Abstract

The long interaction pathlengths provided by hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers (HC-PBFs) are especially advantageous for the detection of weakly absorbing gases such as methane (CH4). In this paper, we demonstrate methane sensing with a 1670-nm band HC-PBF. A multiline algorithm is used to fit the R(6) manifold (near 1645 nm) and, in this way, to measure the gas concentration. With this method, a minimum detectivity of 10 ppmv for the system configuration was estimated.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Lopez-Higuera, Handbook of Optical Fibre Sensing Technology (John Wiley & Sons New York, 2002).
  2. T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P.St. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, T. J. Sheperd, "Full 2D photonic band gaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 311941-1943 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Benabid, "Hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre: new light guidance for new science and technology," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 3439-3462 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 4080-4087 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. W. Kornaszewski, N. Gayraud, J. M. Stone, W. N. MacPherson, A .K. George, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and D. T. Reid, "Mid-infrared methane detection in a photonic bandgap fiber using a broadband optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Express 15, 11219-11224 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. M. Cubillas, J. M. Lazaro, M. Silva-Lopez, O. M. Conde, M. Petrovich, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera, High sensitive methane sensor based on a photonic bandgap fiber, Postdeadline EWOFS’07 (2007).
  8. J. Henningsen, J. Hald, and J. C. Petersen, "Saturated absorption in acetylene and hydrogen cyanide in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 10475-10482 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Thapa, K. Knabe, M. Faheem, A. Naweed, O. L. Weaver, and K. L. Corwin, "Saturated absorption spectroscopy of acetylene gas inside large-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 2489-2491 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Tuominen, T. Ritari, H. Ludvigsen, and J. C. Petersen, "Gas filled photonic bandgap fibers as wavelength references," Opt. Commun. 255, 272-277 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all-fiber devices based on 12C2H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 263, 28-31 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, "Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection," Sens. Act. B 51, 25-37 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Gharavi and S. G. Buckley, "Diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurement of linestrengths and pressure broadening coefficients of the methane 2?3 band at elevated temperatures," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 229, 78-88 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. S. Rothman, et al., "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. Nagali and R. K. Hanson, "Design of a diode-laser sensor to monitor water vapour in high-pressure combustion gases," App. Opt. 36, 9518-9527 (1997).
  16. M. E. Webber, S. Kim, S. T. Sanders, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson and Y. Ikeda, "In situ combustion measurements of CO2 by use of a distributed-feedback diode-laser sensor near 2.0 ?m," App. Opt. 22, 821-828 (2001).

2007

2006

R. Thapa, K. Knabe, M. Faheem, A. Naweed, O. L. Weaver, and K. L. Corwin, "Saturated absorption spectroscopy of acetylene gas inside large-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 2489-2491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, "Hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre: new light guidance for new science and technology," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 3439-3462 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all-fiber devices based on 12C2H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 263, 28-31 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Gharavi and S. G. Buckley, "Diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurement of linestrengths and pressure broadening coefficients of the methane 2?3 band at elevated temperatures," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 229, 78-88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, et al., "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Tuominen, T. Ritari, H. Ludvigsen, and J. C. Petersen, "Gas filled photonic bandgap fibers as wavelength references," Opt. Commun. 255, 272-277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Henningsen, J. Hald, and J. C. Petersen, "Saturated absorption in acetylene and hydrogen cyanide in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 10475-10482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2001

M. E. Webber, S. Kim, S. T. Sanders, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson and Y. Ikeda, "In situ combustion measurements of CO2 by use of a distributed-feedback diode-laser sensor near 2.0 ?m," App. Opt. 22, 821-828 (2001).

1999

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, "Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection," Sens. Act. B 51, 25-37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

V. Nagali and R. K. Hanson, "Design of a diode-laser sensor to monitor water vapour in high-pressure combustion gases," App. Opt. 36, 9518-9527 (1997).

1995

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P.St. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, T. J. Sheperd, "Full 2D photonic band gaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 311941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Atkin, D. M.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P.St. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, T. J. Sheperd, "Full 2D photonic band gaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 311941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baer, D. S.

M. E. Webber, S. Kim, S. T. Sanders, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson and Y. Ikeda, "In situ combustion measurements of CO2 by use of a distributed-feedback diode-laser sensor near 2.0 ?m," App. Opt. 22, 821-828 (2001).

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, "Hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre: new light guidance for new science and technology," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 3439-3462 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all-fiber devices based on 12C2H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 263, 28-31 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P.St. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, T. J. Sheperd, "Full 2D photonic band gaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 311941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, S. G.

M. Gharavi and S. G. Buckley, "Diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurement of linestrengths and pressure broadening coefficients of the methane 2?3 band at elevated temperatures," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 229, 78-88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, K. L.

Couny, F.

F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all-fiber devices based on 12C2H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 263, 28-31 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, "Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection," Sens. Act. B 51, 25-37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dong, F.

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, "Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection," Sens. Act. B 51, 25-37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Faheem, M.

Gayraud, N.

George, A. K.

Gharavi, M.

M. Gharavi and S. G. Buckley, "Diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurement of linestrengths and pressure broadening coefficients of the methane 2?3 band at elevated temperatures," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 229, 78-88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hald, J.

Hand, D. P.

Hansen, T. P.

Hanson, R. K.

M. E. Webber, S. Kim, S. T. Sanders, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson and Y. Ikeda, "In situ combustion measurements of CO2 by use of a distributed-feedback diode-laser sensor near 2.0 ?m," App. Opt. 22, 821-828 (2001).

V. Nagali and R. K. Hanson, "Design of a diode-laser sensor to monitor water vapour in high-pressure combustion gases," App. Opt. 36, 9518-9527 (1997).

Henningsen, J.

Ikeda, Y.

M. E. Webber, S. Kim, S. T. Sanders, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson and Y. Ikeda, "In situ combustion measurements of CO2 by use of a distributed-feedback diode-laser sensor near 2.0 ?m," App. Opt. 22, 821-828 (2001).

Kim, S.

M. E. Webber, S. Kim, S. T. Sanders, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson and Y. Ikeda, "In situ combustion measurements of CO2 by use of a distributed-feedback diode-laser sensor near 2.0 ?m," App. Opt. 22, 821-828 (2001).

Knabe, K.

Knight, J. C.

L. W. Kornaszewski, N. Gayraud, J. M. Stone, W. N. MacPherson, A .K. George, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and D. T. Reid, "Mid-infrared methane detection in a photonic bandgap fiber using a broadband optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Express 15, 11219-11224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kornaszewski, L.W.

Light, P. S.

F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all-fiber devices based on 12C2H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 263, 28-31 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ludvigsen, H.

J. Tuominen, T. Ritari, H. Ludvigsen, and J. C. Petersen, "Gas filled photonic bandgap fibers as wavelength references," Opt. Commun. 255, 272-277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 4080-4087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

MacPherson, W. N.

Mangan, B. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moodie, D.

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, "Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection," Sens. Act. B 51, 25-37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nagali, V.

V. Nagali and R. K. Hanson, "Design of a diode-laser sensor to monitor water vapour in high-pressure combustion gases," App. Opt. 36, 9518-9527 (1997).

Naweed, A.

Petersen, J. C.

Reid, D. T.

Ritari, T.

J. Tuominen, T. Ritari, H. Ludvigsen, and J. C. Petersen, "Gas filled photonic bandgap fibers as wavelength references," Opt. Commun. 255, 272-277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 4080-4087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P.St. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, T. J. Sheperd, "Full 2D photonic band gaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 311941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, et al., "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russel, P. St. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P.St. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, T. J. Sheperd, "Full 2D photonic band gaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 311941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all-fiber devices based on 12C2H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 263, 28-31 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, S. T.

M. E. Webber, S. Kim, S. T. Sanders, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson and Y. Ikeda, "In situ combustion measurements of CO2 by use of a distributed-feedback diode-laser sensor near 2.0 ?m," App. Opt. 22, 821-828 (2001).

Sheperd, T. J.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P.St. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, T. J. Sheperd, "Full 2D photonic band gaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 311941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H. R.

Sorensen, T.

Stewart, G.

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, "Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection," Sens. Act. B 51, 25-37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stone, J. M.

Tandy, C.

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, "Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection," Sens. Act. B 51, 25-37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thapa, R.

Tuominen, J.

J. Tuominen, T. Ritari, H. Ludvigsen, and J. C. Petersen, "Gas filled photonic bandgap fibers as wavelength references," Opt. Commun. 255, 272-277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 4080-4087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, O. L.

Webber, M. E.

M. E. Webber, S. Kim, S. T. Sanders, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson and Y. Ikeda, "In situ combustion measurements of CO2 by use of a distributed-feedback diode-laser sensor near 2.0 ?m," App. Opt. 22, 821-828 (2001).

App. Opt.

V. Nagali and R. K. Hanson, "Design of a diode-laser sensor to monitor water vapour in high-pressure combustion gases," App. Opt. 36, 9518-9527 (1997).

M. E. Webber, S. Kim, S. T. Sanders, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson and Y. Ikeda, "In situ combustion measurements of CO2 by use of a distributed-feedback diode-laser sensor near 2.0 ?m," App. Opt. 22, 821-828 (2001).

Electron. Lett.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P.St. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, T. J. Sheperd, "Full 2D photonic band gaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 311941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

M. Gharavi and S. G. Buckley, "Diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurement of linestrengths and pressure broadening coefficients of the methane 2?3 band at elevated temperatures," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 229, 78-88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, et al., "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. Tuominen, T. Ritari, H. Ludvigsen, and J. C. Petersen, "Gas filled photonic bandgap fibers as wavelength references," Opt. Commun. 255, 272-277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all-fiber devices based on 12C2H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 263, 28-31 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A

F. Benabid, "Hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre: new light guidance for new science and technology," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 3439-3462 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Act. B

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, "Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection," Sens. Act. B 51, 25-37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. M. Lopez-Higuera, Handbook of Optical Fibre Sensing Technology (John Wiley & Sons New York, 2002).

A. M. Cubillas, J. M. Lazaro, M. Silva-Lopez, O. M. Conde, M. Petrovich, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera, High sensitive methane sensor based on a photonic bandgap fiber, Postdeadline EWOFS’07 (2007).

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