Abstract

Great interest has been focused on the problem of detecting faint companions, possibly including extrasolar planets, very close to other stars. A promising approach involves coupling high-correction adaptive optics to coronagraphs, for which many new and innovative designs have emerged. Detection of faint companions will require suppression of noise due to fluctuating speckles from the remnant fraction of stellar light not adaptively controlled. At high correction, the speckle halo takes on distinct spatial symmetries that may allow partial speckle noise reduction through relatively simple post-processing that rejects one spatial symmetry in the image. This paper quantitatively examines potential companion-detection sensitivity improvements that might be expected, and shows that realistic operational parameters will allow them to be realized.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. D. Koresko, R. B. Makidon, T. Berkefeld, and M. J. Kuchner, "Ground-based coronagraphy with high-order adaptive optics," Astrophys. J. 552, 397 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. E. E. Bloemhof, R. G. Dekany, M Troy, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Behavior of remnant speckles in an adaptively corrected imaging system," Astrophys. J. 558, L71 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, and D. Rouan, "Speckle symmetry with high-contrast coronagraphs," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 132 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. D. Perrin, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, B. R. Oppenheimer, and J. R. Graham, "The structure of high Strehl ratio point-spread functions," Astrophys. J. 596, 702 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. Shi, A. E. Lowman, D. C. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and J. T. Trauger, "Wavefront amplitude variation of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and experiment," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051L-1 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, "Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

F. Shi, A. E. Lowman, D. C. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and J. T. Trauger, "Wavefront amplitude variation of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and experiment," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051L-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, L. A. Thompson, and M. Rogosky, "10-7 contrast ratio at 4.5λ/D: New results obtained in laboratory experiments using nanofabricated coronagraph and multi-Gaussian shaped pupil masks," Opt. Express 13, 2394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Bloemhof, "Static point-spread function correction dominating higher-order speckle terms at high adaptive correction," Opt. Lett. 29, 2333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Bloemhof, "Remnant speckles in a highly corrected coronagraph," Astrophys. J. 610, L69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Aime and R. Soummer, "The usefulness and limits of coronagraphy in the presence of pinned speckles," Astrophys. J. 612, L85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

M. D. Perrin, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, B. R. Oppenheimer, and J. R. Graham, "The structure of high Strehl ratio point-spread functions," Astrophys. J. 596, 702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Bloemhof, "Suppression of speckle noise by speckle pinning in adaptive optics," Astrophys. J. 582, L59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Sivaramakrishnan, P. E. Hodge, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, E. E. Bloemhof, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "The adaptive optics point-spread function at moderate and high Strehl ratios," Proc. SPIE 4860, 161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. J. Lissauer, "Extrasolar planets," Nature 419, 355 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, and D. Rouan, "Speckle symmetry with high-contrast coronagraphs," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 132 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

E. E. Bloemhof, R. G. Dekany, M Troy, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Behavior of remnant speckles in an adaptively corrected imaging system," Astrophys. J. 558, L71 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. D. Koresko, R. B. Makidon, T. Berkefeld, and M. J. Kuchner, "Ground-based coronagraphy with high-order adaptive optics," Astrophys. J. 552, 397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, "The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph. I. principle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. Racine, G. A. H. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, "Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 587 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

F. Roddier, "The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy," Prog. Opt. 19, 281 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Aime, C.

C. Aime and R. Soummer, "The usefulness and limits of coronagraphy in the presence of pinned speckles," Astrophys. J. 612, L85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berkefeld, T.

A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. D. Koresko, R. B. Makidon, T. Berkefeld, and M. J. Kuchner, "Ground-based coronagraphy with high-order adaptive optics," Astrophys. J. 552, 397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bloemhof, E. E.

E. E. Bloemhof, "Static point-spread function correction dominating higher-order speckle terms at high adaptive correction," Opt. Lett. 29, 2333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Bloemhof, "Remnant speckles in a highly corrected coronagraph," Astrophys. J. 610, L69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Sivaramakrishnan, P. E. Hodge, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, E. E. Bloemhof, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "The adaptive optics point-spread function at moderate and high Strehl ratios," Proc. SPIE 4860, 161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Bloemhof, "Suppression of speckle noise by speckle pinning in adaptive optics," Astrophys. J. 582, L59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Bloemhof, R. G. Dekany, M Troy, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Behavior of remnant speckles in an adaptively corrected imaging system," Astrophys. J. 558, L71 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boccaletti, A.

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, and D. Rouan, "Speckle symmetry with high-contrast coronagraphs," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 132 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, "The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph. I. principle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, C.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

Clénet, Y.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, "The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph. I. principle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dekany, R. G.

E. E. Bloemhof, R. G. Dekany, M Troy, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Behavior of remnant speckles in an adaptively corrected imaging system," Astrophys. J. 558, L71 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Doyon, R.

R. Racine, G. A. H. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, "Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 587 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, T.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, "Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, B.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Graham, J. R.

M. D. Perrin, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, B. R. Oppenheimer, and J. R. Graham, "The structure of high Strehl ratio point-spread functions," Astrophys. J. 596, 702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Green, J. J.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hodge, P. E.

A. Sivaramakrishnan, P. E. Hodge, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, E. E. Bloemhof, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "The adaptive optics point-spread function at moderate and high Strehl ratios," Proc. SPIE 4860, 161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koresko, C. D.

A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. D. Koresko, R. B. Makidon, T. Berkefeld, and M. J. Kuchner, "Ground-based coronagraphy with high-order adaptive optics," Astrophys. J. 552, 397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuchner, M. J.

A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. D. Koresko, R. B. Makidon, T. Berkefeld, and M. J. Kuchner, "Ground-based coronagraphy with high-order adaptive optics," Astrophys. J. 552, 397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, "The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph. I. principle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lissauer, J. J.

J. J. Lissauer, "Extrasolar planets," Nature 419, 355 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lloyd, J. P.

A. Sivaramakrishnan, P. E. Hodge, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, E. E. Bloemhof, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "The adaptive optics point-spread function at moderate and high Strehl ratios," Proc. SPIE 4860, 161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lowman, A. E.

F. Shi, A. E. Lowman, D. C. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and J. T. Trauger, "Wavefront amplitude variation of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and experiment," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051L-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Makidon, R. B.

A. Sivaramakrishnan, P. E. Hodge, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, E. E. Bloemhof, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "The adaptive optics point-spread function at moderate and high Strehl ratios," Proc. SPIE 4860, 161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perrin, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, B. R. Oppenheimer, and J. R. Graham, "The structure of high Strehl ratio point-spread functions," Astrophys. J. 596, 702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. D. Koresko, R. B. Makidon, T. Berkefeld, and M. J. Kuchner, "Ground-based coronagraphy with high-order adaptive optics," Astrophys. J. 552, 397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marois, C.

R. Racine, G. A. H. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, "Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 587 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Michau, V.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, "Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moody, D.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moody, D. C.

F. Shi, A. E. Lowman, D. C. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and J. T. Trauger, "Wavefront amplitude variation of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and experiment," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051L-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nadeau, D.

R. Racine, G. A. H. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, "Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 587 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nicolle, M.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, "Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Niessner, A. F.

F. Shi, A. E. Lowman, D. C. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and J. T. Trauger, "Wavefront amplitude variation of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and experiment," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051L-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oppenheimer, B. R.

M. D. Perrin, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, B. R. Oppenheimer, and J. R. Graham, "The structure of high Strehl ratio point-spread functions," Astrophys. J. 596, 702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Sivaramakrishnan, P. E. Hodge, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, E. E. Bloemhof, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "The adaptive optics point-spread function at moderate and high Strehl ratios," Proc. SPIE 4860, 161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Bloemhof, R. G. Dekany, M Troy, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Behavior of remnant speckles in an adaptively corrected imaging system," Astrophys. J. 558, L71 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, M. D.

A. Sivaramakrishnan, P. E. Hodge, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, E. E. Bloemhof, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "The adaptive optics point-spread function at moderate and high Strehl ratios," Proc. SPIE 4860, 161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perrin, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, B. R. Oppenheimer, and J. R. Graham, "The structure of high Strehl ratio point-spread functions," Astrophys. J. 596, 702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Racine, R.

R. Racine, G. A. H. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, "Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 587 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Riaud, P.

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, and D. Rouan, "Speckle symmetry with high-contrast coronagraphs," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 132 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, "The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph. I. principle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, "The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy," Prog. Opt. 19, 281 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rogosky, M.

Rouan, D.

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, and D. Rouan, "Speckle symmetry with high-contrast coronagraphs," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 132 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, "The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph. I. principle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, "Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F.

F. Shi, A. E. Lowman, D. C. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and J. T. Trauger, "Wavefront amplitude variation of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and experiment," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051L-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sivaramakrishnan, A.

M. D. Perrin, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, B. R. Oppenheimer, and J. R. Graham, "The structure of high Strehl ratio point-spread functions," Astrophys. J. 596, 702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Sivaramakrishnan, P. E. Hodge, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, E. E. Bloemhof, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "The adaptive optics point-spread function at moderate and high Strehl ratios," Proc. SPIE 4860, 161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. D. Koresko, R. B. Makidon, T. Berkefeld, and M. J. Kuchner, "Ground-based coronagraphy with high-order adaptive optics," Astrophys. J. 552, 397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soummer, R.

C. Aime and R. Soummer, "The usefulness and limits of coronagraphy in the presence of pinned speckles," Astrophys. J. 612, L85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, S.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, "Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, L. A.

Tokovinin, A.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, "Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trauger, J. T.

F. Shi, A. E. Lowman, D. C. Moody, A. F. Niessner, and J. T. Trauger, "Wavefront amplitude variation of TPF's high-contrast imaging testbed: modeling and experiment," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051L-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Troy, M

E. E. Bloemhof, R. G. Dekany, M Troy, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Behavior of remnant speckles in an adaptively corrected imaging system," Astrophys. J. 558, L71 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walker, G. A. H.

R. Racine, G. A. H. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, "Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 587 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, "Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the high-contrast imaging testbed," Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (6)

A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. D. Koresko, R. B. Makidon, T. Berkefeld, and M. J. Kuchner, "Ground-based coronagraphy with high-order adaptive optics," Astrophys. J. 552, 397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Bloemhof, R. G. Dekany, M Troy, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Behavior of remnant speckles in an adaptively corrected imaging system," Astrophys. J. 558, L71 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perrin, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, B. R. Oppenheimer, and J. R. Graham, "The structure of high Strehl ratio point-spread functions," Astrophys. J. 596, 702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spatially antisymmetric speckle noise variance fraction with no coronagraph (solid curve, “simple imaging”) as a function of Strehl ratio, for fixed D/a=16 (higher future D/a will give higher antisymmetry). Values are averages of many monochromatic short-exposures for small (0.25 λ/D) pixels in the innermost two rings of the PSF. The other two curves show the noise variance, though always antisymmetric at highest correction, becomes symmetric when linear-term speckles are suppressed by a coronagraph with PSF rejection R. (The coronagraph curves consider only linear and quadratic speckle terms, strictly valid only at high correction. For illustration, R is taken to be independent of correction.)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Improvement in speckle-limited search contrast with the image antisymmetrization described in §3, as a function of initial correction, for R=7800 on the 4th Airy ring. Also plotted is the potential limit imposed by centroiding errors, as described by Eq. (7), assuming speckle lifetimes of t~1 second. Contrast values are based on the analytic expressions of Eqs. (1) and (2). At the highest correction considered here, giant extrasolar planets are observable.

Equations (7)

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( A + α ) e i ϕ ¯ 2 ( A + α ) ( 1 + i ϕ 1 2 ϕ 2 ) ¯ 2 A ̅ 2 2 Re { i A ¯ * A ϕ ¯ } + A ϕ ¯ 2 Re { i A ¯ * A ϕ 2 ¯ } + α ¯ 2 + 2 Re { A ¯ * α ¯ } + 2 Re { i A ¯ * α ϕ ¯ } + 2 Re { i A ϕ ¯ α ¯ * }
A ̅ = [ 2 J 1 ( π λ ) π λ ] ; ϕ ̅ typ ( 1 S ) 0.342 ( a D ) ; α ̅ typ α 2 0.342 ( a α D ) .
f = σ 2 symm σ 2 anti R + σ 2 symm = R ( 1 f ) f + R ( 1 f ) .
t shot SNR 2 r * C n C S 2 ,
σ cent = σ sp N ph ,
Δ = 1 2 1 N sp 2 σ cent = 1 N sp σ sp N ph = 1 0.342 ( a D ) ( 0.062 λ D ) C n r * t .
C n = Δ σ sp = C n 1 0.342 ( a D ) 1 C n r * t ,

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