Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) gratings made up of an array of differently twisted nematic structures are obtained by crossed assembling of 1D polarization holograms recorded at the photoaligning substrates. The rotating linear polarization pattern, produced by the interference of two opposite circularly polarized beams, is recorded on the azo-dye doped polyimide aligning layers. The 2D gratings diffract light in different directions with different polarization states, that can be optically controlled. Orthogonal circularly and linearly polarized diffraction orders are simultaneously obtained irradiating the grating with a linearly polarized beam. An external ac voltage allows to completely control the diffracted energy distribution.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vathana, L. Johnson "An electrically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 -2590 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Sarkissian, N. Tabirian, B. Park, B. Zeldovich "Periodically aligned liquid crystal: Potential application for projection displays," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 451, 1-19 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. J. Bunning, L.V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R.L. Sutherland "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, "Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid-crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material," Opt. Lett. 29, 1261-1263 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, "Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 -1188 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, "Optically generated liquid-crystal gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542-2544 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light," Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Zhou, D. M. Collard, and M. Srinivasarao "Switchable gratings by spatially periodic alignment of liquid crystals via patterned photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 31, 652-654 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Wen, R. G. Petschek, C. Rosenblatt, "Nematic liquid-crystal polarization gratings by modification of surface alignment," Appl. Opt. 41, 1246-1250 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and A. Pelcovits "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. I. Senyuk, I. I. Smalyukh, and O. D. Lavrentovich, "Switchable two-dimensional gratings based on field-induced layer undulations in cholesteric liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 30, 349-351 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. P. Gorkhalim, S. G. Cloutier, and G. P. Crawford, "Two-dimensional vectorial photonic crystals formed in azo-dye-doped liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 31, 3336-3338 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, "Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Sarkissian, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. B. Glebov, V. Rotar, and B. Ya. Zeldovich, "Polarization-controlled switching between diffraction orders in transverse-periodically aligned nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 31, 2248-2250 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Provenzano, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, "Photopolarimeter based on two gratings recorded in thin organic films," Appl. Opt. 45, 3929-3934 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Ono, A. Emoto, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, "Multiplex diffraction from functionalized polymer liquid crystals and polarization conversion," Opt. Express 11, 2379-2384 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, G. P. Crawford, "Zero voltage Freedericksz transition in periodically aligned liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671-1673 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006

H. Sarkissian, N. Tabirian, B. Park, B. Zeldovich "Periodically aligned liquid crystal: Potential application for projection displays," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 451, 1-19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Senyuk, I. I. Smalyukh, and O. D. Lavrentovich, "Switchable two-dimensional gratings based on field-induced layer undulations in cholesteric liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 30, 349-351 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, D. M. Collard, and M. Srinivasarao "Switchable gratings by spatially periodic alignment of liquid crystals via patterned photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 31, 652-654 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Provenzano, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, "Photopolarimeter based on two gratings recorded in thin organic films," Appl. Opt. 45, 3929-3934 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sarkissian, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. B. Glebov, V. Rotar, and B. Ya. Zeldovich, "Polarization-controlled switching between diffraction orders in transverse-periodically aligned nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 31, 2248-2250 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Gorkhalim, S. G. Cloutier, and G. P. Crawford, "Two-dimensional vectorial photonic crystals formed in azo-dye-doped liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 31, 3336-3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and A. Pelcovits "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, G. P. Crawford, "Zero voltage Freedericksz transition in periodically aligned liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671-1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, "Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid-crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material," Opt. Lett. 29, 1261-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

2001

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, "Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 -1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. J. Bunning, L.V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R.L. Sutherland "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vathana, L. Johnson "An electrically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 -2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, "Optically generated liquid-crystal gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542-2544 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light," Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Arbuzov, A. V.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnik, M. I.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blinov, L. M.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vathana, L. Johnson "An electrically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 -2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

T. J. Bunning, L.V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R.L. Sutherland "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Callan-Jones, A.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and A. Pelcovits "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Caputo, R.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vathana, L. Johnson "An electrically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 -2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Provenzano, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, "Photopolarimeter based on two gratings recorded in thin organic films," Appl. Opt. 45, 3929-3934 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, "Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 -1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, "Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cloutier, S. G.

Collard, D. M.

Crawford, G. P.

S. P. Gorkhalim, S. G. Cloutier, and G. P. Crawford, "Two-dimensional vectorial photonic crystals formed in azo-dye-doped liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 31, 3336-3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and A. Pelcovits "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, G. P. Crawford, "Zero voltage Freedericksz transition in periodically aligned liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671-1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Sio, L.

Eakin, J. N.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and A. Pelcovits "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, G. P. Crawford, "Zero voltage Freedericksz transition in periodically aligned liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671-1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Emoto, A.

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, "Optically generated liquid-crystal gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542-2544 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light," Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L. B.

Gorkhalim, S. P.

Hasegawa, T.

Johnson, L.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vathana, L. Johnson "An electrically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 -2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kawatsuki, N.

Lavrentovich, O. D.

Mazzulla, A.

C. Provenzano, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, "Photopolarimeter based on two gratings recorded in thin organic films," Appl. Opt. 45, 3929-3934 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, "Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 -1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L.V.

T. J. Bunning, L.V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R.L. Sutherland "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

Pagliusi, P.

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, "Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Palto, S. P.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

H. Sarkissian, N. Tabirian, B. Park, B. Zeldovich "Periodically aligned liquid crystal: Potential application for projection displays," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 451, 1-19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pelcovits, A.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and A. Pelcovits "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pelcovits, R. A.

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, G. P. Crawford, "Zero voltage Freedericksz transition in periodically aligned liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671-1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petschek, R. G.

Provenzano, C.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Provenzano, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, "Photopolarimeter based on two gratings recorded in thin organic films," Appl. Opt. 45, 3929-3934 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, "Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Radcliffe, M. D.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and A. Pelcovits "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, G. P. Crawford, "Zero voltage Freedericksz transition in periodically aligned liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671-1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, C.

Rotar, V.

Russo, G.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, "Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 -1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sarkissian, H.

Senyuk, B. I.

Serak, S. V.

Shannon, P. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light," Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smalyukh, I. I.

Srinivasarao, M.

Sun, S. T.

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, "Optically generated liquid-crystal gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542-2544 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light," Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R.L.

T. J. Bunning, L.V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R.L. Sutherland "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Swetlin, B. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light," Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tabirian, N.

H. Sarkissian, N. Tabirian, B. Park, B. Zeldovich "Periodically aligned liquid crystal: Potential application for projection displays," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 451, 1-19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

Tondiglia, V. P.

T. J. Bunning, L.V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R.L. Sutherland "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Umanski, B. A.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

Vathana, H.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vathana, L. Johnson "An electrically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 -2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Veltri, A.

Wen, B.

Xie, Y.

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, G. P. Crawford, "Zero voltage Freedericksz transition in periodically aligned liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671-1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zeldovich, B.

H. Sarkissian, N. Tabirian, B. Park, B. Zeldovich "Periodically aligned liquid crystal: Potential application for projection displays," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 451, 1-19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeldovich, B. Ya.

Zhou, J.

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.

T. J. Bunning, L.V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R.L. Sutherland "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, G. P. Crawford, "Zero voltage Freedericksz transition in periodically aligned liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671-1673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, "Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 -1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, "Optically generated liquid-crystal gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542-2544 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vathana, L. Johnson "An electrically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 -2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and A. Pelcovits "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

H. Sarkissian, N. Tabirian, B. Park, B. Zeldovich "Periodically aligned liquid crystal: Potential application for projection displays," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 451, 1-19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanski, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light," Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, "Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for the recording of polarization holograms on the photosensitive substrates. M – mirror, BE – beam splitter, P – polarizer, WP – quarter wave plates, S – photosensitive substrate, q – grating vector, RC – right circular polarization, LC – left circular polarization. The dashed region denotes the rotating linear polarization pattern.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Assembling of the polarization patterned substrates of the liquid crystal cell with orthogonal grating vectors qf and qb for the front and back substrates, respectively (a). Scheme of the 2D array (b): easy axes at the front (red arrows) and back (black arrows) substrates.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photos of the far field diffraction pattern produced by 2D grating in 3(im thick cell. Diffraction pattern for linear probe beam with the actual order names (a) and polarization state (b). Diffraction patterns and polarization states for circular right handed (c) and left handed (d) polarization of the probe beam.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Polarization states of the (0,0) beam (blue), of the (0,1) beam (red), and of the (1,−1) beam (black), for 3 μm thick cell (a) and 5 μm thick cell (b).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical microscopy images of the 2D structure between crossed polarizer and analyzer (a), parallel polarizer and analyzer (b) and with the analyzer at 45° with respect to the polarizer (c). Scheme of the 2D array with highlighted oblique homogeneous regions (d).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Diffraction efficiencies versus the ac voltage (f = 5kHz) of the 3μ,m (a), and 5μm (b) thick cell, for circularly polarized probe beam.

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