Abstract

A dual Fourier-Wavelet domain watermarking technique for authentication and identity verification is proposed. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain spread spectrum is used for embedding identity (such as registration number, transaction ID etc.) information. While a blind detector detects an ID, it is important to validate with other ancillary data. To satisfy that requirement, we embed a robust signature and hide it in a mid-band wavelet subband using Fourier domain bit-embedding algorithm. Results are furnished to show the compression tolerance of the method.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. Cox, J. Bloom, and M. Miller, Digital watermarking: Principles & Practice (Morgan Kauffman Publishers, 2001).
  2. T. Liu and Z.-D. Qiu, "The survey of digital watermarking-based image authentication techniques," 6th International Conference on Signal Processing 2, 1556 - 1559 (2002).
  3. F. Ahmed and I. S. Moskowitz, "Correlation-based watermarking method for image authentication applications," Opt. Eng. 43, 1833-1838 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Ahmed and I. S. Moskowitz, "Phase Signature-based Image Authentication watermark robust to compression and coding," Proc. SPIE 5561, 133-144 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Meerwald and A. Uhl, "A survey of wavelet domain watermarking algorithms," Proc. SPIE 4314, 505-516 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Mallat, A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing (Academic Press, NY, 1998).
  7. J. Fridrich and M. Goljan, "Robust hash functions for digital watermarking," IEEE Proc. Int. Conf. on Information Technology: Coding and Computing," 178 - 183 (2000).
  8. J. L. Horner and J. R. Leger, "Pattern recognition with Binary phase-only filters," Appl. Opt. 24, 609-611 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. USC-SIPI Image Database, http://sipi.usc.edu/services/database/Database.html

2004 (2)

F. Ahmed and I. S. Moskowitz, "Correlation-based watermarking method for image authentication applications," Opt. Eng. 43, 1833-1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Ahmed and I. S. Moskowitz, "Phase Signature-based Image Authentication watermark robust to compression and coding," Proc. SPIE 5561, 133-144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. Meerwald and A. Uhl, "A survey of wavelet domain watermarking algorithms," Proc. SPIE 4314, 505-516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Ahmed, F.

F. Ahmed and I. S. Moskowitz, "Phase Signature-based Image Authentication watermark robust to compression and coding," Proc. SPIE 5561, 133-144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Ahmed and I. S. Moskowitz, "Correlation-based watermarking method for image authentication applications," Opt. Eng. 43, 1833-1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Horner, J. L.

Leger, J. R.

Meerwald, P.

P. Meerwald and A. Uhl, "A survey of wavelet domain watermarking algorithms," Proc. SPIE 4314, 505-516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moskowitz, I. S.

F. Ahmed and I. S. Moskowitz, "Correlation-based watermarking method for image authentication applications," Opt. Eng. 43, 1833-1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Ahmed and I. S. Moskowitz, "Phase Signature-based Image Authentication watermark robust to compression and coding," Proc. SPIE 5561, 133-144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uhl, A.

P. Meerwald and A. Uhl, "A survey of wavelet domain watermarking algorithms," Proc. SPIE 4314, 505-516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Ahmed and I. S. Moskowitz, "Correlation-based watermarking method for image authentication applications," Opt. Eng. 43, 1833-1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

F. Ahmed and I. S. Moskowitz, "Phase Signature-based Image Authentication watermark robust to compression and coding," Proc. SPIE 5561, 133-144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Meerwald and A. Uhl, "A survey of wavelet domain watermarking algorithms," Proc. SPIE 4314, 505-516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

S. Mallat, A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing (Academic Press, NY, 1998).

J. Fridrich and M. Goljan, "Robust hash functions for digital watermarking," IEEE Proc. Int. Conf. on Information Technology: Coding and Computing," 178 - 183 (2000).

USC-SIPI Image Database, http://sipi.usc.edu/services/database/Database.html

I. Cox, J. Bloom, and M. Miller, Digital watermarking: Principles & Practice (Morgan Kauffman Publishers, 2001).

T. Liu and Z.-D. Qiu, "The survey of digital watermarking-based image authentication techniques," 6th International Conference on Signal Processing 2, 1556 - 1559 (2002).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Level 2 decomposition showing the sub bands.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

DWT-DFT Domain Dual Watermark Embedding using level 1 decomposition

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

1-level decomposition of the ‘Chemical Plant’ with Haar Wavelet (a) Approximation, (b) Horizontal Detail, (c) Vertical, (d) Diagonal Detail

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Authentication Performance for a set of images at different strength a) PSR value, b) Inner product value

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Quality and Authentication Metric at a) Level 1 and b) Level 2 decomposition

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Authentication Performance against Compression a) Level 1, b) Level 2.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Identity verification Performance against Compression (BER vs compression QF) (a) Level 1, (b) Level 2.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 The energy of the subbands (using L2-norm)

Equations (7)

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H u v = X u v exp ( j ϕ u v )
ϕ u v = arctan ( Im ( H u v ) Re ( H u v ) )
W a = W m W k
H POF A u v = exp ( j ϕ A u v )
Corr k l = IDET ( H POF A u v S u v )
PSNR = 20 log 10 ( 255 1 MN j = 1 N i = 1 M [ I w i j I o i j ] 2 )
BIT _ POS = strength + 6

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