Abstract

We present a tumor localization method for diffuse optical tomography using linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) beamforming. Beamforming is a spatial filtering technique where signals from certain directions can be enhanced while noise and interference from other directions are suppressed. In our method, we tessellate the domain into small voxels and regard each voxel as a possible position of abnormality (e.g., tumor).We then design a spatial filter based on the linearly constrained minimum variance criterion and apply it to each voxel in the domain. The abnormality is localized by observing the peak in the filter output signals. We test our method using simulated 3D examples. We assume a cubic transmission geometry and consider different cases where the abnormality is an absorber, a scatterer, and both. We also give examples showing the resolution of our method and its performance under different perturbation levels and noise levels. Simulation results show that LCMV beamforming can localize the abnormality well with good computational efficiency. It can be used alone for tumor localization and also as an effective preprocessing tool for improving the image reconstruction performances of other inverse methods.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2005 (1)

M. Guven, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Diffuse optical tomography with a priori anatomical information," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2837-2858 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. M¨oller, C. Stroszczynski, J. St¨obel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181, (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Grosenick, T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, C. Stroszcynski, R. Macdonald, P. Schlag, and H. Rinnerberg, "Time-domain optical mammography: Initial clinial results on detection and characterization of breast tumors," Appl. Opt. 42, 3170-3186 (2003).

2002 (1)

G. Strangman, D. Boas, and J. Sutton, "Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light," Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679-693 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. C. Ye, C. A. Bouman, K. J. Webb, and R. P. Millane, "Nonlinear multigrid algorithms for Bayesian optical diffuse tomography," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 909-922 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Sekihara, S. S. Nagarajan, D. Poeppel, A. Marantz, and Y. Miyashita, "Reconstructing spatio-temporal activities of neural sources using an MEG vector beamforming technique," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 760-771 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Gaudette, D. H. Brooks, C. A. DiMarzio, M. E. Kilmer, E. L. Miller, T. Gaudette, and D. A. Boas, "A comparison study of linear reconstruction techniques for diffuse optical tomographic imaging of absorption coefficient," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1051-1070 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

1997 (3)

A. Villringer and B. Chance, "Non-invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function," Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, "A fundamental limitation of linearized algorithms for diffuse optical tomography," Opt. Express 1, 404-413 (1997).

B. D. Van Veen, W. van Drongelen, M. Yuchtman, and A. Suzuki, "Localization of brain electrial activity via linearly constrained minimum variance spatial filtering," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 44, 867-880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Papazoglou and J. L. Krolik, "High resolution adaptive beamforming for three-dimensional acoustic imaging of zooplankton," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3621-3630 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1989 (1)

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, "Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties," J. Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989).

1988 (1)

B. D. Van Veen and K. M. Buckley, "Beamforming: A versatile approach to spatial filtering," IEEE ASSP. Magazine 5, 4-24 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

S. O. Rice, "Mathematical analysis of random noise," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 23, 282-332 (1944).

Aronson, R.

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge, "Optical tomography in medical imaging," Inverse Probl. 15, R41-R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D.

G. Strangman, D. Boas, and J. Sutton, "Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light," Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679-693 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

R. J. Gaudette, D. H. Brooks, C. A. DiMarzio, M. E. Kilmer, E. L. Miller, T. Gaudette, and D. A. Boas, "A comparison study of linear reconstruction techniques for diffuse optical tomographic imaging of absorption coefficient," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1051-1070 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, "A fundamental limitation of linearized algorithms for diffuse optical tomography," Opt. Express 1, 404-413 (1997).

Bouman, C. A.

J. C. Ye, C. A. Bouman, K. J. Webb, and R. P. Millane, "Nonlinear multigrid algorithms for Bayesian optical diffuse tomography," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 909-922 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, D. H.

R. J. Gaudette, D. H. Brooks, C. A. DiMarzio, M. E. Kilmer, E. L. Miller, T. Gaudette, and D. A. Boas, "A comparison study of linear reconstruction techniques for diffuse optical tomographic imaging of absorption coefficient," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1051-1070 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, K. M.

B. D. Van Veen and K. M. Buckley, "Beamforming: A versatile approach to spatial filtering," IEEE ASSP. Magazine 5, 4-24 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

M. Guven, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Diffuse optical tomography with a priori anatomical information," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2837-2858 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Differential diffuse optical tomography," Opt. Express 5, 230-242 (1999).

A. Villringer and B. Chance, "Non-invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function," Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, "Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties," J. Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989).

Chen, Y.

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DiMarzio, C. A.

R. J. Gaudette, D. H. Brooks, C. A. DiMarzio, M. E. Kilmer, E. L. Miller, T. Gaudette, and D. A. Boas, "A comparison study of linear reconstruction techniques for diffuse optical tomographic imaging of absorption coefficient," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1051-1070 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feng, T. C.

Fishkin, J.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gaudette, R. J.

R. J. Gaudette, D. H. Brooks, C. A. DiMarzio, M. E. Kilmer, E. L. Miller, T. Gaudette, and D. A. Boas, "A comparison study of linear reconstruction techniques for diffuse optical tomographic imaging of absorption coefficient," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1051-1070 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gaudette, T.

R. J. Gaudette, D. H. Brooks, C. A. DiMarzio, M. E. Kilmer, E. L. Miller, T. Gaudette, and D. A. Boas, "A comparison study of linear reconstruction techniques for diffuse optical tomographic imaging of absorption coefficient," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1051-1070 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grosenick, D.

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. M¨oller, C. Stroszczynski, J. St¨obel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181, (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Grosenick, T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, C. Stroszcynski, R. Macdonald, P. Schlag, and H. Rinnerberg, "Time-domain optical mammography: Initial clinial results on detection and characterization of breast tumors," Appl. Opt. 42, 3170-3186 (2003).

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, H. Rinneberg, K. T. Moesta, and P. M. Schlag, "Development of a time-domain optical mammograph and first in vivo applications," Appl. Opt. 38, 2927-2943 (1999).

Guven, M.

M. Guven, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Diffuse optical tomography with a priori anatomical information," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2837-2858 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, R. C.

Holboke, M. J.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Intes, X.

M. Guven, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Diffuse optical tomography with a priori anatomical information," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2837-2858 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kidney, D.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kilmer, M. E.

R. J. Gaudette, D. H. Brooks, C. A. DiMarzio, M. E. Kilmer, E. L. Miller, T. Gaudette, and D. A. Boas, "A comparison study of linear reconstruction techniques for diffuse optical tomographic imaging of absorption coefficient," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1051-1070 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krolik, J. L.

M. Papazoglou and J. L. Krolik, "High resolution adaptive beamforming for three-dimensional acoustic imaging of zooplankton," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3621-3630 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, R.

Marantz, A.

K. Sekihara, S. S. Nagarajan, D. Poeppel, A. Marantz, and Y. Miyashita, "Reconstructing spatio-temporal activities of neural sources using an MEG vector beamforming technique," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 760-771 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McAdams, M. S.

McBride, T.

Millane, R. P.

J. C. Ye, C. A. Bouman, K. J. Webb, and R. P. Millane, "Nonlinear multigrid algorithms for Bayesian optical diffuse tomography," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 909-922 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miller, E. L.

R. J. Gaudette, D. H. Brooks, C. A. DiMarzio, M. E. Kilmer, E. L. Miller, T. Gaudette, and D. A. Boas, "A comparison study of linear reconstruction techniques for diffuse optical tomographic imaging of absorption coefficient," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1051-1070 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, Y.

K. Sekihara, S. S. Nagarajan, D. Poeppel, A. Marantz, and Y. Miyashita, "Reconstructing spatio-temporal activities of neural sources using an MEG vector beamforming technique," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 760-771 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moesta, K. T.

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. M¨oller, C. Stroszczynski, J. St¨obel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181, (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, H. Rinneberg, K. T. Moesta, and P. M. Schlag, "Development of a time-domain optical mammograph and first in vivo applications," Appl. Opt. 38, 2927-2943 (1999).

Moesta, T.

Mucke, J.

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. M¨oller, C. Stroszczynski, J. St¨obel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181, (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Grosenick, T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, C. Stroszcynski, R. Macdonald, P. Schlag, and H. Rinnerberg, "Time-domain optical mammography: Initial clinial results on detection and characterization of breast tumors," Appl. Opt. 42, 3170-3186 (2003).

Nagarajan, S. S.

K. Sekihara, S. S. Nagarajan, D. Poeppel, A. Marantz, and Y. Miyashita, "Reconstructing spatio-temporal activities of neural sources using an MEG vector beamforming technique," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 760-771 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nioka, S.

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

Osterberg, U.

Papazoglou, M.

M. Papazoglou and J. L. Krolik, "High resolution adaptive beamforming for three-dimensional acoustic imaging of zooplankton," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3621-3630 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, "Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties," J. Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989).

Paulsen, K.

Poeppel, D.

K. Sekihara, S. S. Nagarajan, D. Poeppel, A. Marantz, and Y. Miyashita, "Reconstructing spatio-temporal activities of neural sources using an MEG vector beamforming technique," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 760-771 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B.

Prewitt, J.

Rice, S. O.

S. O. Rice, "Mathematical analysis of random noise," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 23, 282-332 (1944).

Rinneberg, H.

Rinnerberg, H.

Ripoll, J.

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schlag, P.

Schlag, P. M.

Sekihara, K.

K. Sekihara, S. S. Nagarajan, D. Poeppel, A. Marantz, and Y. Miyashita, "Reconstructing spatio-temporal activities of neural sources using an MEG vector beamforming technique," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 760-771 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Strangman, G.

G. Strangman, D. Boas, and J. Sutton, "Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light," Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679-693 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stroszcynski, C.

Sutton, J.

G. Strangman, D. Boas, and J. Sutton, "Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light," Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679-693 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

B. D. Van Veen, W. van Drongelen, M. Yuchtman, and A. Suzuki, "Localization of brain electrial activity via linearly constrained minimum variance spatial filtering," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 44, 867-880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Svaasand, L. O.

Tromberg, B. J.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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B. D. Van Veen, W. van Drongelen, M. Yuchtman, and A. Suzuki, "Localization of brain electrial activity via linearly constrained minimum variance spatial filtering," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 44, 867-880 (1997).
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A. Villringer and B. Chance, "Non-invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function," Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-442 (1997).
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D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. M¨oller, C. Stroszczynski, J. St¨obel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181, (2004).
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D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, H. Rinneberg, K. T. Moesta, and P. M. Schlag, "Development of a time-domain optical mammograph and first in vivo applications," Appl. Opt. 38, 2927-2943 (1999).

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J. C. Ye, C. A. Bouman, K. J. Webb, and R. P. Millane, "Nonlinear multigrid algorithms for Bayesian optical diffuse tomography," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 909-922 (2001).
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X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1047 (2003).
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M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237-247 (2000).
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B. D. Van Veen, W. van Drongelen, M. Yuchtman, and A. Suzuki, "Localization of brain electrial activity via linearly constrained minimum variance spatial filtering," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 44, 867-880 (1997).
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Appl. Opt. (3)

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IEEE ASSP. Magazine (1)

B. D. Van Veen and K. M. Buckley, "Beamforming: A versatile approach to spatial filtering," IEEE ASSP. Magazine 5, 4-24 (1988).
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IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (2)

K. Sekihara, S. S. Nagarajan, D. Poeppel, A. Marantz, and Y. Miyashita, "Reconstructing spatio-temporal activities of neural sources using an MEG vector beamforming technique," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 760-771 (2001).
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B. D. Van Veen, W. van Drongelen, M. Yuchtman, and A. Suzuki, "Localization of brain electrial activity via linearly constrained minimum variance spatial filtering," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 44, 867-880 (1997).
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IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

J. C. Ye, C. A. Bouman, K. J. Webb, and R. P. Millane, "Nonlinear multigrid algorithms for Bayesian optical diffuse tomography," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 909-922 (2001).
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M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, "Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties," J. Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237-247 (2000).
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X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1047 (2003).
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R. J. Gaudette, D. H. Brooks, C. A. DiMarzio, M. E. Kilmer, E. L. Miller, T. Gaudette, and D. A. Boas, "A comparison study of linear reconstruction techniques for diffuse optical tomographic imaging of absorption coefficient," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1051-1070 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

M. Guven, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Diffuse optical tomography with a priori anatomical information," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2837-2858 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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A. Villringer and B. Chance, "Non-invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function," Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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J. Sch¨afer and K. Strimmer, "A shrinkage approach to large-scale covariance matrix estimation and implications for functional genomics," Statist. Appl. Genet. Mol. Biol. 4, Article 32 (2005).

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