Abstract

The performance of the InGaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) laser diode structures has been numerically investigated by using ISE TCAD software. We investigated the effect of well numbers, barrier thickness and barrier doping on the output power, threshold current, and slope efficiency. All material parameters used in the model are evaluated based on the recent literature values. We observed the maximum output power and lower threshold current when the well number was two. Effective change in the output power and threshold current was observed with the variations in barriers thickness and doping level. Our results are in agreement with the experimental results observed by [S. Nakamura et al. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 37, L1020 (1998) and S. Nakamura et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22 (2000)].

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
  2. S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, "Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura," Recombination dynamics of localized excitons in In0.20Ga0.80N-In0.05Ga0.95N multiple quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 55,1938R (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Koukitsu, N. Takahashi, T. Taki, and H. Seki, "Thermodynamic Analysis of InxGa1-xN Alloy Composition Grown by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35,L673 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Osamura, S. Naka, and Y. Murakami, "Preparation and optical study of Ga1-xInxN thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3432 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Suzuki, T. Uenoyama, and A. Yanase, "First-principles calculations of effective-mass parameters of AlN and GaN," Phys. Rev. B 52, 8132 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Mukai, H. Narimatsu, and S. Nakamura, "Amber InGaN-based light-emitting Diodes operable at high ambient temperatures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 479 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, "Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2346 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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  12. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-Based Laser Diodes with Modulation-Doped Strained-Layer Superlattice," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, " High-power, long-lifetime InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on pure GaN substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L309 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Kobayashi, F. Nakamura, K. Naganuma, T. Tojyo, H. Nakajima, T. Asatsuma, H. Kawai, and M. Ikeda, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInN/GaN multiquantum well laser diode," Electron. Lett. 34, 1494 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Kuramata, S. Kubota, R. Soejima, K. Domen, K. Horino, and T. Tanahashi, "Room-temperature continuous wave operation of InGaN Laser Diodes with vertical conducting structure on SiC substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1373 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Kuramato, C. Sasaoka, Y. Hisanaga, A. Kimura, A. A. Yamaguchi, H. Sunakawa, N. Kureda, M. Nido, A. Usui, and M. Mizuta, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes grown on an n-GaN substrate with a backside n-contact," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L184 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. P. Bour, C. G. Van de Walle, L. T. Romano, J. E. Northrup, R. M. Wood, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, "Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3950 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, "Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69,4188 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Uenoyama, "Optical gain spectra in GaN/InGaN quantum wells with the compositional fluctuations," MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1, (1999).
  20. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on GaN substrates with a fundamental transverse mode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1020 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, "Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. I. Ho and G. B. Stringfellow, "Solid phase immiscibility in GaInN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2701 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. AgerIII, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, " Small band gap bowing in In xGa1-xN alloys," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4741-4743 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, "Waveguide study and refractive indices of GaN :Mg epitaxial film," Opt. Lett. 21, 1529-31(1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. K. Sink, "Cleaved-Facet III- Nitride Laser Diode," Ph.D. Thesis, Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at Santa Barbara, (2000).
  26. D. Fritsch, H. Schmidt, and M. Grundmann, "Band -structure pseudopotential calculation of zinc-blende and wurtzite AlN,GaN, and InN," Phys.Rev. B 67, 235 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Buongiorno, K. Rapcewicz, and J. Bernholca, "Polarization field effects on the electron- hole recombination dynamics in In0.2Ga0.8N/ InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett.  71, 3135-3137 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Kalliakos, P. Lefebvre, and T. Taliercio, "Nonliner behavior of photo absorption in hexagonal nitride quantum well due to free carrier screening of the internal fields," Phys. Rev. B 67, 205307 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. Fritsch, H. Schmidt, and M. Grundmann, "Band -structure pseudopotential calculation of zinc-blende and wurtzite AlN,GaN, and InN," Phys.Rev. B 67, 235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalliakos, P. Lefebvre, and T. Taliercio, "Nonliner behavior of photo absorption in hexagonal nitride quantum well due to free carrier screening of the internal fields," Phys. Rev. B 67, 205307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. AgerIII, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, " Small band gap bowing in In xGa1-xN alloys," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4741-4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, "Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. Kuramato, C. Sasaoka, Y. Hisanaga, A. Kimura, A. A. Yamaguchi, H. Sunakawa, N. Kureda, M. Nido, A. Usui, and M. Mizuta, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes grown on an n-GaN substrate with a backside n-contact," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Bour, C. G. Van de Walle, L. T. Romano, J. E. Northrup, R. M. Wood, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, "Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, " High-power, long-lifetime InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on pure GaN substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, F. Nakamura, K. Naganuma, T. Tojyo, H. Nakajima, T. Asatsuma, H. Kawai, and M. Ikeda, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInN/GaN multiquantum well laser diode," Electron. Lett. 34, 1494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuramata, S. Kubota, R. Soejima, K. Domen, K. Horino, and T. Tanahashi, "Room-temperature continuous wave operation of InGaN Laser Diodes with vertical conducting structure on SiC substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1373 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, H. Narimatsu, and S. Nakamura, "Amber InGaN-based light-emitting Diodes operable at high ambient temperatures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on GaN substrates with a fundamental transverse mode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1020 (1998)
[CrossRef]

1997 (6)

M. Buongiorno, K. Rapcewicz, and J. Bernholca, "Polarization field effects on the electron- hole recombination dynamics in In0.2Ga0.8N/ InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett.  71, 3135-3137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, "Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-Based Laser Diodes with Modulation-Doped Strained-Layer Superlattice," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura," Recombination dynamics of localized excitons in In0.20Ga0.80N-In0.05Ga0.95N multiple quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 55,1938R (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981(1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

A. Koukitsu, N. Takahashi, T. Taki, and H. Seki, "Thermodynamic Analysis of InxGa1-xN Alloy Composition Grown by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35,L673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, "Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, "Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69,4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. Ho and G. B. Stringfellow, "Solid phase immiscibility in GaInN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2701 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, "Waveguide study and refractive indices of GaN :Mg epitaxial film," Opt. Lett. 21, 1529-31(1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. Suzuki, T. Uenoyama, and A. Yanase, "First-principles calculations of effective-mass parameters of AlN and GaN," Phys. Rev. B 52, 8132 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

K. Osamura, S. Naka, and Y. Murakami, "Preparation and optical study of Ga1-xInxN thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3432 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ager, J. W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. AgerIII, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, " Small band gap bowing in In xGa1-xN alloys," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4741-4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Asatsuma, T.

T. Kobayashi, F. Nakamura, K. Naganuma, T. Tojyo, H. Nakajima, T. Asatsuma, H. Kawai, and M. Ikeda, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInN/GaN multiquantum well laser diode," Electron. Lett. 34, 1494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Azuhata, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, "Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69,4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, "Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bernholca, J.

M. Buongiorno, K. Rapcewicz, and J. Bernholca, "Polarization field effects on the electron- hole recombination dynamics in In0.2Ga0.8N/ InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett.  71, 3135-3137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

D. P. Bour, C. G. Van de Walle, L. T. Romano, J. E. Northrup, R. M. Wood, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, "Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buongiorno, M.

M. Buongiorno, K. Rapcewicz, and J. Bernholca, "Polarization field effects on the electron- hole recombination dynamics in In0.2Ga0.8N/ InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett.  71, 3135-3137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S.

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, "Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, "Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69,4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, "Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chocho, K.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, " High-power, long-lifetime InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on pure GaN substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on GaN substrates with a fundamental transverse mode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1020 (1998)
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-Based Laser Diodes with Modulation-Doped Strained-Layer Superlattice," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Domen, K.

A. Kuramata, S. Kubota, R. Soejima, K. Domen, K. Horino, and T. Tanahashi, "Room-temperature continuous wave operation of InGaN Laser Diodes with vertical conducting structure on SiC substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1373 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z. C.

Fritsch, D.

D. Fritsch, H. Schmidt, and M. Grundmann, "Band -structure pseudopotential calculation of zinc-blende and wurtzite AlN,GaN, and InN," Phys.Rev. B 67, 235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Funato, M.

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981(1997).
[CrossRef]

Grundmann, M.

D. Fritsch, H. Schmidt, and M. Grundmann, "Band -structure pseudopotential calculation of zinc-blende and wurtzite AlN,GaN, and InN," Phys.Rev. B 67, 235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haller, E. E.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. AgerIII, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, " Small band gap bowing in In xGa1-xN alloys," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4741-4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, X. H.

Hisanaga, Y.

M. Kuramato, C. Sasaoka, Y. Hisanaga, A. Kimura, A. A. Yamaguchi, H. Sunakawa, N. Kureda, M. Nido, A. Usui, and M. Mizuta, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes grown on an n-GaN substrate with a backside n-contact," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ho, I.

I. Ho and G. B. Stringfellow, "Solid phase immiscibility in GaInN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2701 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Horino, K.

A. Kuramata, S. Kubota, R. Soejima, K. Domen, K. Horino, and T. Tanahashi, "Room-temperature continuous wave operation of InGaN Laser Diodes with vertical conducting structure on SiC substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1373 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

T. Kobayashi, F. Nakamura, K. Naganuma, T. Tojyo, H. Nakajima, T. Asatsuma, H. Kawai, and M. Ikeda, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInN/GaN multiquantum well laser diode," Electron. Lett. 34, 1494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, "Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on GaN substrates with a fundamental transverse mode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1020 (1998)
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, " High-power, long-lifetime InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on pure GaN substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-Based Laser Diodes with Modulation-Doped Strained-Layer Superlattice," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. M.

D. P. Bour, C. G. Van de Walle, L. T. Romano, J. E. Northrup, R. M. Wood, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, "Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kalliakos, S.

S. Kalliakos, P. Lefebvre, and T. Taliercio, "Nonliner behavior of photo absorption in hexagonal nitride quantum well due to free carrier screening of the internal fields," Phys. Rev. B 67, 205307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, H.

T. Kobayashi, F. Nakamura, K. Naganuma, T. Tojyo, H. Nakajima, T. Asatsuma, H. Kawai, and M. Ikeda, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInN/GaN multiquantum well laser diode," Electron. Lett. 34, 1494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura," Recombination dynamics of localized excitons in In0.20Ga0.80N-In0.05Ga0.95N multiple quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 55,1938R (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981(1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, A.

M. Kuramato, C. Sasaoka, Y. Hisanaga, A. Kimura, A. A. Yamaguchi, H. Sunakawa, N. Kureda, M. Nido, A. Usui, and M. Mizuta, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes grown on an n-GaN substrate with a backside n-contact," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on GaN substrates with a fundamental transverse mode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1020 (1998)
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, " High-power, long-lifetime InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on pure GaN substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-Based Laser Diodes with Modulation-Doped Strained-Layer Superlattice," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Kobayashi, F. Nakamura, K. Naganuma, T. Tojyo, H. Nakajima, T. Asatsuma, H. Kawai, and M. Ikeda, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInN/GaN multiquantum well laser diode," Electron. Lett. 34, 1494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koukitsu, A.

A. Koukitsu, N. Takahashi, T. Taki, and H. Seki, "Thermodynamic Analysis of InxGa1-xN Alloy Composition Grown by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35,L673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kozaki, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, " High-power, long-lifetime InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on pure GaN substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on GaN substrates with a fundamental transverse mode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1020 (1998)
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-Based Laser Diodes with Modulation-Doped Strained-Layer Superlattice," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, S.

A. Kuramata, S. Kubota, R. Soejima, K. Domen, K. Horino, and T. Tanahashi, "Room-temperature continuous wave operation of InGaN Laser Diodes with vertical conducting structure on SiC substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1373 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuramata, A.

A. Kuramata, S. Kubota, R. Soejima, K. Domen, K. Horino, and T. Tanahashi, "Room-temperature continuous wave operation of InGaN Laser Diodes with vertical conducting structure on SiC substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1373 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuramato, M.

M. Kuramato, C. Sasaoka, Y. Hisanaga, A. Kimura, A. A. Yamaguchi, H. Sunakawa, N. Kureda, M. Nido, A. Usui, and M. Mizuta, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes grown on an n-GaN substrate with a backside n-contact," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kureda, N.

M. Kuramato, C. Sasaoka, Y. Hisanaga, A. Kimura, A. A. Yamaguchi, H. Sunakawa, N. Kureda, M. Nido, A. Usui, and M. Mizuta, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes grown on an n-GaN substrate with a backside n-contact," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lefebvre, P.

S. Kalliakos, P. Lefebvre, and T. Taliercio, "Nonliner behavior of photo absorption in hexagonal nitride quantum well due to free carrier screening of the internal fields," Phys. Rev. B 67, 205307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. AgerIII, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, " Small band gap bowing in In xGa1-xN alloys," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4741-4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, "Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on GaN substrates with a fundamental transverse mode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1020 (1998)
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, " High-power, long-lifetime InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on pure GaN substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-Based Laser Diodes with Modulation-Doped Strained-Layer Superlattice," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mizuta, M.

M. Kuramato, C. Sasaoka, Y. Hisanaga, A. Kimura, A. A. Yamaguchi, H. Sunakawa, N. Kureda, M. Nido, A. Usui, and M. Mizuta, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes grown on an n-GaN substrate with a backside n-contact," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, "Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, H. Narimatsu, and S. Nakamura, "Amber InGaN-based light-emitting Diodes operable at high ambient temperatures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, Y.

K. Osamura, S. Naka, and Y. Murakami, "Preparation and optical study of Ga1-xInxN thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3432 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, "Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on GaN substrates with a fundamental transverse mode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1020 (1998)
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, " High-power, long-lifetime InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on pure GaN substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-Based Laser Diodes with Modulation-Doped Strained-Layer Superlattice," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Naganuma, K.

T. Kobayashi, F. Nakamura, K. Naganuma, T. Tojyo, H. Nakajima, T. Asatsuma, H. Kawai, and M. Ikeda, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInN/GaN multiquantum well laser diode," Electron. Lett. 34, 1494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Naka, S.

K. Osamura, S. Naka, and Y. Murakami, "Preparation and optical study of Ga1-xInxN thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3432 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, H.

T. Kobayashi, F. Nakamura, K. Naganuma, T. Tojyo, H. Nakajima, T. Asatsuma, H. Kawai, and M. Ikeda, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInN/GaN multiquantum well laser diode," Electron. Lett. 34, 1494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, F.

T. Kobayashi, F. Nakamura, K. Naganuma, T. Tojyo, H. Nakajima, T. Asatsuma, H. Kawai, and M. Ikeda, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInN/GaN multiquantum well laser diode," Electron. Lett. 34, 1494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, "Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on GaN substrates with a fundamental transverse mode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1020 (1998)
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, " High-power, long-lifetime InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on pure GaN substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, H. Narimatsu, and S. Nakamura, "Amber InGaN-based light-emitting Diodes operable at high ambient temperatures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-Based Laser Diodes with Modulation-Doped Strained-Layer Superlattice," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, "Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, "Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69,4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, "Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Narimatsu, H.

T. Mukai, H. Narimatsu, and S. Nakamura, "Amber InGaN-based light-emitting Diodes operable at high ambient temperatures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981(1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura," Recombination dynamics of localized excitons in In0.20Ga0.80N-In0.05Ga0.95N multiple quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 55,1938R (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nido, M.

M. Kuramato, C. Sasaoka, Y. Hisanaga, A. Kimura, A. A. Yamaguchi, H. Sunakawa, N. Kureda, M. Nido, A. Usui, and M. Mizuta, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes grown on an n-GaN substrate with a backside n-contact," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Northrup, J. E.

D. P. Bour, C. G. Van de Walle, L. T. Romano, J. E. Northrup, R. M. Wood, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, "Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Osamura, K.

K. Osamura, S. Naka, and Y. Murakami, "Preparation and optical study of Ga1-xInxN thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3432 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rapcewicz, K.

M. Buongiorno, K. Rapcewicz, and J. Bernholca, "Polarization field effects on the electron- hole recombination dynamics in In0.2Ga0.8N/ InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett.  71, 3135-3137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Romano, L. T.

D. P. Bour, C. G. Van de Walle, L. T. Romano, J. E. Northrup, R. M. Wood, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, "Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sano, M

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, " High-power, long-lifetime InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on pure GaN substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-Based Laser Diodes with Modulation-Doped Strained-Layer Superlattice," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sano, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on GaN substrates with a fundamental transverse mode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1020 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Sasaoka, C.

M. Kuramato, C. Sasaoka, Y. Hisanaga, A. Kimura, A. A. Yamaguchi, H. Sunakawa, N. Kureda, M. Nido, A. Usui, and M. Mizuta, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes grown on an n-GaN substrate with a backside n-contact," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. AgerIII, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, " Small band gap bowing in In xGa1-xN alloys," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4741-4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

D. Fritsch, H. Schmidt, and M. Grundmann, "Band -structure pseudopotential calculation of zinc-blende and wurtzite AlN,GaN, and InN," Phys.Rev. B 67, 235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schurman, M.

Seki, H.

A. Koukitsu, N. Takahashi, T. Taki, and H. Seki, "Thermodynamic Analysis of InxGa1-xN Alloy Composition Grown by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35,L673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, "Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on GaN substrates with a fundamental transverse mode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1020 (1998)
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, " High-power, long-lifetime InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on pure GaN substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-Based Laser Diodes with Modulation-Doped Strained-Layer Superlattice," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y. H.

Soejima, R.

A. Kuramata, S. Kubota, R. Soejima, K. Domen, K. Horino, and T. Tanahashi, "Room-temperature continuous wave operation of InGaN Laser Diodes with vertical conducting structure on SiC substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1373 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, "Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, "Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69,4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stall, R. A.

Stringfellow, G. B.

I. Ho and G. B. Stringfellow, "Solid phase immiscibility in GaInN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2701 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on GaN substrates with a fundamental transverse mode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1020 (1998)
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, " High-power, long-lifetime InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on pure GaN substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-Based Laser Diodes with Modulation-Doped Strained-Layer Superlattice," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sunakawa, H.

M. Kuramato, C. Sasaoka, Y. Hisanaga, A. Kimura, A. A. Yamaguchi, H. Sunakawa, N. Kureda, M. Nido, A. Usui, and M. Mizuta, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes grown on an n-GaN substrate with a backside n-contact," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

M. Suzuki, T. Uenoyama, and A. Yanase, "First-principles calculations of effective-mass parameters of AlN and GaN," Phys. Rev. B 52, 8132 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, N.

A. Koukitsu, N. Takahashi, T. Taki, and H. Seki, "Thermodynamic Analysis of InxGa1-xN Alloy Composition Grown by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35,L673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taki, T.

A. Koukitsu, N. Takahashi, T. Taki, and H. Seki, "Thermodynamic Analysis of InxGa1-xN Alloy Composition Grown by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35,L673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taliercio, T.

S. Kalliakos, P. Lefebvre, and T. Taliercio, "Nonliner behavior of photo absorption in hexagonal nitride quantum well due to free carrier screening of the internal fields," Phys. Rev. B 67, 205307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanahashi, T.

A. Kuramata, S. Kubota, R. Soejima, K. Domen, K. Horino, and T. Tanahashi, "Room-temperature continuous wave operation of InGaN Laser Diodes with vertical conducting structure on SiC substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1373 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Teepe, M.

D. P. Bour, C. G. Van de Walle, L. T. Romano, J. E. Northrup, R. M. Wood, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, "Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tojyo, T.

T. Kobayashi, F. Nakamura, K. Naganuma, T. Tojyo, H. Nakajima, T. Asatsuma, H. Kawai, and M. Ikeda, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInN/GaN multiquantum well laser diode," Electron. Lett. 34, 1494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Uenoyama, T.

M. Suzuki, T. Uenoyama, and A. Yanase, "First-principles calculations of effective-mass parameters of AlN and GaN," Phys. Rev. B 52, 8132 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Umemoto, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on GaN substrates with a fundamental transverse mode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1020 (1998)
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, " High-power, long-lifetime InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on pure GaN substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-Based Laser Diodes with Modulation-Doped Strained-Layer Superlattice," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Usui, A.

M. Kuramato, C. Sasaoka, Y. Hisanaga, A. Kimura, A. A. Yamaguchi, H. Sunakawa, N. Kureda, M. Nido, A. Usui, and M. Mizuta, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes grown on an n-GaN substrate with a backside n-contact," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

D. P. Bour, C. G. Van de Walle, L. T. Romano, J. E. Northrup, R. M. Wood, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, "Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, "Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walukiewicz, W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. AgerIII, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, " Small band gap bowing in In xGa1-xN alloys," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4741-4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wood, R. M.

D. P. Bour, C. G. Van de Walle, L. T. Romano, J. E. Northrup, R. M. Wood, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, "Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. AgerIII, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, " Small band gap bowing in In xGa1-xN alloys," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4741-4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, " High-power, long-lifetime InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on pure GaN substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on GaN substrates with a fundamental transverse mode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1020 (1998)
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-Based Laser Diodes with Modulation-Doped Strained-Layer Superlattice," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, A. A.

M. Kuramato, C. Sasaoka, Y. Hisanaga, A. Kimura, A. A. Yamaguchi, H. Sunakawa, N. Kureda, M. Nido, A. Usui, and M. Mizuta, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes grown on an n-GaN substrate with a backside n-contact," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yanase, A.

M. Suzuki, T. Uenoyama, and A. Yanase, "First-principles calculations of effective-mass parameters of AlN and GaN," Phys. Rev. B 52, 8132 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K. M.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. AgerIII, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, " Small band gap bowing in In xGa1-xN alloys," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4741-4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

M. Buongiorno, K. Rapcewicz, and J. Bernholca, "Polarization field effects on the electron- hole recombination dynamics in In0.2Ga0.8N/ InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett.  71, 3135-3137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, "Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Ho and G. B. Stringfellow, "Solid phase immiscibility in GaInN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2701 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. AgerIII, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, " Small band gap bowing in In xGa1-xN alloys," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4741-4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, "Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981(1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, "Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Bour, C. G. Van de Walle, L. T. Romano, J. E. Northrup, R. M. Wood, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, "Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, "Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69,4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron.Lett. (1)

T. Kobayashi, F. Nakamura, K. Naganuma, T. Tojyo, H. Nakajima, T. Asatsuma, H. Kawai, and M. Ikeda, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInN/GaN multiquantum well laser diode," Electron. Lett. 34, 1494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Osamura, S. Naka, and Y. Murakami, "Preparation and optical study of Ga1-xInxN thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3432 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (7)

T. Mukai, H. Narimatsu, and S. Nakamura, "Amber InGaN-based light-emitting Diodes operable at high ambient temperatures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Koukitsu, N. Takahashi, T. Taki, and H. Seki, "Thermodynamic Analysis of InxGa1-xN Alloy Composition Grown by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35,L673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuramata, S. Kubota, R. Soejima, K. Domen, K. Horino, and T. Tanahashi, "Room-temperature continuous wave operation of InGaN Laser Diodes with vertical conducting structure on SiC substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1373 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuramato, C. Sasaoka, Y. Hisanaga, A. Kimura, A. A. Yamaguchi, H. Sunakawa, N. Kureda, M. Nido, A. Usui, and M. Mizuta, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diodes grown on an n-GaN substrate with a backside n-contact," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-Based Laser Diodes with Modulation-Doped Strained-Layer Superlattice," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M Sano, and K. Chocho, " High-power, long-lifetime InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on pure GaN substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based Laser Diodes grown on GaN substrates with a fundamental transverse mode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1020 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

S. Kalliakos, P. Lefebvre, and T. Taliercio, "Nonliner behavior of photo absorption in hexagonal nitride quantum well due to free carrier screening of the internal fields," Phys. Rev. B 67, 205307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura," Recombination dynamics of localized excitons in In0.20Ga0.80N-In0.05Ga0.95N multiple quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 55,1938R (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Suzuki, T. Uenoyama, and A. Yanase, "First-principles calculations of effective-mass parameters of AlN and GaN," Phys. Rev. B 52, 8132 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys.Rev. B (1)

D. Fritsch, H. Schmidt, and M. Grundmann, "Band -structure pseudopotential calculation of zinc-blende and wurtzite AlN,GaN, and InN," Phys.Rev. B 67, 235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. K. Sink, "Cleaved-Facet III- Nitride Laser Diode," Ph.D. Thesis, Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at Santa Barbara, (2000).

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).

B. Monemar, J. P. Begraman, J. Dalfors, G. Pozina, B. E. Sernelius, P. O. Holtz, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, "Mechanism for radiative recombination in In0.15Ga0.85 N /GaN multiple quantum well structures," MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1, G2.5 (1999).

T. Uenoyama, "Optical gain spectra in GaN/InGaN quantum wells with the compositional fluctuations," MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1, (1999).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Shows schematic diagram of the preliminary InGaN LD.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Energy band digram of the double quantum -well InGaN LD together with refractive index profile.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical material gain in the InGaN double quantum well LD.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Carrier density distributed profile in the double quantum well InGaN LD.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical material intensity of the InGaN double quantum well LD.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Internal electric field of the InGaN double quantum well LD.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Electron current density of the InGaN double quantum well LD.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Laser output power and slope efficiency as a function of the forward current for the double quantum well InGaN LD.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The emission wavelength and differential external quantum efficiency as a function of the forward current for the double quantum well InGaN LD.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Laser output power, slope efficiency, threshold current and differential quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of well number of the MQWs InGaN LD.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Threshold current density (J th) as a function of quantum wells number obtained by Nakamura et al. experimental work and our simulation work.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Laser output power, slope efficiency, and threshold current as a function of barrier doping concentration.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Laser output power and threshold current as a function of barrier thickness.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Laser mode gain as a function of forward current for InGaN DQW LD.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ( A l x G a 1 x N ) = 2.5067 0.43 x
n ( I n x G a 1 x N ) = 2.5067 + 0.91 x
E g , I n x G a 1 x N = x . E g , InN + ( 1 x ) .
E g , GaN 1.43 . x . ( 1 x )
E g , A l x G a 1 x N = x . E g , AlN + ( 1 x ) .
E g , GaN 1.3 . x . ( 1 x )
m e , I n x G a 1 x N = m e , GaN +
x ( m e , InN m e , GaN )
m hh , I n x G a 1 x N = m hh , GaN +
x ( m hh , InN m hh , GaN )
m lh , I n x G a 1 x N = m lh , GaN +
x ( m lh , InN m lh , GaN ) .
η d = 2 Δ P Δ I [ q λ h c ]

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