-aperture periodically poled KTiOPO4," Opt. Lett. 25, 174-176 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Opfermann, T. Höche, and W. Wesch, "Radiation damage in KTiOPO4 by ion implantation of light elements," Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. B 166-167, 309-313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

K.-M. Wang, F. Lu, M.-Q. Meng, B.-R. Shi, W. Li, F.-X. Wang, D.-Y. Shen,  and N. Cue, "Optical waveguide of MeV Hydrogen ion implantation KTiOPO4," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1055-L1057 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, "High efficiency quasi-phase matched frequency doubling waveguides in KTiOPO4 fabricated by electric field poling," Electron. Lett. 32, 107-108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, "Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field," Electron. Lett. 30, 1516-1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Jongerius, R. J. Bolt, and N. A. Sweep, "Blue second-harmonic generation in waveguides fabricated in undoped and scandium-doped KTiOPO4," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3316-3325 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, "Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4664-4670 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. J. Van Poel, J. D. Bierlein, and J. B. Brown, "Efficient type I blue second-harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2074-2076 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1976 (1)

Alexandrovski, A.

M. Roth, N. Angert, M. Tseitlin, and A. Alexandrovski, "On the optical quality of KTP crystals for nonlinear optical and electro-optic applications," Opt. Mater. 16, 131-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Angert, N.

M. Roth, N. Angert, M. Tseitlin, and A. Alexandrovski, "On the optical quality of KTP crystals for nonlinear optical and electro-optic applications," Opt. Mater. 16, 131-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B.-R., Meng

K.-M. Wang, F. Lu, M.-Q. Meng, B.-R. Shi, W. Li, F.-X. Wang, D.-Y. Shen,  and N. Cue, "Optical waveguide of MeV Hydrogen ion implantation KTiOPO4," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1055-L1057 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bierlein, J. D.

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, "Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4664-4670 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Van Poel, J. D. Bierlein, and J. B. Brown, "Efficient type I blue second-harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2074-2076 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein and H. Vanherzeele, "Potassium titanyl phosphate: properties and new applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 622-633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bindloss, W.

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, "Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4664-4670 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bolt, R. J.

M. J. Jongerius, R. J. Bolt, and N. A. Sweep, "Blue second-harmonic generation in waveguides fabricated in undoped and scandium-doped KTiOPO4," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3316-3325 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. B.

C. J. Van Poel, J. D. Bierlein, and J. B. Brown, "Efficient type I blue second-harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2074-2076 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, D.-C. Hou, and Q.-M. Lu, "Optical channel waveguides with trapezoidal-shaped cross sections in KTiOPO4 crystal fabricated by ion implantation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1822-1824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, "High efficiency quasi-phase matched frequency doubling waveguides in KTiOPO4 fabricated by electric field poling," Electron. Lett. 32, 107-108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, "Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field," Electron. Lett. 30, 1516-1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y., Wang

K.-M. Wang, F. Lu, M.-Q. Meng, B.-R. Shi, W. Li, F.-X. Wang, D.-Y. Shen,  and N. Cue, "Optical waveguide of MeV Hydrogen ion implantation KTiOPO4," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1055-L1057 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dabu, R.

L. Neagu, C. Ungureanu, R. Dabu, A. Stratan, C. Fenic, and L. Rusen, "Compact eye-safe laser sources based on OPOs with KTP or PPKTP crystals," Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 973-979 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F., Wang

K.-M. Wang, F. Lu, M.-Q. Meng, B.-R. Shi, W. Li, F.-X. Wang, D.-Y. Shen,  and N. Cue, "Optical waveguide of MeV Hydrogen ion implantation KTiOPO4," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1055-L1057 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F.-X., LI

K.-M. Wang, F. Lu, M.-Q. Meng, B.-R. Shi, W. Li, F.-X. Wang, D.-Y. Shen,  and N. Cue, "Optical waveguide of MeV Hydrogen ion implantation KTiOPO4," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1055-L1057 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fenic, C.

L. Neagu, C. Ungureanu, R. Dabu, A. Stratan, C. Fenic, and L. Rusen, "Compact eye-safe laser sources based on OPOs with KTP or PPKTP crystals," Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 973-979 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Gang

Heidrich, P. F.

Hellström, J.

Höche, T.

T. Opfermann, T. Höche, and W. Wesch, "Radiation damage in KTiOPO4 by ion implantation of light elements," Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. B 166-167, 309-313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, P.

L. Laversenne, P. Hoffmann, M. Pollnau, P. Moretti, and J. Mugnier, "Designable buried waveguides in sapphire by proton implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5167-5169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsiung, H.

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, "Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4664-4670 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jongerius, M. J.

M. J. Jongerius, R. J. Bolt, and N. A. Sweep, "Blue second-harmonic generation in waveguides fabricated in undoped and scandium-doped KTiOPO4," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3316-3325 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K.-M.,

K.-M. Wang, F. Lu, M.-Q. Meng, B.-R. Shi, W. Li, F.-X. Wang, D.-Y. Shen,  and N. Cue, "Optical waveguide of MeV Hydrogen ion implantation KTiOPO4," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1055-L1057 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, H.

Laurell, F.

J. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, H. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "High-power optical parametric oscillation in large-aperture periodically poled KTiOPO4," Opt. Lett. 25, 174-176 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, "Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4664-4670 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laversenne, L.

L. Laversenne, P. Hoffmann, M. Pollnau, P. Moretti, and J. Mugnier, "Designable buried waveguides in sapphire by proton implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5167-5169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Lu, F.

Lu, Fei

M.-Q, Lu

K.-M. Wang, F. Lu, M.-Q. Meng, B.-R. Shi, W. Li, F.-X. Wang, D.-Y. Shen,  and N. Cue, "Optical waveguide of MeV Hydrogen ion implantation KTiOPO4," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1055-L1057 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

Moretti, P.

L. Laversenne, P. Hoffmann, M. Pollnau, P. Moretti, and J. Mugnier, "Designable buried waveguides in sapphire by proton implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5167-5169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mugnier, J.

L. Laversenne, P. Hoffmann, M. Pollnau, P. Moretti, and J. Mugnier, "Designable buried waveguides in sapphire by proton implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5167-5169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N., Shen

K.-M. Wang, F. Lu, M.-Q. Meng, B.-R. Shi, W. Li, F.-X. Wang, D.-Y. Shen,  and N. Cue, "Optical waveguide of MeV Hydrogen ion implantation KTiOPO4," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1055-L1057 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neagu, L.

L. Neagu, C. Ungureanu, R. Dabu, A. Stratan, C. Fenic, and L. Rusen, "Compact eye-safe laser sources based on OPOs with KTP or PPKTP crystals," Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 973-979 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opfermann, T.

T. Opfermann, T. Höche, and W. Wesch, "Radiation damage in KTiOPO4 by ion implantation of light elements," Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. B 166-167, 309-313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pasiskevicius, V.

Pollnau, M.

L. Laversenne, P. Hoffmann, M. Pollnau, P. Moretti, and J. Mugnier, "Designable buried waveguides in sapphire by proton implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5167-5169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Risk, W. P.

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, "High efficiency quasi-phase matched frequency doubling waveguides in KTiOPO4 fabricated by electric field poling," Electron. Lett. 32, 107-108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, "Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field," Electron. Lett. 30, 1516-1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roelofs, M. G.

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, "Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4664-4670 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roth, M.

M. Roth, N. Angert, M. Tseitlin, and A. Alexandrovski, "On the optical quality of KTP crystals for nonlinear optical and electro-optic applications," Opt. Mater. 16, 131-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rusen, L.

L. Neagu, C. Ungureanu, R. Dabu, A. Stratan, C. Fenic, and L. Rusen, "Compact eye-safe laser sources based on OPOs with KTP or PPKTP crystals," Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 973-979 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.

Stratan, A.

L. Neagu, C. Ungureanu, R. Dabu, A. Stratan, C. Fenic, and L. Rusen, "Compact eye-safe laser sources based on OPOs with KTP or PPKTP crystals," Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 973-979 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suna, A.

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, "Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4664-4670 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sweep, N. A.

M. J. Jongerius, R. J. Bolt, and N. A. Sweep, "Blue second-harmonic generation in waveguides fabricated in undoped and scandium-doped KTiOPO4," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3316-3325 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tseitlin, M.

M. Roth, N. Angert, M. Tseitlin, and A. Alexandrovski, "On the optical quality of KTP crystals for nonlinear optical and electro-optic applications," Opt. Mater. 16, 131-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ungureanu, C.

L. Neagu, C. Ungureanu, R. Dabu, A. Stratan, C. Fenic, and L. Rusen, "Compact eye-safe laser sources based on OPOs with KTP or PPKTP crystals," Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 973-979 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Poel, C. J.

C. J. Van Poel, J. D. Bierlein, and J. B. Brown, "Efficient type I blue second-harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2074-2076 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vanherzeele, H.

W., Shi

K.-M. Wang, F. Lu, M.-Q. Meng, B.-R. Shi, W. Li, F.-X. Wang, D.-Y. Shen,  and N. Cue, "Optical waveguide of MeV Hydrogen ion implantation KTiOPO4," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1055-L1057 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Wang, K.

Wang, X.

Wesch, W.

T. Opfermann, T. Höche, and W. Wesch, "Radiation damage in KTiOPO4 by ion implantation of light elements," Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. B 166-167, 309-313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

White, J. M.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, Tingting

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Laversenne, P. Hoffmann, M. Pollnau, P. Moretti, and J. Mugnier, "Designable buried waveguides in sapphire by proton implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5167-5169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Van Poel, J. D. Bierlein, and J. B. Brown, "Efficient type I blue second-harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2074-2076 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, D.-C. Hou, and Q.-M. Lu, "Optical channel waveguides with trapezoidal-shaped cross sections in KTiOPO4 crystal fabricated by ion implantation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1822-1824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, "Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field," Electron. Lett. 30, 1516-1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, "High efficiency quasi-phase matched frequency doubling waveguides in KTiOPO4 fabricated by electric field poling," Electron. Lett. 32, 107-108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, "Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4664-4670 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Jongerius, R. J. Bolt, and N. A. Sweep, "Blue second-harmonic generation in waveguides fabricated in undoped and scandium-doped KTiOPO4," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3316-3325 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K.-M. Wang, F. Lu, M.-Q. Meng, B.-R. Shi, W. Li, F.-X. Wang, D.-Y. Shen,  and N. Cue, "Optical waveguide of MeV Hydrogen ion implantation KTiOPO4," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1055-L1057 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. B (1)

T. Opfermann, T. Höche, and W. Wesch, "Radiation damage in KTiOPO4 by ion implantation of light elements," Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. B 166-167, 309-313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

L. Neagu, C. Ungureanu, R. Dabu, A. Stratan, C. Fenic, and L. Rusen, "Compact eye-safe laser sources based on OPOs with KTP or PPKTP crystals," Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 973-979 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Roth, N. Angert, M. Tseitlin, and A. Alexandrovski, "On the optical quality of KTP crystals for nonlinear optical and electro-optic applications," Opt. Mater. 16, 131-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biesack, and U. Littmark "Computer code TRIM," http://www.srim.org.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The damage induced by the Cu+ and H+ implantation based on TRIM’2003 vs. the penetration depth

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The measured relative intensity of reflected TE polarized light from the prism versus the effective refractive index for sample 2#. (a) sample 1# exchange for 15 minutes; (b) sample 2# as implanted; (c) sample 2# exchange for 15 minutes; (d) sample 2# exchange for 30 minutes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The dark mode spectra of sample 2# and 3# after ion exchange for 15 and 30 min at 430°C. (b) The reconstructed refractive index profile of sample 3# after ion exchange for 30 min (the solid line), “★” represents the effective index of the guide mode.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The dark mode spectra of sample 4# after ion exchange for 15 minutes and 30 minutes when TE polarized light were used. (a) sample 1# after ion exchange for 15 min; (b) sample 4# after exchange for 15 min; (c) sample 4# after exchange for 30 min.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) The sketch about relations between the lattice damage distribution (the dot line) and relative refractive index (the solid line) (1) without irradiation; (2) exchanged for 15 min after H+ implanted; (3) exchange for 30 min after H+ implantation. (b) The refractive index profiles reconstructed by iWKB method for sample 4#.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Experiment parameters for samples suffered H+ and Cu+ irradiation and Cs ion exchange

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