Abstract

The possibility of making a given object transparent to the impinging radiation, or cloaking it, by employing a suitable metamaterial or plasmonic cover has been recently studied theoretically, showing how this technique may overcome the limitations of other currently available techniques. Here we discuss the underlying mechanisms, physical insights and some computer simulations on the role of such homogeneous isotropic metamaterial covers near their plasma frequency in order to dramatically reduce the fields scattered by a given object. Not requiring any absorptive process, any anisotropy or inhomogeneity, and any interference cancellation, in this contribution we demonstrate, using full-wave numerical simulations, how a homogeneous isotropic plasmonic material shell may basically “re-route” the impinging field in such a way to make dielectric and even conducting or metallic objects of a certain size nearly transparent to an outside observer placed in its near as well as in its far field. In addition, it is discussed in detail how this technique, relying on a non-resonant phenomenon, is fairly robust to relatively high variations of the shape and of the geometrical and electromagnetic properties of the cloaked object.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. L. Fante, and M. T. McCornack, "Reflection properties of the Salisbury screen," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 30, 1443-1454 (1968).
  2. J. Ward, "Towards invisible glass," Vacuum 22, 369-375 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Alù, and N. Engheta, "Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016623 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. A. Nicorovici, R. C. McPhedran, and G. W. Milton, "Optical and dielectric properties of partially resonant composites," Phys. Rev. B 49, 8479-8482 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. W. Milton, and N. A. Nicorovici, "On the cloaking effects associated with anomalous localized resonance," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A: Math. Phys. Sci. 462, 3027-59 (2006).
  8. U. Leonhardt, "Optical conformal mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Landau, and E. M. Lifschitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 1984).
  10. R. W. Ziolkowski, and N. Engheta, (guest eds.), IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2546-2750 (2003).
  11. W. Rotman, "Plasma simulation by artificial dielectrics and parallel-plate media," IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 10, 82-95 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill Comp., New York and London, 1941).
  14. C. F. Bohren, and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  15. M. Kerker, "Invisible bodies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 376-379 (1975).
  16. CST Microwave StudioTM 5.0, CST of America, Inc., www.cst.com.
  17. R. E. Collin, Field Theory of Guided Waves, (IEEE Press, New York, 1991).
  18. A. Alù, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, "Negative effective permeability and left-handed materials at optical frequencies," Opt Express 14, 1557-1567 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (5)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Milton, and N. A. Nicorovici, "On the cloaking effects associated with anomalous localized resonance," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A: Math. Phys. Sci. 462, 3027-59 (2006).

U. Leonhardt, "Optical conformal mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, "Negative effective permeability and left-handed materials at optical frequencies," Opt Express 14, 1557-1567 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Alù, and N. Engheta, "Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

N. A. Nicorovici, R. C. McPhedran, and G. W. Milton, "Optical and dielectric properties of partially resonant composites," Phys. Rev. B 49, 8479-8482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1972 (1)

J. Ward, "Towards invisible glass," Vacuum 22, 369-375 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

R. L. Fante, and M. T. McCornack, "Reflection properties of the Salisbury screen," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 30, 1443-1454 (1968).

1962 (1)

W. Rotman, "Plasma simulation by artificial dielectrics and parallel-plate media," IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 10, 82-95 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Alù, A.

A. Alù, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, "Negative effective permeability and left-handed materials at optical frequencies," Opt Express 14, 1557-1567 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù, and N. Engheta, "Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

A. Alù, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, "Negative effective permeability and left-handed materials at optical frequencies," Opt Express 14, 1557-1567 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù, and N. Engheta, "Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fante, R. L.

R. L. Fante, and M. T. McCornack, "Reflection properties of the Salisbury screen," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 30, 1443-1454 (1968).

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kerker, M.

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt, "Optical conformal mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McCornack, M. T.

R. L. Fante, and M. T. McCornack, "Reflection properties of the Salisbury screen," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 30, 1443-1454 (1968).

McPhedran, R. C.

N. A. Nicorovici, R. C. McPhedran, and G. W. Milton, "Optical and dielectric properties of partially resonant composites," Phys. Rev. B 49, 8479-8482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Milton, G. W.

G. W. Milton, and N. A. Nicorovici, "On the cloaking effects associated with anomalous localized resonance," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A: Math. Phys. Sci. 462, 3027-59 (2006).

N. A. Nicorovici, R. C. McPhedran, and G. W. Milton, "Optical and dielectric properties of partially resonant composites," Phys. Rev. B 49, 8479-8482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nicorovici, N. A.

G. W. Milton, and N. A. Nicorovici, "On the cloaking effects associated with anomalous localized resonance," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A: Math. Phys. Sci. 462, 3027-59 (2006).

N. A. Nicorovici, R. C. McPhedran, and G. W. Milton, "Optical and dielectric properties of partially resonant composites," Phys. Rev. B 49, 8479-8482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rotman, W.

W. Rotman, "Plasma simulation by artificial dielectrics and parallel-plate media," IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 10, 82-95 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Salandrino, A.

A. Alù, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, "Negative effective permeability and left-handed materials at optical frequencies," Opt Express 14, 1557-1567 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ward, J.

J. Ward, "Towards invisible glass," Vacuum 22, 369-375 (1972).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

R. L. Fante, and M. T. McCornack, "Reflection properties of the Salisbury screen," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 30, 1443-1454 (1968).

IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

W. Rotman, "Plasma simulation by artificial dielectrics and parallel-plate media," IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 10, 82-95 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt Express (1)

A. Alù, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, "Negative effective permeability and left-handed materials at optical frequencies," Opt Express 14, 1557-1567 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

N. A. Nicorovici, R. C. McPhedran, and G. W. Milton, "Optical and dielectric properties of partially resonant composites," Phys. Rev. B 49, 8479-8482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

A. Alù, and N. Engheta, "Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A: Math. Phys. Sci. (1)

G. W. Milton, and N. A. Nicorovici, "On the cloaking effects associated with anomalous localized resonance," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A: Math. Phys. Sci. 462, 3027-59 (2006).

Science (3)

U. Leonhardt, "Optical conformal mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

J. Ward, "Towards invisible glass," Vacuum 22, 369-375 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

L. Landau, and E. M. Lifschitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 1984).

R. W. Ziolkowski, and N. Engheta, (guest eds.), IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2546-2750 (2003).

J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill Comp., New York and London, 1941).

C. F. Bohren, and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

CST Microwave StudioTM 5.0, CST of America, Inc., www.cst.com.

R. E. Collin, Field Theory of Guided Waves, (IEEE Press, New York, 1991).

Supplementary Material (13)

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