Abstract

We propose a new method for molecular detection that retains the sensitivity of fluorescence, but without requiring fluorescence labeling of the sample. The method works by spiking the sample solution with one or more labeled molecular species of known concentration. With proper choice of these “competitor” species, their binding kinetics can be used to quantitatively determine the concentration of unlabeled target species. This method can be applied to any fluorescence transduction mechanism that allows real-time signal acquisition, and represents an advance in mitigating certain sample processing steps. We demonstrate the method for the detection of a DNA sequence containing a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP).

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm "Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74,3597-3619 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Roederer and G. J. Bastiaans "Microgravimetric immunoassay with piezoelectric crystals," Anal. Chem. 55,2333-2336 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Ngeh-Ngwainbi, A. A. Suleiman, and G. G. Guilbault "Piezoelectric crystal biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 5,13-26 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4,299-304 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Bianchi, C. Rustigliano, M. Tomassetti, G. Feriotto, F. Zorzato, and R. Gambari "Biosensor technology and surface plasmon resonance for real-time detection of HIV-1 genomic sequences amplified by polymerase chain reaction," Clin. Diagn. Virol. 8,199-208 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A.W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn "Long-range surface plasmon resonance imaging for bioaffinity sensors," Anal. Chem. 77,3904-3907 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Vaisocherova, A. Zitova, M. Lachmanova, J. Stepanek, S. Karlikova, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola "Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method," Biopolymers 82,394-398 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Okamoto, I. Yamaguchi, and T. Kobayashi "Local plasmon sensor with gold colloid monolayers deposited upon glass substrates," Opt. Lett. 25,372-374 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. R. Yonzon, E. Jeoung, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, M. Mrksich, and R. P. V. Duyne "A comparative analysis of localized and propagating surface plasmon resonance sensors: the binding of Concanavalin A to Monosaccharide functionalized self-assembled monolayer," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126,12669-12676 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Hook, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Kall "Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes," Nano Lett. 5,2335-2339 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. W. Boyd and J. E. Heebner "Sensitive disk resonator photonic biosensor," Appl. Opt. 40,5742-5747 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Altug and J. Vuckovic "Polarization control and sensing with two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays," Opt. Lett. 30,982-984 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Ilic, Y. Yang, K. Aubin, R. Reichenbach, S. Krylov, and H. G. Craighead "Enumeration of DNA molecules bound to a nanomechanical oscillator," Nano Lett. 5,925-929 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Bishop, S. Blair, and A. Chagovetz "A competitive kinetic model of nucleic acid surface hybridization in the presence of point mutants," Biophys. J. 90,831-840 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Bishop, A. Chagovetz, and S. Blair "Competitive displacement of DNA during surface hybridization," Biophys. J. 92,L10-L12 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. R. Henry, P. W. Stevens, J. Sun, and D. M. Kelso "Real-time measurements of DNA hybridization on microparticles with fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Anal. Biochem. 276,204-214 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. W. M. Reichert "Evanescent detection of adsorbed protein films: assessment of optical considerations for absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy at the crystal solution and polymer solutions interfaces," Crit. Rev. Biocompat. 5,173 (1989).
  20. Y. Zhou, P. J. Laybourn, J. V. Magill, and R. M. D. L. Rue "An evanescent fluorescence biosensor using ionexchanged buried waveguides and the enhancement of peak fluorescence," Biosen. Bioelectron. 6,595-607 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. E. Plowman, W. M. Reichert, C. R. Peters, H. K. Wang, D. A. Christensen, and J. N. Herron "Femtomolar sensitivity using a channel-etched thin film waveguide fluoroimmunosensor," Biosen. Bioelectron. 11,149-160 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. W. Attridge, P. B. Daniels, J. K. Deacon, G. A. Robinson, and G. P. Davidson "Sensitivity enhancement of optical immunosensors by the use of a surface plasmon resonance fluoroimmunoassay," Biosen. Bioelectron. 6,201-214 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, J. R. Krenn, B. Lambprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg "Electromagnetic interaction of fluorophores with designed 2D silver nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. B 73,373 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz "DNA hybridization assays using metal-enhanced fluorescence," Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co. 306,213-218 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Liu and S. Blair "Fluorescence enhancement from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," Opt. Lett. 28,507-509 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. I. Stimpson, J. V. Hoijer, W. T. Hsieh, C. Jou, J. Gordon, T. Theriault, R. Gamble, and J. D. Baldeschwieler "Real-time detection of DNA hybridization and melting on oligonucleotide arrays by using optical waveguides," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92,6379-6383 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. A. Taton, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger "Scanometric DNA array detection with nanoparticle probes," Science 289,1757-1760 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. Bishop, S. Blair, and A. Chagovetz "Convective flow effects on DNA biosensors," to appear Biosen. Bioelectron. (2007).
  29. S. Blair and Y. Chen "Resonant-enhanced evanescent-wave fluorescence biosensing using cylindrical optical cavities," Appl. Opt. 40,570-582 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Y. Liu, J. Bishop, L. Williams, S. Blair, and J. N. Herron "Biosensing based upon molecular confinement in metallic nanocavity arrays," Nanotechnology 15,1368-1374 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Bishop, A. Chagovetz, and S. Blair "Competitive displacement of DNA during surface hybridization," Biophys. J. 92,L10-L12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Bishop, S. Blair, and A. Chagovetz "A competitive kinetic model of nucleic acid surface hybridization in the presence of point mutants," Biophys. J. 90,831-840 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (7)

A.W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn "Long-range surface plasmon resonance imaging for bioaffinity sensors," Anal. Chem. 77,3904-3907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vaisocherova, A. Zitova, M. Lachmanova, J. Stepanek, S. Karlikova, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola "Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method," Biopolymers 82,394-398 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ilic, Y. Yang, K. Aubin, R. Reichenbach, S. Krylov, and H. G. Craighead "Enumeration of DNA molecules bound to a nanomechanical oscillator," Nano Lett. 5,925-929 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, D. A. Hammer, and D. J. Graves "Competitive hybridization kinetics reveals unexpected behavior patterns," Biophys. J. 89,2950-2959 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Yonzon, E. Jeoung, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, M. Mrksich, and R. P. V. Duyne "A comparative analysis of localized and propagating surface plasmon resonance sensors: the binding of Concanavalin A to Monosaccharide functionalized self-assembled monolayer," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126,12669-12676 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Hook, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Kall "Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes," Nano Lett. 5,2335-2339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Altug and J. Vuckovic "Polarization control and sensing with two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays," Opt. Lett. 30,982-984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Y. Liu, J. Bishop, L. Williams, S. Blair, and J. N. Herron "Biosensing based upon molecular confinement in metallic nanocavity arrays," Nanotechnology 15,1368-1374 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz "DNA hybridization assays using metal-enhanced fluorescence," Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co. 306,213-218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and S. Blair "Fluorescence enhancement from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," Opt. Lett. 28,507-509 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm "Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74,3597-3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, J. R. Krenn, B. Lambprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg "Electromagnetic interaction of fluorophores with designed 2D silver nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. B 73,373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Blair and Y. Chen "Resonant-enhanced evanescent-wave fluorescence biosensing using cylindrical optical cavities," Appl. Opt. 40,570-582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd and J. E. Heebner "Sensitive disk resonator photonic biosensor," Appl. Opt. 40,5742-5747 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. Okamoto, I. Yamaguchi, and T. Kobayashi "Local plasmon sensor with gold colloid monolayers deposited upon glass substrates," Opt. Lett. 25,372-374 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Taton, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger "Scanometric DNA array detection with nanoparticle probes," Science 289,1757-1760 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. R. Henry, P. W. Stevens, J. Sun, and D. M. Kelso "Real-time measurements of DNA hybridization on microparticles with fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Anal. Biochem. 276,204-214 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

N. Bianchi, C. Rustigliano, M. Tomassetti, G. Feriotto, F. Zorzato, and R. Gambari "Biosensor technology and surface plasmon resonance for real-time detection of HIV-1 genomic sequences amplified by polymerase chain reaction," Clin. Diagn. Virol. 8,199-208 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

T. E. Plowman, W. M. Reichert, C. R. Peters, H. K. Wang, D. A. Christensen, and J. N. Herron "Femtomolar sensitivity using a channel-etched thin film waveguide fluoroimmunosensor," Biosen. Bioelectron. 11,149-160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. I. Stimpson, J. V. Hoijer, W. T. Hsieh, C. Jou, J. Gordon, T. Theriault, R. Gamble, and J. D. Baldeschwieler "Real-time detection of DNA hybridization and melting on oligonucleotide arrays by using optical waveguides," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92,6379-6383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

J. W. Attridge, P. B. Daniels, J. K. Deacon, G. A. Robinson, and G. P. Davidson "Sensitivity enhancement of optical immunosensors by the use of a surface plasmon resonance fluoroimmunoassay," Biosen. Bioelectron. 6,201-214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, P. J. Laybourn, J. V. Magill, and R. M. D. L. Rue "An evanescent fluorescence biosensor using ionexchanged buried waveguides and the enhancement of peak fluorescence," Biosen. Bioelectron. 6,595-607 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. Ngeh-Ngwainbi, A. A. Suleiman, and G. G. Guilbault "Piezoelectric crystal biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 5,13-26 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

W. M. Reichert "Evanescent detection of adsorbed protein films: assessment of optical considerations for absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy at the crystal solution and polymer solutions interfaces," Crit. Rev. Biocompat. 5,173 (1989).

1983 (2)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4,299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Roederer and G. J. Bastiaans "Microgravimetric immunoassay with piezoelectric crystals," Anal. Chem. 55,2333-2336 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Alaverdyan, Y.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Hook, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Kall "Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes," Nano Lett. 5,2335-2339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

Attridge, J. W.

J. W. Attridge, P. B. Daniels, J. K. Deacon, G. A. Robinson, and G. P. Davidson "Sensitivity enhancement of optical immunosensors by the use of a surface plasmon resonance fluoroimmunoassay," Biosen. Bioelectron. 6,201-214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aubin, K.

B. Ilic, Y. Yang, K. Aubin, R. Reichenbach, S. Krylov, and H. G. Craighead "Enumeration of DNA molecules bound to a nanomechanical oscillator," Nano Lett. 5,925-929 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, J. R. Krenn, B. Lambprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg "Electromagnetic interaction of fluorophores with designed 2D silver nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. B 73,373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baldeschwieler, J. D.

D. I. Stimpson, J. V. Hoijer, W. T. Hsieh, C. Jou, J. Gordon, T. Theriault, R. Gamble, and J. D. Baldeschwieler "Real-time detection of DNA hybridization and melting on oligonucleotide arrays by using optical waveguides," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92,6379-6383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaans, G. J.

E. Roederer and G. J. Bastiaans "Microgravimetric immunoassay with piezoelectric crystals," Anal. Chem. 55,2333-2336 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bianchi, N.

N. Bianchi, C. Rustigliano, M. Tomassetti, G. Feriotto, F. Zorzato, and R. Gambari "Biosensor technology and surface plasmon resonance for real-time detection of HIV-1 genomic sequences amplified by polymerase chain reaction," Clin. Diagn. Virol. 8,199-208 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bishop, J.

J. Bishop, A. Chagovetz, and S. Blair "Competitive displacement of DNA during surface hybridization," Biophys. J. 92,L10-L12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Bishop, S. Blair, and A. Chagovetz "A competitive kinetic model of nucleic acid surface hybridization in the presence of point mutants," Biophys. J. 90,831-840 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. Bishop, L. Williams, S. Blair, and J. N. Herron "Biosensing based upon molecular confinement in metallic nanocavity arrays," Nanotechnology 15,1368-1374 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blair, S.

J. Bishop, A. Chagovetz, and S. Blair "Competitive displacement of DNA during surface hybridization," Biophys. J. 92,L10-L12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Bishop, S. Blair, and A. Chagovetz "A competitive kinetic model of nucleic acid surface hybridization in the presence of point mutants," Biophys. J. 90,831-840 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. Bishop, L. Williams, S. Blair, and J. N. Herron "Biosensing based upon molecular confinement in metallic nanocavity arrays," Nanotechnology 15,1368-1374 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and S. Blair "Fluorescence enhancement from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," Opt. Lett. 28,507-509 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Blair and Y. Chen "Resonant-enhanced evanescent-wave fluorescence biosensing using cylindrical optical cavities," Appl. Opt. 40,570-582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Chagovetz, A.

J. Bishop, A. Chagovetz, and S. Blair "Competitive displacement of DNA during surface hybridization," Biophys. J. 92,L10-L12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Bishop, S. Blair, and A. Chagovetz "A competitive kinetic model of nucleic acid surface hybridization in the presence of point mutants," Biophys. J. 90,831-840 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Christensen, D. A.

T. E. Plowman, W. M. Reichert, C. R. Peters, H. K. Wang, D. A. Christensen, and J. N. Herron "Femtomolar sensitivity using a channel-etched thin film waveguide fluoroimmunosensor," Biosen. Bioelectron. 11,149-160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Corn, R. M.

A.W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn "Long-range surface plasmon resonance imaging for bioaffinity sensors," Anal. Chem. 77,3904-3907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craighead, H. G.

B. Ilic, Y. Yang, K. Aubin, R. Reichenbach, S. Krylov, and H. G. Craighead "Enumeration of DNA molecules bound to a nanomechanical oscillator," Nano Lett. 5,925-929 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahlin, A.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Hook, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Kall "Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes," Nano Lett. 5,2335-2339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daniels, P. B.

J. W. Attridge, P. B. Daniels, J. K. Deacon, G. A. Robinson, and G. P. Davidson "Sensitivity enhancement of optical immunosensors by the use of a surface plasmon resonance fluoroimmunoassay," Biosen. Bioelectron. 6,201-214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, G. P.

J. W. Attridge, P. B. Daniels, J. K. Deacon, G. A. Robinson, and G. P. Davidson "Sensitivity enhancement of optical immunosensors by the use of a surface plasmon resonance fluoroimmunoassay," Biosen. Bioelectron. 6,201-214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Deacon, J. K.

J. W. Attridge, P. B. Daniels, J. K. Deacon, G. A. Robinson, and G. P. Davidson "Sensitivity enhancement of optical immunosensors by the use of a surface plasmon resonance fluoroimmunoassay," Biosen. Bioelectron. 6,201-214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, J. R. Krenn, B. Lambprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg "Electromagnetic interaction of fluorophores with designed 2D silver nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. B 73,373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Duyne, R. P. V.

C. R. Yonzon, E. Jeoung, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, M. Mrksich, and R. P. V. Duyne "A comparative analysis of localized and propagating surface plasmon resonance sensors: the binding of Concanavalin A to Monosaccharide functionalized self-assembled monolayer," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126,12669-12676 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Felidj, N.

H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, J. R. Krenn, B. Lambprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg "Electromagnetic interaction of fluorophores with designed 2D silver nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. B 73,373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feriotto, G.

N. Bianchi, C. Rustigliano, M. Tomassetti, G. Feriotto, F. Zorzato, and R. Gambari "Biosensor technology and surface plasmon resonance for real-time detection of HIV-1 genomic sequences amplified by polymerase chain reaction," Clin. Diagn. Virol. 8,199-208 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fromm, D. P.

W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm "Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74,3597-3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gambari, R.

N. Bianchi, C. Rustigliano, M. Tomassetti, G. Feriotto, F. Zorzato, and R. Gambari "Biosensor technology and surface plasmon resonance for real-time detection of HIV-1 genomic sequences amplified by polymerase chain reaction," Clin. Diagn. Virol. 8,199-208 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gamble, R.

D. I. Stimpson, J. V. Hoijer, W. T. Hsieh, C. Jou, J. Gordon, T. Theriault, R. Gamble, and J. D. Baldeschwieler "Real-time detection of DNA hybridization and melting on oligonucleotide arrays by using optical waveguides," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92,6379-6383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J.

D. I. Stimpson, J. V. Hoijer, W. T. Hsieh, C. Jou, J. Gordon, T. Theriault, R. Gamble, and J. D. Baldeschwieler "Real-time detection of DNA hybridization and melting on oligonucleotide arrays by using optical waveguides," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92,6379-6383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Graves, D. J.

Y. Zhang, D. A. Hammer, and D. J. Graves "Competitive hybridization kinetics reveals unexpected behavior patterns," Biophys. J. 89,2950-2959 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, I.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz "DNA hybridization assays using metal-enhanced fluorescence," Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co. 306,213-218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guilbault, G. G.

J. Ngeh-Ngwainbi, A. A. Suleiman, and G. G. Guilbault "Piezoelectric crystal biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 5,13-26 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. A.

Y. Zhang, D. A. Hammer, and D. J. Graves "Competitive hybridization kinetics reveals unexpected behavior patterns," Biophys. J. 89,2950-2959 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heebner, J. E.

Henry, M. R.

M. R. Henry, P. W. Stevens, J. Sun, and D. M. Kelso "Real-time measurements of DNA hybridization on microparticles with fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Anal. Biochem. 276,204-214 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herron, J. N.

Y. Liu, J. Bishop, L. Williams, S. Blair, and J. N. Herron "Biosensing based upon molecular confinement in metallic nanocavity arrays," Nanotechnology 15,1368-1374 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Plowman, W. M. Reichert, C. R. Peters, H. K. Wang, D. A. Christensen, and J. N. Herron "Femtomolar sensitivity using a channel-etched thin film waveguide fluoroimmunosensor," Biosen. Bioelectron. 11,149-160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoijer, J. V.

D. I. Stimpson, J. V. Hoijer, W. T. Hsieh, C. Jou, J. Gordon, T. Theriault, R. Gamble, and J. D. Baldeschwieler "Real-time detection of DNA hybridization and melting on oligonucleotide arrays by using optical waveguides," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92,6379-6383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

H. Vaisocherova, A. Zitova, M. Lachmanova, J. Stepanek, S. Karlikova, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola "Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method," Biopolymers 82,394-398 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hook, F.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Hook, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Kall "Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes," Nano Lett. 5,2335-2339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, W. T.

D. I. Stimpson, J. V. Hoijer, W. T. Hsieh, C. Jou, J. Gordon, T. Theriault, R. Gamble, and J. D. Baldeschwieler "Real-time detection of DNA hybridization and melting on oligonucleotide arrays by using optical waveguides," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92,6379-6383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ilic, B.

B. Ilic, Y. Yang, K. Aubin, R. Reichenbach, S. Krylov, and H. G. Craighead "Enumeration of DNA molecules bound to a nanomechanical oscillator," Nano Lett. 5,925-929 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeoung, E.

C. R. Yonzon, E. Jeoung, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, M. Mrksich, and R. P. V. Duyne "A comparative analysis of localized and propagating surface plasmon resonance sensors: the binding of Concanavalin A to Monosaccharide functionalized self-assembled monolayer," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126,12669-12676 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jou, C.

D. I. Stimpson, J. V. Hoijer, W. T. Hsieh, C. Jou, J. Gordon, T. Theriault, R. Gamble, and J. D. Baldeschwieler "Real-time detection of DNA hybridization and melting on oligonucleotide arrays by using optical waveguides," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92,6379-6383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kall, M.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Hook, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Kall "Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes," Nano Lett. 5,2335-2339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karlikova, S.

H. Vaisocherova, A. Zitova, M. Lachmanova, J. Stepanek, S. Karlikova, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola "Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method," Biopolymers 82,394-398 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelso, D. M.

M. R. Henry, P. W. Stevens, J. Sun, and D. M. Kelso "Real-time measurements of DNA hybridization on microparticles with fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Anal. Biochem. 276,204-214 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, T.

Krenn, J. R.

H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, J. R. Krenn, B. Lambprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg "Electromagnetic interaction of fluorophores with designed 2D silver nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. B 73,373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krylov, S.

B. Ilic, Y. Yang, K. Aubin, R. Reichenbach, S. Krylov, and H. G. Craighead "Enumeration of DNA molecules bound to a nanomechanical oscillator," Nano Lett. 5,925-929 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lachmanova, M.

H. Vaisocherova, A. Zitova, M. Lachmanova, J. Stepanek, S. Karlikova, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola "Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method," Biopolymers 82,394-398 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz "DNA hybridization assays using metal-enhanced fluorescence," Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co. 306,213-218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lambprecht, B.

H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, J. R. Krenn, B. Lambprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg "Electromagnetic interaction of fluorophores with designed 2D silver nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. B 73,373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laybourn, P. J.

Y. Zhou, P. J. Laybourn, J. V. Magill, and R. M. D. L. Rue "An evanescent fluorescence biosensor using ionexchanged buried waveguides and the enhancement of peak fluorescence," Biosen. Bioelectron. 6,595-607 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

A.W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn "Long-range surface plasmon resonance imaging for bioaffinity sensors," Anal. Chem. 77,3904-3907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitner, A.

H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, J. R. Krenn, B. Lambprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg "Electromagnetic interaction of fluorophores with designed 2D silver nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. B 73,373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Letsinger, R. L.

T. A. Taton, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger "Scanometric DNA array detection with nanoparticle probes," Science 289,1757-1760 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liboska, R.

H. Vaisocherova, A. Zitova, M. Lachmanova, J. Stepanek, S. Karlikova, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola "Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method," Biopolymers 82,394-398 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4,299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, J. Bishop, L. Williams, S. Blair, and J. N. Herron "Biosensing based upon molecular confinement in metallic nanocavity arrays," Nanotechnology 15,1368-1374 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and S. Blair "Fluorescence enhancement from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," Opt. Lett. 28,507-509 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magill, J. V.

Y. Zhou, P. J. Laybourn, J. V. Magill, and R. M. D. L. Rue "An evanescent fluorescence biosensor using ionexchanged buried waveguides and the enhancement of peak fluorescence," Biosen. Bioelectron. 6,595-607 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Malicka, J.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz "DNA hybridization assays using metal-enhanced fluorescence," Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co. 306,213-218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mirkin, C. A.

T. A. Taton, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger "Scanometric DNA array detection with nanoparticle probes," Science 289,1757-1760 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm "Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74,3597-3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mrksich, M.

C. R. Yonzon, E. Jeoung, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, M. Mrksich, and R. P. V. Duyne "A comparative analysis of localized and propagating surface plasmon resonance sensors: the binding of Concanavalin A to Monosaccharide functionalized self-assembled monolayer," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126,12669-12676 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ngeh-Ngwainbi, J.

J. Ngeh-Ngwainbi, A. A. Suleiman, and G. G. Guilbault "Piezoelectric crystal biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 5,13-26 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nylander, C.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4,299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

Peters, C. R.

T. E. Plowman, W. M. Reichert, C. R. Peters, H. K. Wang, D. A. Christensen, and J. N. Herron "Femtomolar sensitivity using a channel-etched thin film waveguide fluoroimmunosensor," Biosen. Bioelectron. 11,149-160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Plowman, T. E.

T. E. Plowman, W. M. Reichert, C. R. Peters, H. K. Wang, D. A. Christensen, and J. N. Herron "Femtomolar sensitivity using a channel-etched thin film waveguide fluoroimmunosensor," Biosen. Bioelectron. 11,149-160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reichenbach, R.

B. Ilic, Y. Yang, K. Aubin, R. Reichenbach, S. Krylov, and H. G. Craighead "Enumeration of DNA molecules bound to a nanomechanical oscillator," Nano Lett. 5,925-929 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichert, W. M.

T. E. Plowman, W. M. Reichert, C. R. Peters, H. K. Wang, D. A. Christensen, and J. N. Herron "Femtomolar sensitivity using a channel-etched thin film waveguide fluoroimmunosensor," Biosen. Bioelectron. 11,149-160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Reichert "Evanescent detection of adsorbed protein films: assessment of optical considerations for absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy at the crystal solution and polymer solutions interfaces," Crit. Rev. Biocompat. 5,173 (1989).

Rejman, D.

H. Vaisocherova, A. Zitova, M. Lachmanova, J. Stepanek, S. Karlikova, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola "Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method," Biopolymers 82,394-398 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rindzevicius, T.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Hook, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Kall "Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes," Nano Lett. 5,2335-2339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, G. A.

J. W. Attridge, P. B. Daniels, J. K. Deacon, G. A. Robinson, and G. P. Davidson "Sensitivity enhancement of optical immunosensors by the use of a surface plasmon resonance fluoroimmunoassay," Biosen. Bioelectron. 6,201-214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Roederer, E.

E. Roederer and G. J. Bastiaans "Microgravimetric immunoassay with piezoelectric crystals," Anal. Chem. 55,2333-2336 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, I.

H. Vaisocherova, A. Zitova, M. Lachmanova, J. Stepanek, S. Karlikova, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola "Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method," Biopolymers 82,394-398 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rue, R. M. D. L.

Y. Zhou, P. J. Laybourn, J. V. Magill, and R. M. D. L. Rue "An evanescent fluorescence biosensor using ionexchanged buried waveguides and the enhancement of peak fluorescence," Biosen. Bioelectron. 6,595-607 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rustigliano, C.

N. Bianchi, C. Rustigliano, M. Tomassetti, G. Feriotto, F. Zorzato, and R. Gambari "Biosensor technology and surface plasmon resonance for real-time detection of HIV-1 genomic sequences amplified by polymerase chain reaction," Clin. Diagn. Virol. 8,199-208 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

C. R. Yonzon, E. Jeoung, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, M. Mrksich, and R. P. V. Duyne "A comparative analysis of localized and propagating surface plasmon resonance sensors: the binding of Concanavalin A to Monosaccharide functionalized self-assembled monolayer," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126,12669-12676 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stepanek, J.

H. Vaisocherova, A. Zitova, M. Lachmanova, J. Stepanek, S. Karlikova, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola "Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method," Biopolymers 82,394-398 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevens, P. W.

M. R. Henry, P. W. Stevens, J. Sun, and D. M. Kelso "Real-time measurements of DNA hybridization on microparticles with fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Anal. Biochem. 276,204-214 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stimpson, D. I.

D. I. Stimpson, J. V. Hoijer, W. T. Hsieh, C. Jou, J. Gordon, T. Theriault, R. Gamble, and J. D. Baldeschwieler "Real-time detection of DNA hybridization and melting on oligonucleotide arrays by using optical waveguides," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92,6379-6383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suleiman, A. A.

J. Ngeh-Ngwainbi, A. A. Suleiman, and G. G. Guilbault "Piezoelectric crystal biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 5,13-26 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

M. R. Henry, P. W. Stevens, J. Sun, and D. M. Kelso "Real-time measurements of DNA hybridization on microparticles with fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Anal. Biochem. 276,204-214 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutherland, D. S.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Hook, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Kall "Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes," Nano Lett. 5,2335-2339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taton, T. A.

T. A. Taton, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger "Scanometric DNA array detection with nanoparticle probes," Science 289,1757-1760 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Theriault, T.

D. I. Stimpson, J. V. Hoijer, W. T. Hsieh, C. Jou, J. Gordon, T. Theriault, R. Gamble, and J. D. Baldeschwieler "Real-time detection of DNA hybridization and melting on oligonucleotide arrays by using optical waveguides," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92,6379-6383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tomassetti, M.

N. Bianchi, C. Rustigliano, M. Tomassetti, G. Feriotto, F. Zorzato, and R. Gambari "Biosensor technology and surface plasmon resonance for real-time detection of HIV-1 genomic sequences amplified by polymerase chain reaction," Clin. Diagn. Virol. 8,199-208 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaisocherova, H.

H. Vaisocherova, A. Zitova, M. Lachmanova, J. Stepanek, S. Karlikova, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola "Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method," Biopolymers 82,394-398 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vuckovic, J.

Wang, H. K.

T. E. Plowman, W. M. Reichert, C. R. Peters, H. K. Wang, D. A. Christensen, and J. N. Herron "Femtomolar sensitivity using a channel-etched thin film waveguide fluoroimmunosensor," Biosen. Bioelectron. 11,149-160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wark, A.W.

A.W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn "Long-range surface plasmon resonance imaging for bioaffinity sensors," Anal. Chem. 77,3904-3907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, L.

Y. Liu, J. Bishop, L. Williams, S. Blair, and J. N. Herron "Biosensing based upon molecular confinement in metallic nanocavity arrays," Nanotechnology 15,1368-1374 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, I.

Yang, Y.

B. Ilic, Y. Yang, K. Aubin, R. Reichenbach, S. Krylov, and H. G. Craighead "Enumeration of DNA molecules bound to a nanomechanical oscillator," Nano Lett. 5,925-929 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yonzon, C. R.

C. R. Yonzon, E. Jeoung, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, M. Mrksich, and R. P. V. Duyne "A comparative analysis of localized and propagating surface plasmon resonance sensors: the binding of Concanavalin A to Monosaccharide functionalized self-assembled monolayer," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126,12669-12676 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, D. A. Hammer, and D. J. Graves "Competitive hybridization kinetics reveals unexpected behavior patterns," Biophys. J. 89,2950-2959 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, P. J. Laybourn, J. V. Magill, and R. M. D. L. Rue "An evanescent fluorescence biosensor using ionexchanged buried waveguides and the enhancement of peak fluorescence," Biosen. Bioelectron. 6,595-607 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zitova, A.

H. Vaisocherova, A. Zitova, M. Lachmanova, J. Stepanek, S. Karlikova, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola "Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method," Biopolymers 82,394-398 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zorzato, F.

N. Bianchi, C. Rustigliano, M. Tomassetti, G. Feriotto, F. Zorzato, and R. Gambari "Biosensor technology and surface plasmon resonance for real-time detection of HIV-1 genomic sequences amplified by polymerase chain reaction," Clin. Diagn. Virol. 8,199-208 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, S.

C. R. Yonzon, E. Jeoung, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, M. Mrksich, and R. P. V. Duyne "A comparative analysis of localized and propagating surface plasmon resonance sensors: the binding of Concanavalin A to Monosaccharide functionalized self-assembled monolayer," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126,12669-12676 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

M. R. Henry, P. W. Stevens, J. Sun, and D. M. Kelso "Real-time measurements of DNA hybridization on microparticles with fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Anal. Biochem. 276,204-214 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (2)

E. Roederer and G. J. Bastiaans "Microgravimetric immunoassay with piezoelectric crystals," Anal. Chem. 55,2333-2336 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A.W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn "Long-range surface plasmon resonance imaging for bioaffinity sensors," Anal. Chem. 77,3904-3907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, J. R. Krenn, B. Lambprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg "Electromagnetic interaction of fluorophores with designed 2D silver nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. B 73,373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co. (1)

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz "DNA hybridization assays using metal-enhanced fluorescence," Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co. 306,213-218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (3)

Y. Zhang, D. A. Hammer, and D. J. Graves "Competitive hybridization kinetics reveals unexpected behavior patterns," Biophys. J. 89,2950-2959 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bishop, S. Blair, and A. Chagovetz "A competitive kinetic model of nucleic acid surface hybridization in the presence of point mutants," Biophys. J. 90,831-840 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Bishop, A. Chagovetz, and S. Blair "Competitive displacement of DNA during surface hybridization," Biophys. J. 92,L10-L12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biopolymers (1)

H. Vaisocherova, A. Zitova, M. Lachmanova, J. Stepanek, S. Karlikova, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola "Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method," Biopolymers 82,394-398 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biosen. Bioelectron. (3)

Y. Zhou, P. J. Laybourn, J. V. Magill, and R. M. D. L. Rue "An evanescent fluorescence biosensor using ionexchanged buried waveguides and the enhancement of peak fluorescence," Biosen. Bioelectron. 6,595-607 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Plowman, W. M. Reichert, C. R. Peters, H. K. Wang, D. A. Christensen, and J. N. Herron "Femtomolar sensitivity using a channel-etched thin film waveguide fluoroimmunosensor," Biosen. Bioelectron. 11,149-160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Attridge, P. B. Daniels, J. K. Deacon, G. A. Robinson, and G. P. Davidson "Sensitivity enhancement of optical immunosensors by the use of a surface plasmon resonance fluoroimmunoassay," Biosen. Bioelectron. 6,201-214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

J. Ngeh-Ngwainbi, A. A. Suleiman, and G. G. Guilbault "Piezoelectric crystal biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 5,13-26 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Diagn. Virol. (1)

N. Bianchi, C. Rustigliano, M. Tomassetti, G. Feriotto, F. Zorzato, and R. Gambari "Biosensor technology and surface plasmon resonance for real-time detection of HIV-1 genomic sequences amplified by polymerase chain reaction," Clin. Diagn. Virol. 8,199-208 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crit. Rev. Biocompat. (1)

W. M. Reichert "Evanescent detection of adsorbed protein films: assessment of optical considerations for absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy at the crystal solution and polymer solutions interfaces," Crit. Rev. Biocompat. 5,173 (1989).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

C. R. Yonzon, E. Jeoung, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, M. Mrksich, and R. P. V. Duyne "A comparative analysis of localized and propagating surface plasmon resonance sensors: the binding of Concanavalin A to Monosaccharide functionalized self-assembled monolayer," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126,12669-12676 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Hook, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Kall "Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes," Nano Lett. 5,2335-2339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ilic, Y. Yang, K. Aubin, R. Reichenbach, S. Krylov, and H. G. Craighead "Enumeration of DNA molecules bound to a nanomechanical oscillator," Nano Lett. 5,925-929 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

Y. Liu, J. Bishop, L. Williams, S. Blair, and J. N. Herron "Biosensing based upon molecular confinement in metallic nanocavity arrays," Nanotechnology 15,1368-1374 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

P. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

D. I. Stimpson, J. V. Hoijer, W. T. Hsieh, C. Jou, J. Gordon, T. Theriault, R. Gamble, and J. D. Baldeschwieler "Real-time detection of DNA hybridization and melting on oligonucleotide arrays by using optical waveguides," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92,6379-6383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm "Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74,3597-3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

T. A. Taton, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger "Scanometric DNA array detection with nanoparticle probes," Science 289,1757-1760 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundström "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators 4,299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. J. Storhoff, S. S. Marla, V. Garimella, and C. A. MirkinLabels and detection methods 147-174. Springer 2005.

J. Bishop, S. Blair, and A. Chagovetz "Convective flow effects on DNA biosensors," to appear Biosen. Bioelectron. (2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

a) Simulation of the binding kinetics of 10 nM competitor concentration in the presence of varying target concentration. b) Calibration curve. The symbols represent peak values of competitor curves.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Two-color real-time microarray imaging setup. Only a single color (green) is used in these experiments.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Image frames illustrating the reference and hybridization spots used in the experiments; the images have been compressed horizontally for display purposes. The reference spot is approximately 500 μm in diameter. The dashed outlines indicate the areas over which intensity is integrated to obtain the total fluorescence signal; the areas are the same for the reference and hybridization spots to account for differences in morphology. In these frames, the competitor concentration is 10 nM and there is no target. Note that at the concentration used in this experiment, the surface occupancy of hybridized DNA is less than 100%.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

a) Experimental demonstration of CDDM with 10 nM competitor concentration. The symbols represent experimental data points while the solid curves are model fits (with R 2 values greater than 0.93). Target concentrations are as indicated. b) Calibration curve. The symbols represent peak values of curve fits.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

CDDM with 1 nM competitor concentration, demonstrating detection of sub-nM target concentrations.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dB dt = k a C ( R t B B comp ) k d B
dB comp dt = k a , comp C comp ( R t B B comp ) k d , comp B comp
d ( C + C comp ) dt = D 2 ( C + C comp )
B R t = Ψ = k a C k a C + k a , comp C comp k d k d , comp + k d
B comp R t = Ψ comp = k a , comp C comp k a , comp C comp + k a Ck d , comp k d + k d , comp ,
B ( t ) R t = Ψ αe τ 1 t βe τ 2 t
B comp ( t ) R t = Ψ comp + γ e τ 1 t δ e τ 2 t ,

Metrics