Abstract

We studied the temporal evolution of the photodarkening effect in an Yb-doped silica LMA fiber. The absorption spectra exhibit an increase in absorption in the visible and in the near infrared spectral range when the fiber is exposed to pump light around 980 nm. We show the influence of the photodarkening on the cw lasing properties of the fiber, and demonstrate photobleaching of the same fiber by exposure to UV light at 355 nm. The corresponding absorption spectra and lasing performances are shown and are entirely comparable to those of a new fiber.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C.-H. Liu, B. Ehlers, F. Doerfel, S. Heinemann, A. Carter, K. Tankala, J. Farroni, and A. Galvanauskas, "810 W continuous-wave and single-transverse-mode fibre laser using 20 µm core Yb-doped double-clad fibre, " Electron. Lett. 40, 1471-1472 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. B. Grudinin, and S.-U. Alam, "High-power fiber lasers: new developments," Proc. SPIE 4974, 50-59 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, M. Laroche, W. A. Clarcson, K. Furusawa, D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, "120-W Q-switched cladding-pumped Yb-doped fibre laser," CLEO Europe-EQEC 2003, Munich, Germany
  5. J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, S. Petit, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, P. Rigail, C. Hönninger and E. Mottay, "High power Q-switched Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber laser producing sub-10 ns pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 19 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 13, 1055-1058 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. R. Atkins and A. L. G. Carter, "Photodarkening in Tb3+-doped phosphosilicate and germanosilicate optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 19, 951 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Laperle, A. Chandonnet, and R. Vallée, "Photoinduced absorption in thulium-doped ZBLAN fibers," Opt. Lett. 20, 2484 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. J. Koponen, M. J. Söderlund, H. J. Hoffman, and S. K. T. Tammela, "Measuring photodarkening from single-mode ytterbium doped silica fibers," Opt. Express 14, 11539-11544 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Kitabayashi, M. Ikeda, M. Nakai, T. Sakai, K. Himeno, and K. Ohashi, "Population inversion factor dependence of photodarkening of Yb-doped fibers and its suppression by highly aluminum doping," OFC 2005, paper OThC5.
  11. A. V. Kir'yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, I. L. Martinez, A. S. Kurkov, and E. M. Dianov, "Cooperative luminescence and absorption in Ytterbium-doped silica fiber and the fiber nonlinear transmission coefficient at λ=980 nm with a regard to the Ytterbium ion-pairs’ effect," Opt. Express 14, 3981-3992 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Paschotta and A. C. Tropper, "Cooperative luminescence and absorption in Ytterbium-doped silica fiber and the fiber nonlinear transmission coefficient at λ=980 nm with a regard to the Ytterbium ion-pairs' effect: Comment," Opt. Express 14, 6981-6982 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. V. Kir'yanov and Y. O. Barmenkov, "Cooperative luminescence and absorption in Ytterbium-doped silica fiber and the fiber nonlinear transmission coefficient at λ = 980 nm with a regard to the Ytterbium ion-pairs' effect: Reply," Opt. Express 14, 6983-6985 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. J. Friebele and M. E. Gingerich, "Photobleaching effects in optical fiber waveguides," Appl. Opt. 20, 3448- (1981), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-20-19-3448.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig, "Photochromic behaviour of thullium-doped silica optical fibers," Elect. Lett. 24, 590-591 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. R. Atkins, A. L. G. Carter, and F. Oullette, "Photo-induced darkening and bleaching in terbium (III)-doped optical fibers," Proc. SPIE 2289, 117-124 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 13, 1055-1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, S. Petit, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, P. Rigail, C. Hönninger and E. Mottay, "High power Q-switched Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber laser producing sub-10 ns pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 19 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004

C.-H. Liu, B. Ehlers, F. Doerfel, S. Heinemann, A. Carter, K. Tankala, J. Farroni, and A. Galvanauskas, "810 W continuous-wave and single-transverse-mode fibre laser using 20 µm core Yb-doped double-clad fibre, " Electron. Lett. 40, 1471-1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. B. Grudinin, and S.-U. Alam, "High-power fiber lasers: new developments," Proc. SPIE 4974, 50-59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

G. R. Atkins, A. L. G. Carter, and F. Oullette, "Photo-induced darkening and bleaching in terbium (III)-doped optical fibers," Proc. SPIE 2289, 117-124 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Atkins and A. L. G. Carter, "Photodarkening in Tb3+-doped phosphosilicate and germanosilicate optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 19, 951 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig, "Photochromic behaviour of thullium-doped silica optical fibers," Elect. Lett. 24, 590-591 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig, "Photochromic behaviour of thullium-doped silica optical fibers," Elect. Lett. 24, 590-591 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Alam, S.-U.

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. B. Grudinin, and S.-U. Alam, "High-power fiber lasers: new developments," Proc. SPIE 4974, 50-59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, G. R.

G. R. Atkins and A. L. G. Carter, "Photodarkening in Tb3+-doped phosphosilicate and germanosilicate optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 19, 951 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. R. Atkins, A. L. G. Carter, and F. Oullette, "Photo-induced darkening and bleaching in terbium (III)-doped optical fibers," Proc. SPIE 2289, 117-124 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barmenkov, Y. O.

Broeng, J.

Carter, A.

C.-H. Liu, B. Ehlers, F. Doerfel, S. Heinemann, A. Carter, K. Tankala, J. Farroni, and A. Galvanauskas, "810 W continuous-wave and single-transverse-mode fibre laser using 20 µm core Yb-doped double-clad fibre, " Electron. Lett. 40, 1471-1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carter, A. L. G.

G. R. Atkins, A. L. G. Carter, and F. Oullette, "Photo-induced darkening and bleaching in terbium (III)-doped optical fibers," Proc. SPIE 2289, 117-124 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Atkins and A. L. G. Carter, "Photodarkening in Tb3+-doped phosphosilicate and germanosilicate optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 19, 951 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandonnet, A.

Clarkson, W. A.

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. B. Grudinin, and S.-U. Alam, "High-power fiber lasers: new developments," Proc. SPIE 4974, 50-59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Craig, S. P.

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig, "Photochromic behaviour of thullium-doped silica optical fibers," Elect. Lett. 24, 590-591 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Deguil-Robin, N.

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, S. Petit, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, P. Rigail, C. Hönninger and E. Mottay, "High power Q-switched Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber laser producing sub-10 ns pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 19 (2005)
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 13, 1055-1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dianov, E. M.

Doerfel, F.

C.-H. Liu, B. Ehlers, F. Doerfel, S. Heinemann, A. Carter, K. Tankala, J. Farroni, and A. Galvanauskas, "810 W continuous-wave and single-transverse-mode fibre laser using 20 µm core Yb-doped double-clad fibre, " Electron. Lett. 40, 1471-1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ehlers, B.

C.-H. Liu, B. Ehlers, F. Doerfel, S. Heinemann, A. Carter, K. Tankala, J. Farroni, and A. Galvanauskas, "810 W continuous-wave and single-transverse-mode fibre laser using 20 µm core Yb-doped double-clad fibre, " Electron. Lett. 40, 1471-1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Farroni, J.

C.-H. Liu, B. Ehlers, F. Doerfel, S. Heinemann, A. Carter, K. Tankala, J. Farroni, and A. Galvanauskas, "810 W continuous-wave and single-transverse-mode fibre laser using 20 µm core Yb-doped double-clad fibre, " Electron. Lett. 40, 1471-1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Galvanauskas, A.

C.-H. Liu, B. Ehlers, F. Doerfel, S. Heinemann, A. Carter, K. Tankala, J. Farroni, and A. Galvanauskas, "810 W continuous-wave and single-transverse-mode fibre laser using 20 µm core Yb-doped double-clad fibre, " Electron. Lett. 40, 1471-1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, A. B.

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. B. Grudinin, and S.-U. Alam, "High-power fiber lasers: new developments," Proc. SPIE 4974, 50-59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heinemann, S.

C.-H. Liu, B. Ehlers, F. Doerfel, S. Heinemann, A. Carter, K. Tankala, J. Farroni, and A. Galvanauskas, "810 W continuous-wave and single-transverse-mode fibre laser using 20 µm core Yb-doped double-clad fibre, " Electron. Lett. 40, 1471-1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, H. J.

Hönninger, C.

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, S. Petit, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, P. Rigail, C. Hönninger and E. Mottay, "High power Q-switched Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber laser producing sub-10 ns pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 19 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Jakobsen, C.

Jeong, Y.

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. B. Grudinin, and S.-U. Alam, "High-power fiber lasers: new developments," Proc. SPIE 4974, 50-59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kir'yanov, A. V.

Koponen, J. J.

Kurkov, A. S.

Laperle, P.

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 13, 1055-1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, S. Petit, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, P. Rigail, C. Hönninger and E. Mottay, "High power Q-switched Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber laser producing sub-10 ns pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 19 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.-H.

C.-H. Liu, B. Ehlers, F. Doerfel, S. Heinemann, A. Carter, K. Tankala, J. Farroni, and A. Galvanauskas, "810 W continuous-wave and single-transverse-mode fibre laser using 20 µm core Yb-doped double-clad fibre, " Electron. Lett. 40, 1471-1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mallinson, S. R.

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig, "Photochromic behaviour of thullium-doped silica optical fibers," Elect. Lett. 24, 590-591 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Manek-Hönninger, I.

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, S. Petit, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, P. Rigail, C. Hönninger and E. Mottay, "High power Q-switched Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber laser producing sub-10 ns pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 19 (2005)
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 13, 1055-1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez, I. L.

Millar, C. A.

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig, "Photochromic behaviour of thullium-doped silica optical fibers," Elect. Lett. 24, 590-591 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mottay, E.

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, S. Petit, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, P. Rigail, C. Hönninger and E. Mottay, "High power Q-switched Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber laser producing sub-10 ns pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 19 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. B. Grudinin, and S.-U. Alam, "High-power fiber lasers: new developments," Proc. SPIE 4974, 50-59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

Oullette, F.

G. R. Atkins, A. L. G. Carter, and F. Oullette, "Photo-induced darkening and bleaching in terbium (III)-doped optical fibers," Proc. SPIE 2289, 117-124 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

Petersson, A.

Petit, S.

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, S. Petit, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, P. Rigail, C. Hönninger and E. Mottay, "High power Q-switched Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber laser producing sub-10 ns pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 19 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Rigail, P.

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, S. Petit, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, P. Rigail, C. Hönninger and E. Mottay, "High power Q-switched Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber laser producing sub-10 ns pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 19 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Röser, F.

Sahu, J. K.

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. B. Grudinin, and S.-U. Alam, "High-power fiber lasers: new developments," Proc. SPIE 4974, 50-59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, S. Petit, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, P. Rigail, C. Hönninger and E. Mottay, "High power Q-switched Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber laser producing sub-10 ns pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 19 (2005)
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 13, 1055-1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreiber, T.

Selvas, R.

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. B. Grudinin, and S.-U. Alam, "High-power fiber lasers: new developments," Proc. SPIE 4974, 50-59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Söderlund, M. J.

Tammela, S. K. T.

Tankala, K.

C.-H. Liu, B. Ehlers, F. Doerfel, S. Heinemann, A. Carter, K. Tankala, J. Farroni, and A. Galvanauskas, "810 W continuous-wave and single-transverse-mode fibre laser using 20 µm core Yb-doped double-clad fibre, " Electron. Lett. 40, 1471-1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

Tünnermann, A.

Vallée, R.

Zellmer, H.

Appl. Phys. B

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, S. Petit, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, P. Rigail, C. Hönninger and E. Mottay, "High power Q-switched Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber laser producing sub-10 ns pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 19 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Elect. Lett.

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig, "Photochromic behaviour of thullium-doped silica optical fibers," Elect. Lett. 24, 590-591 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

C.-H. Liu, B. Ehlers, F. Doerfel, S. Heinemann, A. Carter, K. Tankala, J. Farroni, and A. Galvanauskas, "810 W continuous-wave and single-transverse-mode fibre laser using 20 µm core Yb-doped double-clad fibre, " Electron. Lett. 40, 1471-1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

G. R. Atkins, A. L. G. Carter, and F. Oullette, "Photo-induced darkening and bleaching in terbium (III)-doped optical fibers," Proc. SPIE 2289, 117-124 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, Y. Jeong, W. A. Clarkson, R. Selvas, A. B. Grudinin, and S.-U. Alam, "High-power fiber lasers: new developments," Proc. SPIE 4974, 50-59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, M. Laroche, W. A. Clarcson, K. Furusawa, D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, "120-W Q-switched cladding-pumped Yb-doped fibre laser," CLEO Europe-EQEC 2003, Munich, Germany

T. Kitabayashi, M. Ikeda, M. Nakai, T. Sakai, K. Himeno, and K. Ohashi, "Population inversion factor dependence of photodarkening of Yb-doped fibers and its suppression by highly aluminum doping," OFC 2005, paper OThC5.

E. J. Friebele and M. E. Gingerich, "Photobleaching effects in optical fiber waveguides," Appl. Opt. 20, 3448- (1981), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-20-19-3448.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Absorption spectra of a new Yb-doped LMA fiber (lower curve, red) and of the same fiber at different states of photodarkening at 7 min, 15 min and 100 min (upper curves, orange,green and blue) of pumping the fiber by light of 45 W at 976 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for the transmission signal pump-probe experiment: M1 is a dichroic mirror (Tmax @ λ=980 nm and Rmax @ λ=1.06 μm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission of 633 nm and 1064 nm signals as a function of exposure time to pump light, the solid lines represents an exponential fit to the data.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup of the LMA fiber laser. M1 is a dichroic mirror (Tmax @ λ=980 nm and Rmax @ λ=1.06 μm for i=22.5°), M2 is a high reflecting mirror at λ=1.06 μm, and M3 is a dichroic mirror (Tmax @ λ=1.06 μm and Rmax @ λ=980 nm) that served to eliminate the residual pump light.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Output characteristics of the fiber laser for different states of photodarkening: new fiber (red squares and linear fit to the data as a black solid line), 16 min (orange squares), 64 min (green triangles), and 155 min of photodarkening (blue circles).

Fig. 6. (a).
Fig. 6. (a).

Absorption spectrum of a new (black line, upper graph) and a photobleached (red line, lower graph) fiber and (b). output characteristics of the cw LMA fiber laser oscillator using the same fiber, new (black circles) and photobleached (red squares).

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