Abstract

We report a new variation of the conventional Z-scan method to characterize the third-order optical nonlinearity of photonic materials. By exploiting the combination of the eclipse Z-scan with a thermal nonlinearity management technique, we demonstrate an improvement in sensitivity and flexibility of the method to simultaneously characterize the thermal and nonthermal nonlinearity of optical materials. The method is demonstrated by measuring the nonlinear refractive index in CS2, SiO2 and H2O, standard materials, and also in a biomaterial, the amino acid Tryptophan in water solution, using a femtosecond Ti-Sapphire laser operating at 76MHz repetition rate.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. D. Levenson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic Press, New York, 1982).
  2. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2002), 2nd Edition.
  3. R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).
  4. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760 - 769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Eclipsing Z-scan measurement of λ/104 wave-front distortion," Opt. Lett. 19, 317-319 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes and CidB. de Araújo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Measurements of nondegenerate nonlinearities using a two-color Z-scan," Opt. Lett. 17, 260-262 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Time resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. DeSalvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Z-Scan Measurements of the anisotropy of nonlinear refraction and absorption in crystals," Opt. Lett. 18, 194-196 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes and CidB. de Araújo, "Reflection Z-scan technique for measurement of optical properties of surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1067-1069 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zílio, "Single-beam time-resolved Z-scan measurements of slow absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2121-2123 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Castillo, V. P. Kozich and A. Marcano, O. "Thermal lensing resulting from one- and two-photon absorption studied with a two-color time-resolved Z-scan," Opt. Lett. 19, 171-173 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Falconieri, "Thermo-optical effects in Z-scan measurements using high-repetition-rate lasers," J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 662 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Gnoli, L. Razzari and M. Righini, "Z-scan measurements using high repetition rate lasers: how to manage thermal effects," Opt. Express 13, 7976 - 7981(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, "Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2," Appl. Phys. B 69, 133 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. X.-Q. Chen, R. A. Engh and G. R. Fleming, "Reorientation of tryptophan and simple peptides: onset of internal flexibility and comparison with molecular dynamics simulation," J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4811 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and CidB. de Araújo, "Spatial phase modulation due to thermal nonlinearity in semiconductor-doped glasses," Phys. Rev. B 50, 9092 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, and T. S. Clement, "Determination of n2 by direct measurement of the optical phase," Opt. Lett. 21, 1812-1814 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S-P Tai, W-J Lee, D-B Shieh, P-C Wu, H-Yi Huang, C-H Yu and C-K Sun, " In vivo optical biopsy of hamster oral cavity with epi-third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Opt. Express 14, 6178-6187 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. J. Rodrigues, C. H. T. P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti and C. R. Mendonça, "Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions," Opt. Maters. 20, 153 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

2002

J. J. Rodrigues, C. H. T. P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti and C. R. Mendonça, "Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions," Opt. Maters. 20, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, "Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2," Appl. Phys. B 69, 133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, "Thermo-optical effects in Z-scan measurements using high-repetition-rate lasers," J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

D. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and CidB. de Araújo, "Spatial phase modulation due to thermal nonlinearity in semiconductor-doped glasses," Phys. Rev. B 50, 9092 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Eclipsing Z-scan measurement of λ/104 wave-front distortion," Opt. Lett. 19, 317-319 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Time resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes and CidB. de Araújo, "Reflection Z-scan technique for measurement of optical properties of surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1067-1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zílio, "Single-beam time-resolved Z-scan measurements of slow absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2121-2123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Castillo, V. P. Kozich and A. Marcano, O. "Thermal lensing resulting from one- and two-photon absorption studied with a two-color time-resolved Z-scan," Opt. Lett. 19, 171-173 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1992

M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Measurements of nondegenerate nonlinearities using a two-color Z-scan," Opt. Lett. 17, 260-262 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes and CidB. de Araújo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760 - 769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

L. X.-Q. Chen, R. A. Engh and G. R. Fleming, "Reorientation of tryptophan and simple peptides: onset of internal flexibility and comparison with molecular dynamics simulation," J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4811 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Castillo, J.

Chen, L. X.-Q.

L. X.-Q. Chen, R. A. Engh and G. R. Fleming, "Reorientation of tryptophan and simple peptides: onset of internal flexibility and comparison with molecular dynamics simulation," J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4811 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cid, A. S. L.

D. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and CidB. de Araújo, "Spatial phase modulation due to thermal nonlinearity in semiconductor-doped glasses," Phys. Rev. B 50, 9092 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes and CidB. de Araújo, "Reflection Z-scan technique for measurement of optical properties of surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1067-1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes and CidB. de Araújo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Clement, T. S.

DeSalvo, R.

R. DeSalvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Z-Scan Measurements of the anisotropy of nonlinear refraction and absorption in crystals," Opt. Lett. 18, 194-196 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Measurements of nondegenerate nonlinearities using a two-color Z-scan," Opt. Lett. 17, 260-262 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Engh, R. A.

L. X.-Q. Chen, R. A. Engh and G. R. Fleming, "Reorientation of tryptophan and simple peptides: onset of internal flexibility and comparison with molecular dynamics simulation," J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4811 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Falconieri, M.

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, "Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2," Appl. Phys. B 69, 133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, "Thermo-optical effects in Z-scan measurements using high-repetition-rate lasers," J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, G. R.

L. X.-Q. Chen, R. A. Engh and G. R. Fleming, "Reorientation of tryptophan and simple peptides: onset of internal flexibility and comparison with molecular dynamics simulation," J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4811 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gnoli, A.

Gomes, A. S. L.

D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes and CidB. de Araújo, "Reflection Z-scan technique for measurement of optical properties of surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1067-1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and CidB. de Araújo, "Spatial phase modulation due to thermal nonlinearity in semiconductor-doped glasses," Phys. Rev. B 50, 9092 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes and CidB. de Araújo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

Kozich, V. P.

Lee, W-J

Ma, H.

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes and CidB. de Araújo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marcano, A.

Mendonça, C. R.

J. J. Rodrigues, C. H. T. P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti and C. R. Mendonça, "Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions," Opt. Maters. 20, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Misoguti, L.

J. J. Rodrigues, C. H. T. P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti and C. R. Mendonça, "Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions," Opt. Maters. 20, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, L. C.

L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zílio, "Single-beam time-resolved Z-scan measurements of slow absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2121-2123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, D.

D. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and CidB. de Araújo, "Spatial phase modulation due to thermal nonlinearity in semiconductor-doped glasses," Phys. Rev. B 50, 9092 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, D. V.

D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes and CidB. de Araújo, "Reflection Z-scan technique for measurement of optical properties of surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1067-1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Razzari, L.

Righini, M.

Rodrigues, J. J.

J. J. Rodrigues, C. H. T. P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti and C. R. Mendonça, "Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions," Opt. Maters. 20, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, G.

Said, A. A.

Salvetti, G.

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, "Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2," Appl. Phys. B 69, 133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Shieh, D-B

Silva, C.H.T.P.

J. J. Rodrigues, C. H. T. P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti and C. R. Mendonça, "Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions," Opt. Maters. 20, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tai, S-P

Taylor, A. J.

Van Stryland, E. W.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Time resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Measurements of nondegenerate nonlinearities using a two-color Z-scan," Opt. Lett. 17, 260-262 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760 - 769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wu, P-C

Xia, T.

Zilio, S. C.

J. J. Rodrigues, C. H. T. P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti and C. R. Mendonça, "Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions," Opt. Maters. 20, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zílio, S. C.

L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zílio, "Single-beam time-resolved Z-scan measurements of slow absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2121-2123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, "Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2," Appl. Phys. B 69, 133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes and CidB. de Araújo, "Reflection Z-scan technique for measurement of optical properties of surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1067-1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zílio, "Single-beam time-resolved Z-scan measurements of slow absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2121-2123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes and CidB. de Araújo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt.

M. Falconieri, "Thermo-optical effects in Z-scan measurements using high-repetition-rate lasers," J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem.

L. X.-Q. Chen, R. A. Engh and G. R. Fleming, "Reorientation of tryptophan and simple peptides: onset of internal flexibility and comparison with molecular dynamics simulation," J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4811 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum Electron.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760 - 769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Maters.

J. J. Rodrigues, C. H. T. P. Silva, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti and C. R. Mendonça, "Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in amino acid solutions," Opt. Maters. 20, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

D. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and CidB. de Araújo, "Spatial phase modulation due to thermal nonlinearity in semiconductor-doped glasses," Phys. Rev. B 50, 9092 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. D. Levenson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic Press, New York, 1982).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2002), 2nd Edition.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up for thermally managed eclipse Z-scan. L1 through L5 are convex lens; CH stands for chopper; Pd1 and Pd2 are photodetectors; BS stands for beam splitter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Thermally managed eclipse Z-scan measurements: (a) time evolution; (b) z-scan signature for CS2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Thermally managed eclipse Z-scan measurements: (a) time evolution; (b) z-scan signature for quartz.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Time evolution for H2O and Tryptophan solution.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Thermally managed eclipse Z-scan measurements in water and Tryptophan solution: (a). z-scan signature for H2O; and (b). z-scan signature for Tryptophan solution for t = 0, both extrapolated from t>0 from Fig. 4.

Equations (2)

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ΔT p v = 0.406 ( 1 S ) 0.25 ΔΦ o ,
ΔT p v = 0.68 ( 1 S d ) 0.44 ΔΦo ,

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