Abstract

High-resolution imaging and beam steering using 3 microlens arrays (MLA) is demonstrated. Small lateral displacement of one microlens array is sufficient for large angle beam steering. A prescan lens is added to the system to overcome the discrete addressing problem associated with microlens scanning systems. A hybrid method that uses both geometrical ray tracing optimization and physical optics simulation is introduced for the design and optimization of the MLA system. Feasibility of 1880×1880 resolution using f/2 aspherical MLAs and 752×752 resolution using f/5 spherical MLAs are demonstrated assuming 100μm microlens pitch and 2mm clear aperture. The system is compact and suitable for endoscopic imaging and agile steering of large beams.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Duparré, D. Radtke, and P. Dannberg, "Implementation of Field Lens Arrays in Beam-Deflecting Microlens Array Telescopes" Appl. Opt. 43, 4854-4861 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Akatay, C. Ataman, and H. Urey, "High-resolution beam steering using microlens arrays," Opt. Lett. 31, 2861-2863 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  4. H. Urey, "Retinal Scanning Displays," in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering, R. Driggers, ed., (Marcel Dekker, 2003), pp. 2445-2457.
  5. J. Sun, L. Liu, Y. Maojin, and W. Lingyu, "Study of the transmitter antenna gain for intersatellite laser communications" Opt. Eng. 45, 58001- 58006 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, seventh ed., (Cambridge University Press, 2002)
  7. Software for Optical Design; Zemax Development Corporation (2006).
  8. N. Lindlein, "Simulation of micro-optical systems including microlens arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 1-9 (2002).
  9. H. Urey, N. Nestorovic, B. Ng, and A. Gross, "Optics Designs and System MTF for Laser Scanning Displays," Proc. SPIE 3689, 238-248 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. F. Borrelli, Microoptics Technology: fabrication and applications of lens arrays and devices, (Marcel Dekker, 1999).
  11. A. Akatay, A. Waddie, H. Suyal, and M. Taghizadeh, and H. Urey "Comparative performance analysis of 100% fill-factor microlens arrays fabricated by various methods," Proc. SPIE 6185, 1-11 (2006).

2006

J. Sun, L. Liu, Y. Maojin, and W. Lingyu, "Study of the transmitter antenna gain for intersatellite laser communications" Opt. Eng. 45, 58001- 58006 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Akatay, A. Waddie, H. Suyal, and M. Taghizadeh, and H. Urey "Comparative performance analysis of 100% fill-factor microlens arrays fabricated by various methods," Proc. SPIE 6185, 1-11 (2006).

A. Akatay, C. Ataman, and H. Urey, "High-resolution beam steering using microlens arrays," Opt. Lett. 31, 2861-2863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2002

N. Lindlein, "Simulation of micro-optical systems including microlens arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 1-9 (2002).

1999

H. Urey, N. Nestorovic, B. Ng, and A. Gross, "Optics Designs and System MTF for Laser Scanning Displays," Proc. SPIE 3689, 238-248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Akatay, A.

A. Akatay, A. Waddie, H. Suyal, and M. Taghizadeh, and H. Urey "Comparative performance analysis of 100% fill-factor microlens arrays fabricated by various methods," Proc. SPIE 6185, 1-11 (2006).

A. Akatay, C. Ataman, and H. Urey, "High-resolution beam steering using microlens arrays," Opt. Lett. 31, 2861-2863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ataman, C.

Dannberg, P.

Duparré, J.

Gross, A.

H. Urey, N. Nestorovic, B. Ng, and A. Gross, "Optics Designs and System MTF for Laser Scanning Displays," Proc. SPIE 3689, 238-248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lindlein, N.

N. Lindlein, "Simulation of micro-optical systems including microlens arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 1-9 (2002).

Lingyu, W.

J. Sun, L. Liu, Y. Maojin, and W. Lingyu, "Study of the transmitter antenna gain for intersatellite laser communications" Opt. Eng. 45, 58001- 58006 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

J. Sun, L. Liu, Y. Maojin, and W. Lingyu, "Study of the transmitter antenna gain for intersatellite laser communications" Opt. Eng. 45, 58001- 58006 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maojin, Y.

J. Sun, L. Liu, Y. Maojin, and W. Lingyu, "Study of the transmitter antenna gain for intersatellite laser communications" Opt. Eng. 45, 58001- 58006 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nestorovic, N.

H. Urey, N. Nestorovic, B. Ng, and A. Gross, "Optics Designs and System MTF for Laser Scanning Displays," Proc. SPIE 3689, 238-248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ng, B.

H. Urey, N. Nestorovic, B. Ng, and A. Gross, "Optics Designs and System MTF for Laser Scanning Displays," Proc. SPIE 3689, 238-248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Radtke, D.

Sun, J.

J. Sun, L. Liu, Y. Maojin, and W. Lingyu, "Study of the transmitter antenna gain for intersatellite laser communications" Opt. Eng. 45, 58001- 58006 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suyal, H.

A. Akatay, A. Waddie, H. Suyal, and M. Taghizadeh, and H. Urey "Comparative performance analysis of 100% fill-factor microlens arrays fabricated by various methods," Proc. SPIE 6185, 1-11 (2006).

Taghizadeh, M.

A. Akatay, A. Waddie, H. Suyal, and M. Taghizadeh, and H. Urey "Comparative performance analysis of 100% fill-factor microlens arrays fabricated by various methods," Proc. SPIE 6185, 1-11 (2006).

Urey, H.

A. Akatay, A. Waddie, H. Suyal, and M. Taghizadeh, and H. Urey "Comparative performance analysis of 100% fill-factor microlens arrays fabricated by various methods," Proc. SPIE 6185, 1-11 (2006).

A. Akatay, C. Ataman, and H. Urey, "High-resolution beam steering using microlens arrays," Opt. Lett. 31, 2861-2863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Urey, N. Nestorovic, B. Ng, and A. Gross, "Optics Designs and System MTF for Laser Scanning Displays," Proc. SPIE 3689, 238-248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Waddie, A.

A. Akatay, A. Waddie, H. Suyal, and M. Taghizadeh, and H. Urey "Comparative performance analysis of 100% fill-factor microlens arrays fabricated by various methods," Proc. SPIE 6185, 1-11 (2006).

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

N. Lindlein, "Simulation of micro-optical systems including microlens arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 1-9 (2002).

Opt. Eng.

J. Sun, L. Liu, Y. Maojin, and W. Lingyu, "Study of the transmitter antenna gain for intersatellite laser communications" Opt. Eng. 45, 58001- 58006 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

H. Urey, N. Nestorovic, B. Ng, and A. Gross, "Optics Designs and System MTF for Laser Scanning Displays," Proc. SPIE 3689, 238-248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Akatay, A. Waddie, H. Suyal, and M. Taghizadeh, and H. Urey "Comparative performance analysis of 100% fill-factor microlens arrays fabricated by various methods," Proc. SPIE 6185, 1-11 (2006).

Other

N. F. Borrelli, Microoptics Technology: fabrication and applications of lens arrays and devices, (Marcel Dekker, 1999).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, seventh ed., (Cambridge University Press, 2002)

Software for Optical Design; Zemax Development Corporation (2006).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

H. Urey, "Retinal Scanning Displays," in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering, R. Driggers, ed., (Marcel Dekker, 2003), pp. 2445-2457.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

System geometry and steering of light by displacements of the PSL and MMLA.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustration of the PSF composed of a train of Sinc functions (I 2) under a Sinc-like envelope function (I 1), where D=Nd.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

3D schematic view of the optimized system utilizing aspherical f/2 MLAs. Illustrating the propagation steps and the corresponding simulation methods.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

X-Y axis cross sections of wavefront maps ϕ(x) of the systems at the maximum scan angle position for 100μm pitch MLAs with profiles: (a) aspherical f/2 (b) aspherical f/5 (c) spherical f/2 (d) spherical f/5. (RMS values are in number of wavelengths across square-shaped lens surface.)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Cross sections of the PSF, simulated for f/2, aspherical/spherical MLAs at the center and the maximum scan angle cases.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulated MTF of the system (4×4 MLAs) for various configurations and MTF of the experimental system (3×3 square-packed 100% fill-factor MLAs), (θd =λ/d, angular diffraction order separation)

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Long exposure captures of line scanning using identical f/5 MLAs (a) MMLA moves, (b) both MMLA and PSL move synchronously. (from Ref. 2)

Equations (2)

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t ( x ) = [ A ( x ) exp ( ( x ) ) rect ( x a ) ] * [ ( 1 d ) comb ( x d ) rect ( x D ) ]
I ( θ ) = ( aD ) 2 [ [ A ( x ) exp ( ( x ) ) rect ( x a ) ] × [ comb ( d sin θ λ ) * sin c ( D sin θ λ ) ] ] 2

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