Abstract

Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography can be used to measure the birefringence of biological tissue such as the human retina. Previous measurements with a time-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system revealed that the birefringence of the human retinal nerve fiber layer is not constant, but varies as a function of location around the optic nerve head. Here we present a spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system that uses a spectrometer configuration with a single line scan camera and a Wollaston prism in the detection arm. Since only one camera has to be synchronized with other components in the system, the design is simplified considerably. This system is 60 times faster than a time-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system. Data was acquired using concentric circular scans around the optic nerve head of a young healthy volunteer and the acquisition time for 12 circular scans was reduced from 72 s to 1.2 s. The acquired data sets demonstrate variations in retinal thickness and double pass phase retardation per unit depth that were similar to data from the same volunteer taken with a time-domain polarization-sensitive system. The double pass phase retardation per unit depth of the retinal nerve fiber layer varied between 0.18 and 0.40 degrees/μm, equivalent to a birefringence of 2.2 ∙ 10-4 and 4.8 ∙ 10-4 respectively, measured at 840 nm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

M. Mujat, B.H. Park, B. Cense, T.C. Chen, and J.F. De Boer, "Auto-calibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in-vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination," J. Biomed. Opt. (Submitted), (2006).

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V.D. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Fiber-based polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using B-scan-oriented polarization modulation method," Opt. Express 14, 6502-6515 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

B. Cense, T.C. Chen, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, and J.F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.R. Huang, H. Bagga, D.S. Greenfield, and R.W. Knighton, "Variation of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence in normal human subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 3073-3080 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.A. Nassif, B. Cense, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, S.H. Yun, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, T.C. Chen, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B.H. Park, S.H. Yun, T.C. Chen, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480-482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

B. Cense, T.C. Chen, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1610-1612 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, Y. Sutoh, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Birefringence imaging of human skin by polarization-sensitive spectral interferometric optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1803-1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.L. Jiao and L.H.V. Wang, "Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple- channel optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350-358 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A.F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R.K. Ghanta, F.X. Kartner, J.S. Schuman, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1999

1997

1995

A.F. Fercher, C.K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S.Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science  254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akkin, T.

Bagga, H.

X.R. Huang, H. Bagga, D.S. Greenfield, and R.W. Knighton, "Variation of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence in normal human subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 3073-3080 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A.F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.E.

Cense, B.

M. Mujat, B.H. Park, B. Cense, T.C. Chen, and J.F. De Boer, "Auto-calibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in-vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination," J. Biomed. Opt. (Submitted), (2006).

B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, B. Cense, S.H. Yun, M. Mujat, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, and J.F. de Boer, "Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mu m," Opt. Express 13, 3931-3944 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R.C. Chan, B. Cense, B.H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T.C. Chen, and J.F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 9480-9491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.A. Nassif, B. Cense, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, S.H. Yun, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, T.C. Chen, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T.C. Chen, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, and J.F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B.H. Park, S.H. Yun, T.C. Chen, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480-482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.F. de Boer, B. Cense, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, G.J. Tearney, and B.E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T.C. Chen, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1610-1612 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chan, R.C.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science  254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.C.

M. Mujat, B.H. Park, B. Cense, T.C. Chen, and J.F. De Boer, "Auto-calibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in-vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination," J. Biomed. Opt. (Submitted), (2006).

M. Mujat, R.C. Chan, B. Cense, B.H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T.C. Chen, and J.F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 9480-9491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.A. Nassif, B. Cense, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, S.H. Yun, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, T.C. Chen, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T.C. Chen, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, and J.F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B.H. Park, S.H. Yun, T.C. Chen, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480-482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T.C. Chen, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1610-1612 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.P.

Choma, M.A.

De Boer, J.F.

M. Mujat, B.H. Park, B. Cense, T.C. Chen, and J.F. De Boer, "Auto-calibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in-vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination," J. Biomed. Opt. (Submitted), (2006).

M. Mujat, R.C. Chan, B. Cense, B.H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T.C. Chen, and J.F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 9480-9491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, B. Cense, S.H. Yun, M. Mujat, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, and J.F. de Boer, "Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mu m," Opt. Express 13, 3931-3944 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.A. Nassif, B. Cense, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, S.H. Yun, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, T.C. Chen, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B.H. Park, S.H. Yun, T.C. Chen, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480-482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T.C. Chen, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, and J.F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.F. de Boer, B. Cense, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, G.J. Tearney, and B.E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T.C. Chen, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1610-1612 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C.E. Saxer, J.F. de Boer, B.H. Park, Y.H. Zhao, Z.P. Chen, and J.S. Nelson, "High-speed fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin," Opt. Lett. 25, 1355-1357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.F. de Boer, T.E. Milner, and J.S. Nelson, "Determination of the depth-resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 300-302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.F. de Boer, T.E. Milner, M.J.C. van Gemert, and J.S. Nelson, "Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 934-936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R.K. Ghanta, F.X. Kartner, J.S. Schuman, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elzaiat, S.Y.

A.F. Fercher, C.K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S.Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A.F.

R. Leitgeb, C.K. Hitzenberger, and A.F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A.F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.F. Fercher, C.K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S.Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science  254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.G.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R.K. Ghanta, F.X. Kartner, J.S. Schuman, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.R. Hee, D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science  254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghanta, R.K.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R.K. Ghanta, F.X. Kartner, J.S. Schuman, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Greenfield, D.S.

X.R. Huang, H. Bagga, D.S. Greenfield, and R.W. Knighton, "Variation of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence in normal human subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 3073-3080 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science  254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M.R.

M.R. Hee, D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science  254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.K.

Huang, D.

M.R. Hee, D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science  254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X.R.

X.R. Huang and R.W. Knighton, "Microtubules contribute to the birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 4588-4593 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.R. Huang, H. Bagga, D.S. Greenfield, and R.W. Knighton, "Variation of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence in normal human subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 3073-3080 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J.A.

Jiao, S.L.

S.L. Jiao and L.H.V. Wang, "Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple- channel optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350-358 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joo, C.

Kamp, G.

A.F. Fercher, C.K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S.Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F.X.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R.K. Ghanta, F.X. Kartner, J.S. Schuman, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knighton, R.W.

X.R. Huang and R.W. Knighton, "Microtubules contribute to the birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 4588-4593 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.R. Huang, H. Bagga, D.S. Greenfield, and R.W. Knighton, "Variation of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence in normal human subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 3073-3080 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A.F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, C.K. Hitzenberger, and A.F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A.F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.P.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science  254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madjarova, V.D.

Makita, S.

Milner, T.E.

Mitsui, T.

T. Mitsui, "Dynamic range of optical reflectometry with spectral interferometry," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 - Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 38, 6133-6137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R.K. Ghanta, F.X. Kartner, J.S. Schuman, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Nassif, N.

Nassif, N.A.

Nelson, J.S.

Park, B.H.

M. Mujat, B.H. Park, B. Cense, T.C. Chen, and J.F. De Boer, "Auto-calibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in-vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination," J. Biomed. Opt. (Submitted), (2006).

B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, B. Cense, S.H. Yun, M. Mujat, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, and J.F. de Boer, "Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mu m," Opt. Express 13, 3931-3944 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R.C. Chan, B. Cense, B.H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T.C. Chen, and J.F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 9480-9491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.A. Nassif, B. Cense, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, S.H. Yun, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, T.C. Chen, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B.H. Park, S.H. Yun, T.C. Chen, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480-482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T.C. Chen, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, and J.F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.F. de Boer, B. Cense, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, G.J. Tearney, and B.E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T.C. Chen, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1610-1612 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C.E. Saxer, J.F. de Boer, B.H. Park, Y.H. Zhao, Z.P. Chen, and J.S. Nelson, "High-speed fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin," Opt. Lett. 25, 1355-1357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, M.C.

Pircher, M.

Puliafito, C.A.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science  254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M.V.

Saxer, C.E.

Schuman, J.S.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R.K. Ghanta, F.X. Kartner, J.S. Schuman, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science  254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W.G.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science  254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutoh, Y.

Swanson, E.A.

M.R. Hee, D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science  254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.J.

van Gemert, M.J.C.

Wang, L.H.V.

S.L. Jiao and L.H.V. Wang, "Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple- channel optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350-358 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A.F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C.H.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yun, S.H.

Zhao, Y.H.

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

X.R. Huang, H. Bagga, D.S. Greenfield, and R.W. Knighton, "Variation of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence in normal human subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 3073-3080 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.R. Huang and R.W. Knighton, "Microtubules contribute to the birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 4588-4593 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T.C. Chen, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, and J.F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

S.L. Jiao and L.H.V. Wang, "Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple- channel optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350-358 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A.F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, B.H. Park, B. Cense, T.C. Chen, and J.F. De Boer, "Auto-calibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in-vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination," J. Biomed. Opt. (Submitted), (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 - Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap.

T. Mitsui, "Dynamic range of optical reflectometry with spectral interferometry," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 - Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 38, 6133-6137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R.K. Ghanta, F.X. Kartner, J.S. Schuman, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

A.F. Fercher, C.K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S.Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

N.A. Nassif, B. Cense, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, S.H. Yun, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, T.C. Chen, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.A. Choma, M.V. Sarunic, C.H. Yang, and J.A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, B. Cense, S.H. Yun, M. Mujat, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, and J.F. de Boer, "Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mu m," Opt. Express 13, 3931-3944 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R.C. Chan, B. Cense, B.H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T.C. Chen, and J.F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 9480-9491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C.K. Hitzenberger, "High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Opt. Express 13, 10217-10229 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V.D. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Fiber-based polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using B-scan-oriented polarization modulation method," Opt. Express 14, 6502-6515 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C.K. Hitzenberger, and A.F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

J.F. de Boer, B. Cense, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, G.J. Tearney, and B.E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.F. de Boer, T.E. Milner, M.J.C. van Gemert, and J.S. Nelson, "Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 934-936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.F. de Boer, T.E. Milner, and J.S. Nelson, "Determination of the depth-resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 300-302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C.E. Saxer, J.F. de Boer, B.H. Park, Y.H. Zhao, Z.P. Chen, and J.S. Nelson, "High-speed fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin," Opt. Lett. 25, 1355-1357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Cense, T.C. Chen, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1610-1612 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, Y. Sutoh, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Birefringence imaging of human skin by polarization-sensitive spectral interferometric optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1803-1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B.H. Park, S.H. Yun, T.C. Chen, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, and J.F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480-482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science  254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A.N.S.I., Safe use of lasers. 1993, Laser Institute of America: New York.

B. Cense, "Optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging," PhD thesis, (2005).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measurement setup for polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Light from a broadband source (HP-SLD) was coupled through an isolator (I) and modulated at 29,300 Hz with a bulk polarization modulator (M). An 80/20 fiber coupler distributed the modulated light over sample and reference arms. The retina was scanned with a slit lamp (SL) based retinal scanner, and the reference arm consisted of a rapid scanning delay line (RSOD), employed with a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) to ensure a constant polarization state returning from the RSOD, and a variable neutral density filter (ND) for attenuation. In the detection arm, interference fringes were detected with a high-speed polarization-sensitive spectrometer. Light was collimated (Cf = 100 mm) and diffracted with a transmission grating (TG, 1200 lines/mm) after which a photographic multi-element lens (MEL; f = 105 mm) focused the spectra on a line scan CCD camera (CCD). A calcite Wollaston beam splitter (W) in the detection path directed orthogonal polarization components to the same camera, which was synchronized with the polarization modulator in the source arm. Polarization controllers (PC) were used to fine-tune the polarization state of the light.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Synchronized trigger waveforms for the line scan cameras (line trigger, frame trigger) and driving waveforms for the polarization modulator and fast galvanometer. From left to right, graphs are shown at a shortened time scale. For clarity, only 20 spectra were grabbed per scan. In reality, 1000 spectra were recorded per cycle of the fast galvanometer. A time delay between the starting points of the different waveforms (right plot) was created to compensate for delays in the line scan cameras and the polarization modulator.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measurements on a mirror in the sample arm at different optical path length differences. Measurements were taken for the horizontal (H) polarization channel and vertical (V) polarization channel. Red and black lines represent linear fits to the data.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Structural intensity image taken with a circular scan (r = 1.84 mm, length x height of scan = 11.6 x 1.89 mm, magnified in the vertical direction for clarity) around the optic nerve head. T (temporal); S (superior); N (nasal); I (inferior). The upper layer is the nerve fiber layer. It is thickest superior (S) and inferior (I) to the optic nerve head.

Fig. 5:
Fig. 5:

Circular B-scan taken further away from the optic nerve head (r = 2.49 mm, length x height of scan = 15.6 x 1.89 mm, magnified in vertical direction for clarity). The nerve fiber layer is thinner at this location. However, as in Fig. 4, the nerve fiber layer is still thicker superior (S) and inferior (I) to the optic nerve head.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (black dotted) and double-pass phase retardation (blue solid) measurements in sectors temporal (left) and inferior (right) to the optic nerve head. Double-pass phase retardation data belonging to the retinal nerve fiber layer was fit with a first-order polynomial. The slope of this fit - proportional to the birefringence - is given in the lower right corner.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Structural intensity (left) and phase retardation (right) images, realigned with respect to the retinal surface. Both panels only display the first ∼1200 A-lines of the B-scan in and around a blood vessel for clarity. The red lines indicate the sector over which the double-pass phase retardation calculation was averaged. The blood vessel is located in the right part of the sector. Units on the y-axis represent pixels and the 200 pixels cover a distance of approximately 740 μm. In width, the displayed part of the scan measures ∼4.6 mm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Intensity (left) and double-pass phase retardation plots (right) not including the blood vessel (green, blue, and light blue curves) are given, as well as plots that include the blood vessel (other curves). The red dash-dotted line roughly indicates the lower part of the nerve fiber layer. This location is found by combining the information per curve using both plots. The higher double-pass phase retardation values directly below the nerve fiber layer are caused by a lack of signal.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(left) Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness as a function of distance and relative position to the optic nerve head. (right). DPPR/UD values of each sector displayed as a function of distance (symbol) and relative position (x-axis) to the optic nerve head. Mean values per sector are connected with a red line. Error bars indicate the standard error.

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