Abstract

The dependence of angular distributions of fast electrons generated in the interaction of p-polarized femtosecond laser pulses with foil targets on laser intensities is investigated. A novel fast electron beam along the front target surface is observed for high laser intensity. It is found that the electron acceleration along the target surface is more efficient than those in other directions.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S.C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626–1634 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, T. Esirkepov, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439, 445–448 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. G. Pretzler, F. Brandl, J. Stein, E. Fill, and J. Kuba, “High-intensity regime of x-ray generation from relativistic laser plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3623–3625 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Bastiani, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, Th. Schlegel, J. C. Gauthier, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Hot-electron distribution functions in a subpicosecond laser interaction with solid targets of varying initial gradient scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3439–3452 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Y. Ma, Z. M. Sheng, Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z. Y. Zheng, W. W. Chang, M. Chen, and J. Zheng, “Preplasma effects on the emission directions of energetic electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” J. Plasma Phys. 72, 1269–1272 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, M. S. Wei, A. E. Dangor, R.G. Evans, A. Gopal, K. L. Lancaster, K.W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, P. A. Norreys, M. Tatarakis, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “High-Intensity-Laser-Driven Z Pinche,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 95001–95004 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, X. Y. Peng, X. Lu, Y. J. Li, and X. W. Tang, “Spatial Distribution of High-Energy Electron Emission fromWater Plasmas Produced by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 165002–165005 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, M. Nakatsutsumi, H. Nakamura, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, Y. Toyama, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “Enhancement of energetic electrons and protons by cone guiding of laser light,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 36403–36407 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, T. Matsuoka, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “High-energy electrons produced in subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions from subrelativistic laser intensities to relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 36405–36411 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. G. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, and P. Monot, “Pulse duration effect on the distribution of energetic particles produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses irradiating solids,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3718–3723 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. M. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, Z. M. Sheng, Q. L. Dong, L. Z. Zhao, Z.Y. Wei, and X.W. Tang, “Effects of Laser Polarization on Jet Emission of Fast Electrons in Femtosecond-Laser Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 225001–225004 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. Kato, E. Miura, E. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Kato, and Y. Owadano, “Effects of laser wavelength and density scalelength on absorption of ultrashort intense lasers on solid-density targets,” J. Plasma Fusion Res. 78, 717–718 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. C. Wiks and W. L. Kruer, “Ultra-intense laser light by solids and overdense plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE33, 1954–1968 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  14. F. Brunel, “Not-so-resonant, resonant absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 52–55 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. W. L. Kruer and Estabrook, “J×B heating by very intense laser,” Phys. Fluids. 28, 430–432 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. Nakamura, S. Kato, H. Nagatomo, and K. Mima, “Surface-Magnetic-Field and Fast-Electron Current-Layer Formation by Ultraintense Laser Irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 265002–265005 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. Sentoku, K. Mima, H. Ruhl, Y. Toyama, R. Kodama, and T. E. Cowan, “Laser light and hot electron micro focusing using a conical target,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 3083–3087 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “On the angular distribution of fast electrons generated in intense laser interaction with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 014504–014507 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, I. Zheng, Y. Y. Ma, M. A. Bari, Y. T. Li, and J. Zhang, “Surface electron acceleration in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Optics Express 14, 3093–3098 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. T. Nakamura, K. Mima, H. Sakagami, and T. Johzaki, “Electron surface acceleration on a solid capillary target inner wall irradiated with ultraintense laser pulses,” Phys. Plasmas 14, 053112–53118 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. Nakamura, K. Mima, H. Sakagami, and T. Johzaki, “Electron surface acceleration on a solid capillary target inner wall irradiated with ultraintense laser pulses,” Phys. Plasmas 14, 053112–53118 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (5)

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, T. Esirkepov, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439, 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ma, Z. M. Sheng, Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z. Y. Zheng, W. W. Chang, M. Chen, and J. Zheng, “Preplasma effects on the emission directions of energetic electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” J. Plasma Phys. 72, 1269–1272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “On the angular distribution of fast electrons generated in intense laser interaction with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 014504–014507 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, I. Zheng, Y. Y. Ma, M. A. Bari, Y. T. Li, and J. Zhang, “Surface electron acceleration in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Optics Express 14, 3093–3098 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, M. Nakatsutsumi, H. Nakamura, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, Y. Toyama, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “Enhancement of energetic electrons and protons by cone guiding of laser light,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 36403–36407 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, T. Matsuoka, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “High-energy electrons produced in subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions from subrelativistic laser intensities to relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 36405–36411 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, M. S. Wei, A. E. Dangor, R.G. Evans, A. Gopal, K. L. Lancaster, K.W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, P. A. Norreys, M. Tatarakis, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “High-Intensity-Laser-Driven Z Pinche,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 95001–95004 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Nakamura, S. Kato, H. Nagatomo, and K. Mima, “Surface-Magnetic-Field and Fast-Electron Current-Layer Formation by Ultraintense Laser Irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 265002–265005 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Sentoku, K. Mima, H. Ruhl, Y. Toyama, R. Kodama, and T. E. Cowan, “Laser light and hot electron micro focusing using a conical target,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 3083–3087 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, X. Y. Peng, X. Lu, Y. J. Li, and X. W. Tang, “Spatial Distribution of High-Energy Electron Emission fromWater Plasmas Produced by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 165002–165005 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pretzler, F. Brandl, J. Stein, E. Fill, and J. Kuba, “High-intensity regime of x-ray generation from relativistic laser plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3623–3625 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Kato, E. Miura, E. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Kato, and Y. Owadano, “Effects of laser wavelength and density scalelength on absorption of ultrashort intense lasers on solid-density targets,” J. Plasma Fusion Res. 78, 717–718 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

A. G. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, and P. Monot, “Pulse duration effect on the distribution of energetic particles produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses irradiating solids,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3718–3723 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. M. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, Z. M. Sheng, Q. L. Dong, L. Z. Zhao, Z.Y. Wei, and X.W. Tang, “Effects of Laser Polarization on Jet Emission of Fast Electrons in Femtosecond-Laser Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 225001–225004 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. Bastiani, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, Th. Schlegel, J. C. Gauthier, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Hot-electron distribution functions in a subpicosecond laser interaction with solid targets of varying initial gradient scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3439–3452 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. C. Wiks and W. L. Kruer, “Ultra-intense laser light by solids and overdense plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE33, 1954–1968 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S.C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

F. Brunel, “Not-so-resonant, resonant absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 52–55 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

W. L. Kruer and Estabrook, “J×B heating by very intense laser,” Phys. Fluids. 28, 430–432 (1985).
[Crossref]

Amthor, K.-U.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, T. Esirkepov, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439, 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antonetti, A.

S. Bastiani, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, Th. Schlegel, J. C. Gauthier, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Hot-electron distribution functions in a subpicosecond laser interaction with solid targets of varying initial gradient scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3439–3452 (1999).
[Crossref]

Audebert, P.

S. Bastiani, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, Th. Schlegel, J. C. Gauthier, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Hot-electron distribution functions in a subpicosecond laser interaction with solid targets of varying initial gradient scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3439–3452 (1999).
[Crossref]

Auguste, T.

A. G. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, and P. Monot, “Pulse duration effect on the distribution of energetic particles produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses irradiating solids,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3718–3723 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. G. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, and P. Monot, “Pulse duration effect on the distribution of energetic particles produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses irradiating solids,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3718–3723 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bari, M. A.

M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, I. Zheng, Y. Y. Ma, M. A. Bari, Y. T. Li, and J. Zhang, “Surface electron acceleration in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Optics Express 14, 3093–3098 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bastiani, S.

S. Bastiani, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, Th. Schlegel, J. C. Gauthier, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Hot-electron distribution functions in a subpicosecond laser interaction with solid targets of varying initial gradient scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3439–3452 (1999).
[Crossref]

Beg, F. N.

F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, M. S. Wei, A. E. Dangor, R.G. Evans, A. Gopal, K. L. Lancaster, K.W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, P. A. Norreys, M. Tatarakis, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “High-Intensity-Laser-Driven Z Pinche,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 95001–95004 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brandl, F.

G. Pretzler, F. Brandl, J. Stein, E. Fill, and J. Kuba, “High-intensity regime of x-ray generation from relativistic laser plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3623–3625 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brunel, F.

F. Brunel, “Not-so-resonant, resonant absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 52–55 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, E. M.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S.C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chang, W. W.

Y. Y. Ma, Z. M. Sheng, Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z. Y. Zheng, W. W. Chang, M. Chen, and J. Zheng, “Preplasma effects on the emission directions of energetic electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” J. Plasma Phys. 72, 1269–1272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. M.

L. M. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, Z. M. Sheng, Q. L. Dong, L. Z. Zhao, Z.Y. Wei, and X.W. Tang, “Effects of Laser Polarization on Jet Emission of Fast Electrons in Femtosecond-Laser Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 225001–225004 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “On the angular distribution of fast electrons generated in intense laser interaction with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 014504–014507 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, I. Zheng, Y. Y. Ma, M. A. Bari, Y. T. Li, and J. Zhang, “Surface electron acceleration in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Optics Express 14, 3093–3098 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ma, Z. M. Sheng, Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z. Y. Zheng, W. W. Chang, M. Chen, and J. Zheng, “Preplasma effects on the emission directions of energetic electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” J. Plasma Phys. 72, 1269–1272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. L.

Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, M. Nakatsutsumi, H. Nakamura, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, Y. Toyama, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “Enhancement of energetic electrons and protons by cone guiding of laser light,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 36403–36407 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, T. Matsuoka, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “High-energy electrons produced in subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions from subrelativistic laser intensities to relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 36405–36411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Clark, E. L.

F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, M. S. Wei, A. E. Dangor, R.G. Evans, A. Gopal, K. L. Lancaster, K.W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, P. A. Norreys, M. Tatarakis, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “High-Intensity-Laser-Driven Z Pinche,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 95001–95004 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cowan, T. E.

Y. Sentoku, K. Mima, H. Ruhl, Y. Toyama, R. Kodama, and T. E. Cowan, “Laser light and hot electron micro focusing using a conical target,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 3083–3087 (2004).
[Crossref]

D’Oliveira, P.

A. G. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, and P. Monot, “Pulse duration effect on the distribution of energetic particles produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses irradiating solids,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3718–3723 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. G. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, and P. Monot, “Pulse duration effect on the distribution of energetic particles produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses irradiating solids,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3718–3723 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dangor, A. E.

F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, M. S. Wei, A. E. Dangor, R.G. Evans, A. Gopal, K. L. Lancaster, K.W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, P. A. Norreys, M. Tatarakis, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “High-Intensity-Laser-Driven Z Pinche,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 95001–95004 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dong, Q. L.

L. M. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, Z. M. Sheng, Q. L. Dong, L. Z. Zhao, Z.Y. Wei, and X.W. Tang, “Effects of Laser Polarization on Jet Emission of Fast Electrons in Femtosecond-Laser Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 225001–225004 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esirkepov, T.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, T. Esirkepov, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439, 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Estabrook,

W. L. Kruer and Estabrook, “J×B heating by very intense laser,” Phys. Fluids. 28, 430–432 (1985).
[Crossref]

Evans, R.G.

F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, M. S. Wei, A. E. Dangor, R.G. Evans, A. Gopal, K. L. Lancaster, K.W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, P. A. Norreys, M. Tatarakis, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “High-Intensity-Laser-Driven Z Pinche,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 95001–95004 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fill, E.

G. Pretzler, F. Brandl, J. Stein, E. Fill, and J. Kuba, “High-intensity regime of x-ray generation from relativistic laser plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3623–3625 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fukumoto, I.

A. G. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, and P. Monot, “Pulse duration effect on the distribution of energetic particles produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses irradiating solids,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3718–3723 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gauthier, J. C.

S. Bastiani, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, Th. Schlegel, J. C. Gauthier, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Hot-electron distribution functions in a subpicosecond laser interaction with solid targets of varying initial gradient scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3439–3452 (1999).
[Crossref]

Geindre, J. P.

S. Bastiani, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, Th. Schlegel, J. C. Gauthier, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Hot-electron distribution functions in a subpicosecond laser interaction with solid targets of varying initial gradient scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3439–3452 (1999).
[Crossref]

Glinsky, M. E.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S.C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gopal, A.

F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, M. S. Wei, A. E. Dangor, R.G. Evans, A. Gopal, K. L. Lancaster, K.W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, P. A. Norreys, M. Tatarakis, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “High-Intensity-Laser-Driven Z Pinche,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 95001–95004 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grillon, G.

S. Bastiani, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, Th. Schlegel, J. C. Gauthier, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Hot-electron distribution functions in a subpicosecond laser interaction with solid targets of varying initial gradient scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3439–3452 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hammer, J.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S.C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hamoniaux, G.

S. Bastiani, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, Th. Schlegel, J. C. Gauthier, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Hot-electron distribution functions in a subpicosecond laser interaction with solid targets of varying initial gradient scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3439–3452 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hulin, S.

A. G. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, and P. Monot, “Pulse duration effect on the distribution of energetic particles produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses irradiating solids,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3718–3723 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. G. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, and P. Monot, “Pulse duration effect on the distribution of energetic particles produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses irradiating solids,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3718–3723 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jackel, O.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, T. Esirkepov, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439, 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, Z.

Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johzaki, T.

T. Nakamura, K. Mima, H. Sakagami, and T. Johzaki, “Electron surface acceleration on a solid capillary target inner wall irradiated with ultraintense laser pulses,” Phys. Plasmas 14, 053112–53118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kato, S.

T. Nakamura, S. Kato, H. Nagatomo, and K. Mima, “Surface-Magnetic-Field and Fast-Electron Current-Layer Formation by Ultraintense Laser Irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 265002–265005 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Kato, E. Miura, E. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Kato, and Y. Owadano, “Effects of laser wavelength and density scalelength on absorption of ultrashort intense lasers on solid-density targets,” J. Plasma Fusion Res. 78, 717–718 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kato, T.

S. Kato, E. Miura, E. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Kato, and Y. Owadano, “Effects of laser wavelength and density scalelength on absorption of ultrashort intense lasers on solid-density targets,” J. Plasma Fusion Res. 78, 717–718 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kodama, R.

Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, M. Nakatsutsumi, H. Nakamura, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, Y. Toyama, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “Enhancement of energetic electrons and protons by cone guiding of laser light,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 36403–36407 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Sentoku, K. Mima, H. Ruhl, Y. Toyama, R. Kodama, and T. E. Cowan, “Laser light and hot electron micro focusing using a conical target,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 3083–3087 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, T. Matsuoka, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “High-energy electrons produced in subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions from subrelativistic laser intensities to relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 36405–36411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kruer, W. L.

S. C. Wiks and W. L. Kruer, “Ultra-intense laser light by solids and overdense plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE33, 1954–1968 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S.C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

W. L. Kruer and Estabrook, “J×B heating by very intense laser,” Phys. Fluids. 28, 430–432 (1985).
[Crossref]

Krushelnick, K.

F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, M. S. Wei, A. E. Dangor, R.G. Evans, A. Gopal, K. L. Lancaster, K.W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, P. A. Norreys, M. Tatarakis, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “High-Intensity-Laser-Driven Z Pinche,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 95001–95004 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuba, J.

G. Pretzler, F. Brandl, J. Stein, E. Fill, and J. Kuba, “High-intensity regime of x-ray generation from relativistic laser plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3623–3625 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lancaster, K. L.

F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, M. S. Wei, A. E. Dangor, R.G. Evans, A. Gopal, K. L. Lancaster, K.W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, P. A. Norreys, M. Tatarakis, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “High-Intensity-Laser-Driven Z Pinche,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 95001–95004 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ledingham, K. W. D.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, T. Esirkepov, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439, 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ledingham, K.W. D.

F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, M. S. Wei, A. E. Dangor, R.G. Evans, A. Gopal, K. L. Lancaster, K.W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, P. A. Norreys, M. Tatarakis, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “High-Intensity-Laser-Driven Z Pinche,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 95001–95004 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. J.

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, X. Y. Peng, X. Lu, Y. J. Li, and X. W. Tang, “Spatial Distribution of High-Energy Electron Emission fromWater Plasmas Produced by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 165002–165005 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y. T.

Y. Y. Ma, Z. M. Sheng, Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z. Y. Zheng, W. W. Chang, M. Chen, and J. Zheng, “Preplasma effects on the emission directions of energetic electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” J. Plasma Phys. 72, 1269–1272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, I. Zheng, Y. Y. Ma, M. A. Bari, Y. T. Li, and J. Zhang, “Surface electron acceleration in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Optics Express 14, 3093–3098 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, T. Matsuoka, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “High-energy electrons produced in subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions from subrelativistic laser intensities to relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 36405–36411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, X. Y. Peng, X. Lu, Y. J. Li, and X. W. Tang, “Spatial Distribution of High-Energy Electron Emission fromWater Plasmas Produced by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 165002–165005 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, Z. M. Sheng, Q. L. Dong, L. Z. Zhao, Z.Y. Wei, and X.W. Tang, “Effects of Laser Polarization on Jet Emission of Fast Electrons in Femtosecond-Laser Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 225001–225004 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, T. J.

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, X. Y. Peng, X. Lu, Y. J. Li, and X. W. Tang, “Spatial Distribution of High-Energy Electron Emission fromWater Plasmas Produced by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 165002–165005 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, Z. M. Sheng, Q. L. Dong, L. Z. Zhao, Z.Y. Wei, and X.W. Tang, “Effects of Laser Polarization on Jet Emission of Fast Electrons in Femtosecond-Laser Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 225001–225004 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, W. X.

Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liesfeld, B.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, T. Esirkepov, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439, 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, X.

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, X. Y. Peng, X. Lu, Y. J. Li, and X. W. Tang, “Spatial Distribution of High-Energy Electron Emission fromWater Plasmas Produced by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 165002–165005 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Ma, Z. M. Sheng, Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z. Y. Zheng, W. W. Chang, M. Chen, and J. Zheng, “Preplasma effects on the emission directions of energetic electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” J. Plasma Phys. 72, 1269–1272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, I. Zheng, Y. Y. Ma, M. A. Bari, Y. T. Li, and J. Zhang, “Surface electron acceleration in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Optics Express 14, 3093–3098 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsuoka, T.

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, T. Matsuoka, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “High-energy electrons produced in subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions from subrelativistic laser intensities to relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 36405–36411 (2004).
[Crossref]

McKenna, P.

F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, M. S. Wei, A. E. Dangor, R.G. Evans, A. Gopal, K. L. Lancaster, K.W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, P. A. Norreys, M. Tatarakis, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “High-Intensity-Laser-Driven Z Pinche,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 95001–95004 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mima, K.

T. Nakamura, K. Mima, H. Sakagami, and T. Johzaki, “Electron surface acceleration on a solid capillary target inner wall irradiated with ultraintense laser pulses,” Phys. Plasmas 14, 053112–53118 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Nakamura, S. Kato, H. Nagatomo, and K. Mima, “Surface-Magnetic-Field and Fast-Electron Current-Layer Formation by Ultraintense Laser Irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 265002–265005 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Sentoku, K. Mima, H. Ruhl, Y. Toyama, R. Kodama, and T. E. Cowan, “Laser light and hot electron micro focusing using a conical target,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 3083–3087 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miura, E.

S. Kato, E. Miura, E. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Kato, and Y. Owadano, “Effects of laser wavelength and density scalelength on absorption of ultrashort intense lasers on solid-density targets,” J. Plasma Fusion Res. 78, 717–718 (2002).
[Crossref]

Monot, P.

A. G. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, and P. Monot, “Pulse duration effect on the distribution of energetic particles produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses irradiating solids,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3718–3723 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. G. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, and P. Monot, “Pulse duration effect on the distribution of energetic particles produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses irradiating solids,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3718–3723 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nagatomo, H.

T. Nakamura, S. Kato, H. Nagatomo, and K. Mima, “Surface-Magnetic-Field and Fast-Electron Current-Layer Formation by Ultraintense Laser Irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 265002–265005 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, H.

Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, M. Nakatsutsumi, H. Nakamura, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, Y. Toyama, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “Enhancement of energetic electrons and protons by cone guiding of laser light,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 36403–36407 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, T.

T. Nakamura, K. Mima, H. Sakagami, and T. Johzaki, “Electron surface acceleration on a solid capillary target inner wall irradiated with ultraintense laser pulses,” Phys. Plasmas 14, 053112–53118 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Nakamura, S. Kato, H. Nagatomo, and K. Mima, “Surface-Magnetic-Field and Fast-Electron Current-Layer Formation by Ultraintense Laser Irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 265002–265005 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Kato, E. Miura, E. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Kato, and Y. Owadano, “Effects of laser wavelength and density scalelength on absorption of ultrashort intense lasers on solid-density targets,” J. Plasma Fusion Res. 78, 717–718 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nakatsutsumi, M.

Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, M. Nakatsutsumi, H. Nakamura, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, Y. Toyama, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “Enhancement of energetic electrons and protons by cone guiding of laser light,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 36403–36407 (2005).
[Crossref]

Norreys, P. A.

F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, M. S. Wei, A. E. Dangor, R.G. Evans, A. Gopal, K. L. Lancaster, K.W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, P. A. Norreys, M. Tatarakis, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “High-Intensity-Laser-Driven Z Pinche,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 95001–95004 (2004).
[Crossref]

Owadano, Y.

S. Kato, E. Miura, E. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Kato, and Y. Owadano, “Effects of laser wavelength and density scalelength on absorption of ultrashort intense lasers on solid-density targets,” J. Plasma Fusion Res. 78, 717–718 (2002).
[Crossref]

Peng, X. Y.

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, X. Y. Peng, X. Lu, Y. J. Li, and X. W. Tang, “Spatial Distribution of High-Energy Electron Emission fromWater Plasmas Produced by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 165002–165005 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perry, M. D.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S.C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pfotenhauer, S.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, T. Esirkepov, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439, 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pretzler, G.

G. Pretzler, F. Brandl, J. Stein, E. Fill, and J. Kuba, “High-intensity regime of x-ray generation from relativistic laser plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3623–3625 (2003).
[Crossref]

Quoix, C.

S. Bastiani, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, Th. Schlegel, J. C. Gauthier, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Hot-electron distribution functions in a subpicosecond laser interaction with solid targets of varying initial gradient scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3439–3452 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ruhl, H.

Y. Sentoku, K. Mima, H. Ruhl, Y. Toyama, R. Kodama, and T. E. Cowan, “Laser light and hot electron micro focusing using a conical target,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 3083–3087 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sakagami, H.

T. Nakamura, K. Mima, H. Sakagami, and T. Johzaki, “Electron surface acceleration on a solid capillary target inner wall irradiated with ultraintense laser pulses,” Phys. Plasmas 14, 053112–53118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, A.

A. G. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, and P. Monot, “Pulse duration effect on the distribution of energetic particles produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses irradiating solids,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3718–3723 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sauerbrey, R.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, T. Esirkepov, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439, 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlegel, Th.

S. Bastiani, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, Th. Schlegel, J. C. Gauthier, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, “Hot-electron distribution functions in a subpicosecond laser interaction with solid targets of varying initial gradient scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3439–3452 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schwoerer, H.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, T. Esirkepov, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439, 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sentoku, Y.

Y. Sentoku, K. Mima, H. Ruhl, Y. Toyama, R. Kodama, and T. E. Cowan, “Laser light and hot electron micro focusing using a conical target,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 3083–3087 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sheng, Z. M.

M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, I. Zheng, Y. Y. Ma, M. A. Bari, Y. T. Li, and J. Zhang, “Surface electron acceleration in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Optics Express 14, 3093–3098 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “On the angular distribution of fast electrons generated in intense laser interaction with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 014504–014507 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Ma, Z. M. Sheng, Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z. Y. Zheng, W. W. Chang, M. Chen, and J. Zheng, “Preplasma effects on the emission directions of energetic electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” J. Plasma Phys. 72, 1269–1272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, T. Matsuoka, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “High-energy electrons produced in subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions from subrelativistic laser intensities to relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 36405–36411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, X. Y. Peng, X. Lu, Y. J. Li, and X. W. Tang, “Spatial Distribution of High-Energy Electron Emission fromWater Plasmas Produced by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 165002–165005 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, Z. M. Sheng, Q. L. Dong, L. Z. Zhao, Z.Y. Wei, and X.W. Tang, “Effects of Laser Polarization on Jet Emission of Fast Electrons in Femtosecond-Laser Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 225001–225004 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stein, J.

G. Pretzler, F. Brandl, J. Stein, E. Fill, and J. Kuba, “High-intensity regime of x-ray generation from relativistic laser plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3623–3625 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tabak, M.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S.C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

Tajima, T.

A. G. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, and P. Monot, “Pulse duration effect on the distribution of energetic particles produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses irradiating solids,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3718–3723 (2001).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, E.

S. Kato, E. Miura, E. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Kato, and Y. Owadano, “Effects of laser wavelength and density scalelength on absorption of ultrashort intense lasers on solid-density targets,” J. Plasma Fusion Res. 78, 717–718 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tampo, M.

Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, M. Nakatsutsumi, H. Nakamura, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, Y. Toyama, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “Enhancement of energetic electrons and protons by cone guiding of laser light,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 36403–36407 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, T. Matsuoka, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “High-energy electrons produced in subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions from subrelativistic laser intensities to relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 36405–36411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K. A.

Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, M. Nakatsutsumi, H. Nakamura, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, Y. Toyama, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “Enhancement of energetic electrons and protons by cone guiding of laser light,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 36403–36407 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, T. Matsuoka, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “High-energy electrons produced in subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions from subrelativistic laser intensities to relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 36405–36411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tang, X. W.

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, X. Y. Peng, X. Lu, Y. J. Li, and X. W. Tang, “Spatial Distribution of High-Energy Electron Emission fromWater Plasmas Produced by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 165002–165005 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, X.W.

L. M. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, Z. M. Sheng, Q. L. Dong, L. Z. Zhao, Z.Y. Wei, and X.W. Tang, “Effects of Laser Polarization on Jet Emission of Fast Electrons in Femtosecond-Laser Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 225001–225004 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tatarakis, M.

F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, M. S. Wei, A. E. Dangor, R.G. Evans, A. Gopal, K. L. Lancaster, K.W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, P. A. Norreys, M. Tatarakis, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “High-Intensity-Laser-Driven Z Pinche,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 95001–95004 (2004).
[Crossref]

Teng, H.

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, X. Y. Peng, X. Lu, Y. J. Li, and X. W. Tang, “Spatial Distribution of High-Energy Electron Emission fromWater Plasmas Produced by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 165002–165005 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, Z. M. Sheng, Q. L. Dong, L. Z. Zhao, Z.Y. Wei, and X.W. Tang, “Effects of Laser Polarization on Jet Emission of Fast Electrons in Femtosecond-Laser Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 225001–225004 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toyama, Y.

Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, M. Nakatsutsumi, H. Nakamura, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, Y. Toyama, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “Enhancement of energetic electrons and protons by cone guiding of laser light,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 36403–36407 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Sentoku, K. Mima, H. Ruhl, Y. Toyama, R. Kodama, and T. E. Cowan, “Laser light and hot electron micro focusing using a conical target,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 3083–3087 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tsutsumi, T.

Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, M. Nakatsutsumi, H. Nakamura, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, Y. Toyama, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “Enhancement of energetic electrons and protons by cone guiding of laser light,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 36403–36407 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, T. Matsuoka, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “High-energy electrons produced in subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions from subrelativistic laser intensities to relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 36405–36411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. H.

Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, M. S.

F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, M. S. Wei, A. E. Dangor, R.G. Evans, A. Gopal, K. L. Lancaster, K.W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, P. A. Norreys, M. Tatarakis, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “High-Intensity-Laser-Driven Z Pinche,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 95001–95004 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z.Y.

Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, Z. M. Sheng, Q. L. Dong, L. Z. Zhao, Z.Y. Wei, and X.W. Tang, “Effects of Laser Polarization on Jet Emission of Fast Electrons in Femtosecond-Laser Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 225001–225004 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiks, S. C.

S. C. Wiks and W. L. Kruer, “Ultra-intense laser light by solids and overdense plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE33, 1954–1968 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wilks, S.C.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S.C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

Woodworth, J.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S.C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

Xu, M. H.

Y. Y. Ma, Z. M. Sheng, Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z. Y. Zheng, W. W. Chang, M. Chen, and J. Zheng, “Preplasma effects on the emission directions of energetic electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” J. Plasma Phys. 72, 1269–1272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yabuuchi, T.

Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, M. Nakatsutsumi, H. Nakamura, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, Y. Toyama, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “Enhancement of energetic electrons and protons by cone guiding of laser light,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 36403–36407 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, T. Matsuoka, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “High-energy electrons produced in subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions from subrelativistic laser intensities to relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 36405–36411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yu, Q. Z.

Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, X. H.

Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ma, Z. M. Sheng, Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z. Y. Zheng, W. W. Chang, M. Chen, and J. Zheng, “Preplasma effects on the emission directions of energetic electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” J. Plasma Phys. 72, 1269–1272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zepf, M.

F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, M. S. Wei, A. E. Dangor, R.G. Evans, A. Gopal, K. L. Lancaster, K.W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, P. A. Norreys, M. Tatarakis, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “High-Intensity-Laser-Driven Z Pinche,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 95001–95004 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Y. Y. Ma, Z. M. Sheng, Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z. Y. Zheng, W. W. Chang, M. Chen, and J. Zheng, “Preplasma effects on the emission directions of energetic electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” J. Plasma Phys. 72, 1269–1272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “On the angular distribution of fast electrons generated in intense laser interaction with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 014504–014507 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, I. Zheng, Y. Y. Ma, M. A. Bari, Y. T. Li, and J. Zhang, “Surface electron acceleration in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Optics Express 14, 3093–3098 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, T. Matsuoka, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “High-energy electrons produced in subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions from subrelativistic laser intensities to relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 36405–36411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, X. Y. Peng, X. Lu, Y. J. Li, and X. W. Tang, “Spatial Distribution of High-Energy Electron Emission fromWater Plasmas Produced by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 165002–165005 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, Z. M. Sheng, Q. L. Dong, L. Z. Zhao, Z.Y. Wei, and X.W. Tang, “Effects of Laser Polarization on Jet Emission of Fast Electrons in Femtosecond-Laser Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 225001–225004 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, L. Z.

L. M. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, Z. M. Sheng, Q. L. Dong, L. Z. Zhao, Z.Y. Wei, and X.W. Tang, “Effects of Laser Polarization on Jet Emission of Fast Electrons in Femtosecond-Laser Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 225001–225004 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, W.

Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, I.

M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, I. Zheng, Y. Y. Ma, M. A. Bari, Y. T. Li, and J. Zhang, “Surface electron acceleration in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Optics Express 14, 3093–3098 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

Y. Y. Ma, Z. M. Sheng, Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z. Y. Zheng, W. W. Chang, M. Chen, and J. Zheng, “Preplasma effects on the emission directions of energetic electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” J. Plasma Phys. 72, 1269–1272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, T. Matsuoka, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “High-energy electrons produced in subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions from subrelativistic laser intensities to relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 36405–36411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z. Y.

Y. Y. Ma, Z. M. Sheng, Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z. Y. Zheng, W. W. Chang, M. Chen, and J. Zheng, “Preplasma effects on the emission directions of energetic electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” J. Plasma Phys. 72, 1269–1272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z.Y.

Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z.Y. Zheng, Z. M. Sheng, M. Chen, Y. Y. Ma, W. X. Liang, Q. Z. Yu, Y. Zhang, F. Liu, Z. H. Wang, Z.Y. Wei, W. Zhao, Z. Jin, and J. Zhang, “Observation of a Fast Electron Beam Emitted along the Surface of a Target Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 165003–165006 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhidkov, A. G.

A. G. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, and P. Monot, “Pulse duration effect on the distribution of energetic particles produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses irradiating solids,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3718–3723 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ziegler, W.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, T. Esirkepov, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439, 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Pretzler, F. Brandl, J. Stein, E. Fill, and J. Kuba, “High-intensity regime of x-ray generation from relativistic laser plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3623–3625 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. C. Wiks and W. L. Kruer, “Ultra-intense laser light by solids and overdense plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE33, 1954–1968 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Plasma Fusion Res. (1)

S. Kato, E. Miura, E. Takahashi, T. Nakamura, T. Kato, and Y. Owadano, “Effects of laser wavelength and density scalelength on absorption of ultrashort intense lasers on solid-density targets,” J. Plasma Fusion Res. 78, 717–718 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Plasma Phys. (1)

Y. Y. Ma, Z. M. Sheng, Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, M. H. Xu, Z. Y. Zheng, W. W. Chang, M. Chen, and J. Zheng, “Preplasma effects on the emission directions of energetic electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” J. Plasma Phys. 72, 1269–1272 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, T. Esirkepov, and K. W. D. Ledingham, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439, 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Optics Express (1)

M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, I. Zheng, Y. Y. Ma, M. A. Bari, Y. T. Li, and J. Zhang, “Surface electron acceleration in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Optics Express 14, 3093–3098 (2006).
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[Crossref]

Phys. Plasmas (5)

Y. Sentoku, K. Mima, H. Ruhl, Y. Toyama, R. Kodama, and T. E. Cowan, “Laser light and hot electron micro focusing using a conical target,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 3083–3087 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. G. Zhidkov, A. Sasaki, I. Fukumoto, T. Tajima, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, S. Hulin, and P. Monot, “Pulse duration effect on the distribution of energetic particles produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses irradiating solids,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 3718–3723 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S.C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

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M. Chen, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “On the angular distribution of fast electrons generated in intense laser interaction with solid targets,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 014504–014507 (2006).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Z. L. Chen, R. Kodama, T. Matsuoka, M. Tampo, K. A. Tanaka, T. Tsutsumi, and T. Yabuuchi, “High-energy electrons produced in subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions from subrelativistic laser intensities to relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 36405–36411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

F. N. Beg, E. L. Clark, M. S. Wei, A. E. Dangor, R.G. Evans, A. Gopal, K. L. Lancaster, K.W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, P. A. Norreys, M. Tatarakis, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick, “High-Intensity-Laser-Driven Z Pinche,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 95001–95004 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Li, J. Zhang, Z. M. Sheng, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, X. Y. Peng, X. Lu, Y. J. Li, and X. W. Tang, “Spatial Distribution of High-Energy Electron Emission fromWater Plasmas Produced by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 165002–165005 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, Z. M. Sheng, Q. L. Dong, L. Z. Zhao, Z.Y. Wei, and X.W. Tang, “Effects of Laser Polarization on Jet Emission of Fast Electrons in Femtosecond-Laser Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 225001–225004 (2001).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical angular distribution of the fast electrons with energies larger than 550 keV for the laser intensity of 1.5×1018 W/cm2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Angular distribution of the fast electrons with energies larger than 550 keV for the laser intensity of (a) 6×1016 W/cm2, (b) 7×1017 W/cm2, (c) 1.5×1018 W/cm2 and (d) 2.3×1018 W/cm2. The laser is incident from the right to the left at an angle of 45°.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fractions (a) and Counts (b) of the fast electrons in the normal (open-circle) and close to the front surface directions (solid square) relative to the total in the whole measured angle range versus the laser intensity. The errors come from the shot-to-shot fluctuations.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Temperatures of the fast electrons in the normal (open-circle) and close to the front surface directions (solid square) versus the laser intensity.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N I 17 0.8 for the electrons in the normal direction, and N I 17 2.1 for the electrons close to the front surface,

Metrics