Abstract

A high speed and low loss silicon optical modulator based on carrier depletion has been made using an original structure consisting of a p-doped slit embedded in the intrinsic region of a lateral pin diode. This design allows a good overlap between the optical mode and carrier density variations. Insertion loss of 5 dB has been measured with a contrast ratio of 14 dB for a 3 dB bandwidth of 10 GHz.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G.T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595-596 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), 2006 Edition, Interconnect topic.
  3. G. Chen, H. Chen, M. Haurylau, N. Nelson, P.M. Fauchet, E.G. Friedman, D. Albonesi "Predictions of CMOS compatible on-chip optical interconnect," SLIP’  05, 2-3 april 2005, San Francisco, USA.
  4. R.S. Jacobsen, K.N. Andersen, P.I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L.H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A.V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Yu, J. Wu, B. Zhu, "Enhanced quantum-confined Pockels effect in SiGe superlattices," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235328 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Kuo, Y.K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J.E. Roth, T.I. Kamins, D.A.B. Miller, J.S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J.E. Roth, O. Fidaner, Y. Schaevitz, Y. Kuo, T.I. Kamins, J.S. Harris, D.A.B. Miller, "Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells," Opt. Express 15, 5851-5859 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, S. Wada, L.C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electroabsorption modulators and photodetectors on an SOI platform," Opt. Express 15, 623-628 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt Express 15, 430-436 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. Schmidt, Q. Xu, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, "Compact electro-optic modulator on silicon-on insulator substrates using cavities with ultrasmall modal volumes," Opt. Express,  15, 3140-3148 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U.D. Keil, T. Franck, "High speed silicon Mach Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 133129-3135 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15 (2), 660-668 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F.Y. Gardes, G.T. Reed, N.G. Emerson, C.E. Png, "A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in Silicon On Insulator," Opt. Express 13, 8845-8854 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Marris, A. Cordat, D. Pascal, A. Koster, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, S. Laval, "Design of a SiGe/Si quantum-well optical modulator," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 747-754, (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Lupu, D. Marris, D. Pascal, J-L. Cercus, A. Cordat, V. Le Thanh, S. Laval, "Experimental evidence for index modulation by carrier depletion in SiGe/Si multiple quantum well structures," App. Phys. Lett. 85, 887-890 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Marris-Morini, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, M. Halbwax, S. Maine, S. Laval, J-M. Fédéli, J-F. Damlencourt, "Optical modulation by carrier depletion in a silicon PIN diode," Opt. Express,  14, 10838-10843, 2006
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R.A. Soref, B.R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Koster, E. Cassan, S. Laval, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, "Ultra-compact splitter for submicrometer silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A,  21, 2180-2185 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. ISE software, http://www.synopsys.com
  20. D. Marris-Morini, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, J-M. Fédéli, J-F. Damlencourt, D. Bouville, J. Palomo, S. Laval, "High speed all-silicon optical modulator," J. Lumin. 121, 387-390 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (5)

2006 (5)

F.Y. Gardes, G.T. Reed, N.G. Emerson, C.E. Png, "A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in Silicon On Insulator," Opt. Express 13, 8845-8854 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, M. Halbwax, S. Maine, S. Laval, J-M. Fédéli, J-F. Damlencourt, "Optical modulation by carrier depletion in a silicon PIN diode," Opt. Express,  14, 10838-10843, 2006
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, J-M. Fédéli, J-F. Damlencourt, D. Bouville, J. Palomo, S. Laval, "High speed all-silicon optical modulator," J. Lumin. 121, 387-390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R.S. Jacobsen, K.N. Andersen, P.I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L.H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A.V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yu, J. Wu, B. Zhu, "Enhanced quantum-confined Pockels effect in SiGe superlattices," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

Y. Kuo, Y.K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J.E. Roth, T.I. Kamins, D.A.B. Miller, J.S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chen, H. Chen, M. Haurylau, N. Nelson, P.M. Fauchet, E.G. Friedman, D. Albonesi "Predictions of CMOS compatible on-chip optical interconnect," SLIP’  05, 2-3 april 2005, San Francisco, USA.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U.D. Keil, T. Franck, "High speed silicon Mach Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 133129-3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

G.T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595-596 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lupu, D. Marris, D. Pascal, J-L. Cercus, A. Cordat, V. Le Thanh, S. Laval, "Experimental evidence for index modulation by carrier depletion in SiGe/Si multiple quantum well structures," App. Phys. Lett. 85, 887-890 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Koster, E. Cassan, S. Laval, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, "Ultra-compact splitter for submicrometer silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A,  21, 2180-2185 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Marris, A. Cordat, D. Pascal, A. Koster, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, S. Laval, "Design of a SiGe/Si quantum-well optical modulator," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 747-754, (2003).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R.A. Soref, B.R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Lupu, D. Marris, D. Pascal, J-L. Cercus, A. Cordat, V. Le Thanh, S. Laval, "Experimental evidence for index modulation by carrier depletion in SiGe/Si multiple quantum well structures," App. Phys. Lett. 85, 887-890 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R.A. Soref, B.R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

D. Marris-Morini, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, J-M. Fédéli, J-F. Damlencourt, D. Bouville, J. Palomo, S. Laval, "High speed all-silicon optical modulator," J. Lumin. 121, 387-390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Marris, A. Cordat, D. Pascal, A. Koster, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, S. Laval, "Design of a SiGe/Si quantum-well optical modulator," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 747-754, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

Y. Kuo, Y.K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J.E. Roth, T.I. Kamins, D.A.B. Miller, J.S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595-596 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.S. Jacobsen, K.N. Andersen, P.I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L.H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A.V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsidri, A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optical material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt Express (1)

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt Express 15, 430-436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

B. Schmidt, Q. Xu, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, "Compact electro-optic modulator on silicon-on insulator substrates using cavities with ultrasmall modal volumes," Opt. Express,  15, 3140-3148 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U.D. Keil, T. Franck, "High speed silicon Mach Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 133129-3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15 (2), 660-668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.Y. Gardes, G.T. Reed, N.G. Emerson, C.E. Png, "A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in Silicon On Insulator," Opt. Express 13, 8845-8854 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.E. Roth, O. Fidaner, Y. Schaevitz, Y. Kuo, T.I. Kamins, J.S. Harris, D.A.B. Miller, "Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells," Opt. Express 15, 5851-5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, S. Wada, L.C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electroabsorption modulators and photodetectors on an SOI platform," Opt. Express 15, 623-628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, M. Halbwax, S. Maine, S. Laval, J-M. Fédéli, J-F. Damlencourt, "Optical modulation by carrier depletion in a silicon PIN diode," Opt. Express,  14, 10838-10843, 2006
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Yu, J. Wu, B. Zhu, "Enhanced quantum-confined Pockels effect in SiGe superlattices," Phys. Rev. B 73, 235328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

SLIP (1)

G. Chen, H. Chen, M. Haurylau, N. Nelson, P.M. Fauchet, E.G. Friedman, D. Albonesi "Predictions of CMOS compatible on-chip optical interconnect," SLIP’  05, 2-3 april 2005, San Francisco, USA.

Other (2)

ISE software, http://www.synopsys.com

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), 2006 Edition, Interconnect topic.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross section of the phase shifter structure integrated into a rib silicon-on-insulator waveguide. (a) global view of the device with coplanar waveguide electrodes. (b) phase shifter structure. (c) intensity profile of the optical mode. (d) optical microscope view of the modulator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Static performances of the modulator. Output spectra of the modulator are measured at 0 and -10 V.

Fig. 3:
Fig. 3:

Normalized optical response of the Si modulator integrated in rib SOI waveguide.

Equations (1)

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Δ φ = 2 π Δ λ FSR

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