Abstract

This work is aimed to the photopolarimetric characterization of the disorder evolution occurring in homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal films during the electrically induced Fréedericksz transition. The molecular director dynamics and the transversal reorientation modes are investigated by the analysis of the depolarization of the light beam emerging from the sample. Our measurements reveal unexpected depolarization effects at the transition, which we interpret in terms of director field unhomogeneity and defects creation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, second edition, 1993).
  2. V. Fréedericksz and V. Zolina, “Forces causing the orientation of an anisotropic liquid,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 29, 919 (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Golubitsky and D. G. Schaeffer, Singularities and Groups in Bifurcation Theory: Vol. I, Applied Mathematical Sciences 51 (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985).
  4. G. I. Blake, T. Mullin, and S. J. Tavener, “The Freedericksz transition as a bifurcation problem,” Dynamics and Stability of Systems 14, 299 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Kléman , “Defects in liquid crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys.52, 555 (1989); R. Repnik, L. Mathelitsch, M. Svetec, and S. Kralj, “Physics of defects in nematic liquid crystals,” Eur. J. Phys.24, 481 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M.G. Clerc, T. Nagaya, A. Petrossian, S. Residori, and C.S. Riera, “First-order Fréedericksz transition and front propagation in a liquid crystal light valve with feedback,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 435 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Buka and L. Kramer, “Linear and Nonlinear Transient Patterns in the Splay Freedericksz Transition of Nematics,” J. Phys. II France 2, 315 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Scaramuzza, G. Strangi, and C. Versace, “Electro-Optic Behavior of a Non Polar Nematic Liquid Crystal and Its Mixture,” Liq. Cryst. 28, 307 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Vena, C. Versace, G. Strangi, V. Bruno, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Light Depolarization Effect by Electrohydrodynamic Turbulence in Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 441, 1 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. M. A. Azzam, “Beam splitters for the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter,” Opt. Acta 32, 1407 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R.M.A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I.M. Elminyawi, and F.G. Grosz, “Construction, calibration, and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59 (1), 84 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Masetti and M.P. de Silva, “Development of a novel ellipsometer based on a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 264, 47 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Brudzewski, “Static Stokes Ellipsometer: General Analysis and Optimization,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 889 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Brosseau and D. Bicout, “Entropy production in multiple scattering of light by a spatially random medium,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 4997 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. A. Chipma, “Polarizers, retarders and depolarizes,” http://www.optics.arizona.edu/chipman/Publications/Polarizers_and_Polarized_Light_Preview.pdf.
  17. N. Eber, S. A. Rozanski, Sz. Nemeth, A. Buka, W. Pesch, and L. Kramer, “Decay of spatially periodic patterns in a Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. E. 70, 061706 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. T. Bramwell, K. Christensen, J.-Y. Fortin, P. C.W. Holdsworth, H. J. Jensen, S. Lise, J. M. López, M. Nicodemi, J.-F. Pinton, and M. Sellitto, “Universal Fluctuations in Correlated Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3744 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Tibor Tóth-Katona* and J. T. Gleeson, “Distribution of Injected Power Fluctuations in Electroconvection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 264501 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Ghosh, A. Pradhan, P. K. Gupta, S. Gupta, V. Jaisawal, and R.P. Singh, “Depolarization of light in a multiply scattering medium: Effect of the refractive index of a scatterer,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 066607 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. Vena, C. Versace, G. Strangi, V. Bruno, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Light Depolarization Effect by Electrohydrodynamic Turbulence in Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 441, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M.G. Clerc, T. Nagaya, A. Petrossian, S. Residori, and C.S. Riera, “First-order Fréedericksz transition and front propagation in a liquid crystal light valve with feedback,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Eber, S. A. Rozanski, Sz. Nemeth, A. Buka, W. Pesch, and L. Kramer, “Decay of spatially periodic patterns in a Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. E. 70, 061706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghosh, A. Pradhan, P. K. Gupta, S. Gupta, V. Jaisawal, and R.P. Singh, “Depolarization of light in a multiply scattering medium: Effect of the refractive index of a scatterer,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 066607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Tibor Tóth-Katona* and J. T. Gleeson, “Distribution of Injected Power Fluctuations in Electroconvection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 264501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. Scaramuzza, G. Strangi, and C. Versace, “Electro-Optic Behavior of a Non Polar Nematic Liquid Crystal and Its Mixture,” Liq. Cryst. 28, 307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. T. Bramwell, K. Christensen, J.-Y. Fortin, P. C.W. Holdsworth, H. J. Jensen, S. Lise, J. M. López, M. Nicodemi, J.-F. Pinton, and M. Sellitto, “Universal Fluctuations in Correlated Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3744 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

G. I. Blake, T. Mullin, and S. J. Tavener, “The Freedericksz transition as a bifurcation problem,” Dynamics and Stability of Systems 14, 299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

E. Masetti and M.P. de Silva, “Development of a novel ellipsometer based on a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 264, 47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Brosseau and D. Bicout, “Entropy production in multiple scattering of light by a spatially random medium,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 4997 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Buka and L. Kramer, “Linear and Nonlinear Transient Patterns in the Splay Freedericksz Transition of Nematics,” J. Phys. II France 2, 315 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Brudzewski, “Static Stokes Ellipsometer: General Analysis and Optimization,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 889 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R.M.A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I.M. Elminyawi, and F.G. Grosz, “Construction, calibration, and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59 (1), 84 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. M. A. Azzam, “Beam splitters for the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter,” Opt. Acta 32, 1407 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

V. Fréedericksz and V. Zolina, “Forces causing the orientation of an anisotropic liquid,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 29, 919 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, “Beam splitters for the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter,” Opt. Acta 32, 1407 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R.M.A.

R.M.A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I.M. Elminyawi, and F.G. Grosz, “Construction, calibration, and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59 (1), 84 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bartolino, R.

C. Vena, C. Versace, G. Strangi, V. Bruno, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Light Depolarization Effect by Electrohydrodynamic Turbulence in Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 441, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bicout, D.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Brosseau and D. Bicout, “Entropy production in multiple scattering of light by a spatially random medium,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 4997 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blake, G. I.

G. I. Blake, T. Mullin, and S. J. Tavener, “The Freedericksz transition as a bifurcation problem,” Dynamics and Stability of Systems 14, 299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bramwell, S. T.

S. T. Bramwell, K. Christensen, J.-Y. Fortin, P. C.W. Holdsworth, H. J. Jensen, S. Lise, J. M. López, M. Nicodemi, J.-F. Pinton, and M. Sellitto, “Universal Fluctuations in Correlated Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3744 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brosseau, C.

C. Brosseau and D. Bicout, “Entropy production in multiple scattering of light by a spatially random medium,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 4997 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brudzewski, K.

K. Brudzewski, “Static Stokes Ellipsometer: General Analysis and Optimization,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 889 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, V.

C. Vena, C. Versace, G. Strangi, V. Bruno, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Light Depolarization Effect by Electrohydrodynamic Turbulence in Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 441, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Buka, A.

N. Eber, S. A. Rozanski, Sz. Nemeth, A. Buka, W. Pesch, and L. Kramer, “Decay of spatially periodic patterns in a Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. E. 70, 061706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Buka and L. Kramer, “Linear and Nonlinear Transient Patterns in the Splay Freedericksz Transition of Nematics,” J. Phys. II France 2, 315 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chipma, R. A.

R. A. Chipma, “Polarizers, retarders and depolarizes,” http://www.optics.arizona.edu/chipman/Publications/Polarizers_and_Polarized_Light_Preview.pdf.

Christensen, K.

S. T. Bramwell, K. Christensen, J.-Y. Fortin, P. C.W. Holdsworth, H. J. Jensen, S. Lise, J. M. López, M. Nicodemi, J.-F. Pinton, and M. Sellitto, “Universal Fluctuations in Correlated Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3744 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clerc, M.G.

M.G. Clerc, T. Nagaya, A. Petrossian, S. Residori, and C.S. Riera, “First-order Fréedericksz transition and front propagation in a liquid crystal light valve with feedback,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Gennes, P. G.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, second edition, 1993).

de Silva, M.P.

E. Masetti and M.P. de Silva, “Development of a novel ellipsometer based on a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 264, 47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eber, N.

N. Eber, S. A. Rozanski, Sz. Nemeth, A. Buka, W. Pesch, and L. Kramer, “Decay of spatially periodic patterns in a Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. E. 70, 061706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elminyawi, I.M.

R.M.A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I.M. Elminyawi, and F.G. Grosz, “Construction, calibration, and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59 (1), 84 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fortin, J.-Y.

S. T. Bramwell, K. Christensen, J.-Y. Fortin, P. C.W. Holdsworth, H. J. Jensen, S. Lise, J. M. López, M. Nicodemi, J.-F. Pinton, and M. Sellitto, “Universal Fluctuations in Correlated Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3744 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fréedericksz, V.

V. Fréedericksz and V. Zolina, “Forces causing the orientation of an anisotropic liquid,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 29, 919 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, N.

N. Ghosh, A. Pradhan, P. K. Gupta, S. Gupta, V. Jaisawal, and R.P. Singh, “Depolarization of light in a multiply scattering medium: Effect of the refractive index of a scatterer,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 066607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gleeson, J. T.

Tibor Tóth-Katona* and J. T. Gleeson, “Distribution of Injected Power Fluctuations in Electroconvection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 264501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Golubitsky, M.

M. Golubitsky and D. G. Schaeffer, Singularities and Groups in Bifurcation Theory: Vol. I, Applied Mathematical Sciences 51 (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985).

Grosz, F.G.

R.M.A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I.M. Elminyawi, and F.G. Grosz, “Construction, calibration, and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59 (1), 84 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, P. K.

N. Ghosh, A. Pradhan, P. K. Gupta, S. Gupta, V. Jaisawal, and R.P. Singh, “Depolarization of light in a multiply scattering medium: Effect of the refractive index of a scatterer,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 066607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

N. Ghosh, A. Pradhan, P. K. Gupta, S. Gupta, V. Jaisawal, and R.P. Singh, “Depolarization of light in a multiply scattering medium: Effect of the refractive index of a scatterer,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 066607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holdsworth, P. C.W.

S. T. Bramwell, K. Christensen, J.-Y. Fortin, P. C.W. Holdsworth, H. J. Jensen, S. Lise, J. M. López, M. Nicodemi, J.-F. Pinton, and M. Sellitto, “Universal Fluctuations in Correlated Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3744 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaisawal, V.

N. Ghosh, A. Pradhan, P. K. Gupta, S. Gupta, V. Jaisawal, and R.P. Singh, “Depolarization of light in a multiply scattering medium: Effect of the refractive index of a scatterer,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 066607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, H. J.

S. T. Bramwell, K. Christensen, J.-Y. Fortin, P. C.W. Holdsworth, H. J. Jensen, S. Lise, J. M. López, M. Nicodemi, J.-F. Pinton, and M. Sellitto, “Universal Fluctuations in Correlated Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3744 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kléman, M.

M. Kléman , “Defects in liquid crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys.52, 555 (1989); R. Repnik, L. Mathelitsch, M. Svetec, and S. Kralj, “Physics of defects in nematic liquid crystals,” Eur. J. Phys.24, 481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kralj, S.

M. Kléman , “Defects in liquid crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys.52, 555 (1989); R. Repnik, L. Mathelitsch, M. Svetec, and S. Kralj, “Physics of defects in nematic liquid crystals,” Eur. J. Phys.24, 481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, L.

N. Eber, S. A. Rozanski, Sz. Nemeth, A. Buka, W. Pesch, and L. Kramer, “Decay of spatially periodic patterns in a Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. E. 70, 061706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Buka and L. Kramer, “Linear and Nonlinear Transient Patterns in the Splay Freedericksz Transition of Nematics,” J. Phys. II France 2, 315 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lise, S.

S. T. Bramwell, K. Christensen, J.-Y. Fortin, P. C.W. Holdsworth, H. J. Jensen, S. Lise, J. M. López, M. Nicodemi, J.-F. Pinton, and M. Sellitto, “Universal Fluctuations in Correlated Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3744 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

López, J. M.

S. T. Bramwell, K. Christensen, J.-Y. Fortin, P. C.W. Holdsworth, H. J. Jensen, S. Lise, J. M. López, M. Nicodemi, J.-F. Pinton, and M. Sellitto, “Universal Fluctuations in Correlated Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3744 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez, A. S.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Masetti, E.

E. Masetti and M.P. de Silva, “Development of a novel ellipsometer based on a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 264, 47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R.M.A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I.M. Elminyawi, and F.G. Grosz, “Construction, calibration, and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59 (1), 84 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mathelitsch, L.

M. Kléman , “Defects in liquid crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys.52, 555 (1989); R. Repnik, L. Mathelitsch, M. Svetec, and S. Kralj, “Physics of defects in nematic liquid crystals,” Eur. J. Phys.24, 481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mullin, T.

G. I. Blake, T. Mullin, and S. J. Tavener, “The Freedericksz transition as a bifurcation problem,” Dynamics and Stability of Systems 14, 299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nagaya, T.

M.G. Clerc, T. Nagaya, A. Petrossian, S. Residori, and C.S. Riera, “First-order Fréedericksz transition and front propagation in a liquid crystal light valve with feedback,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nemeth, Sz.

N. Eber, S. A. Rozanski, Sz. Nemeth, A. Buka, W. Pesch, and L. Kramer, “Decay of spatially periodic patterns in a Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. E. 70, 061706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nicodemi, M.

S. T. Bramwell, K. Christensen, J.-Y. Fortin, P. C.W. Holdsworth, H. J. Jensen, S. Lise, J. M. López, M. Nicodemi, J.-F. Pinton, and M. Sellitto, “Universal Fluctuations in Correlated Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3744 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pesch, W.

N. Eber, S. A. Rozanski, Sz. Nemeth, A. Buka, W. Pesch, and L. Kramer, “Decay of spatially periodic patterns in a Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. E. 70, 061706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petrossian, A.

M.G. Clerc, T. Nagaya, A. Petrossian, S. Residori, and C.S. Riera, “First-order Fréedericksz transition and front propagation in a liquid crystal light valve with feedback,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pinton, J.-F.

S. T. Bramwell, K. Christensen, J.-Y. Fortin, P. C.W. Holdsworth, H. J. Jensen, S. Lise, J. M. López, M. Nicodemi, J.-F. Pinton, and M. Sellitto, “Universal Fluctuations in Correlated Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3744 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pradhan, A.

N. Ghosh, A. Pradhan, P. K. Gupta, S. Gupta, V. Jaisawal, and R.P. Singh, “Depolarization of light in a multiply scattering medium: Effect of the refractive index of a scatterer,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 066607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prost, J.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, second edition, 1993).

Repnik, R.

M. Kléman , “Defects in liquid crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys.52, 555 (1989); R. Repnik, L. Mathelitsch, M. Svetec, and S. Kralj, “Physics of defects in nematic liquid crystals,” Eur. J. Phys.24, 481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Residori, S.

M.G. Clerc, T. Nagaya, A. Petrossian, S. Residori, and C.S. Riera, “First-order Fréedericksz transition and front propagation in a liquid crystal light valve with feedback,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Riera, C.S.

M.G. Clerc, T. Nagaya, A. Petrossian, S. Residori, and C.S. Riera, “First-order Fréedericksz transition and front propagation in a liquid crystal light valve with feedback,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rozanski, S. A.

N. Eber, S. A. Rozanski, Sz. Nemeth, A. Buka, W. Pesch, and L. Kramer, “Decay of spatially periodic patterns in a Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. E. 70, 061706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scaramuzza, N.

C. Vena, C. Versace, G. Strangi, V. Bruno, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Light Depolarization Effect by Electrohydrodynamic Turbulence in Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 441, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Scaramuzza, G. Strangi, and C. Versace, “Electro-Optic Behavior of a Non Polar Nematic Liquid Crystal and Its Mixture,” Liq. Cryst. 28, 307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schaeffer, D. G.

M. Golubitsky and D. G. Schaeffer, Singularities and Groups in Bifurcation Theory: Vol. I, Applied Mathematical Sciences 51 (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985).

Schmitt, J. M.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sellitto, M.

S. T. Bramwell, K. Christensen, J.-Y. Fortin, P. C.W. Holdsworth, H. J. Jensen, S. Lise, J. M. López, M. Nicodemi, J.-F. Pinton, and M. Sellitto, “Universal Fluctuations in Correlated Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3744 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, R.P.

N. Ghosh, A. Pradhan, P. K. Gupta, S. Gupta, V. Jaisawal, and R.P. Singh, “Depolarization of light in a multiply scattering medium: Effect of the refractive index of a scatterer,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 066607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strangi, G.

C. Vena, C. Versace, G. Strangi, V. Bruno, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Light Depolarization Effect by Electrohydrodynamic Turbulence in Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 441, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Scaramuzza, G. Strangi, and C. Versace, “Electro-Optic Behavior of a Non Polar Nematic Liquid Crystal and Its Mixture,” Liq. Cryst. 28, 307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Svetec, M.

M. Kléman , “Defects in liquid crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys.52, 555 (1989); R. Repnik, L. Mathelitsch, M. Svetec, and S. Kralj, “Physics of defects in nematic liquid crystals,” Eur. J. Phys.24, 481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tavener, S. J.

G. I. Blake, T. Mullin, and S. J. Tavener, “The Freedericksz transition as a bifurcation problem,” Dynamics and Stability of Systems 14, 299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tóth-Katona*, Tibor

Tibor Tóth-Katona* and J. T. Gleeson, “Distribution of Injected Power Fluctuations in Electroconvection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 264501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vena, C.

C. Vena, C. Versace, G. Strangi, V. Bruno, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Light Depolarization Effect by Electrohydrodynamic Turbulence in Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 441, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Versace, C.

C. Vena, C. Versace, G. Strangi, V. Bruno, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Light Depolarization Effect by Electrohydrodynamic Turbulence in Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 441, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Scaramuzza, G. Strangi, and C. Versace, “Electro-Optic Behavior of a Non Polar Nematic Liquid Crystal and Its Mixture,” Liq. Cryst. 28, 307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zolina, V.

V. Fréedericksz and V. Zolina, “Forces causing the orientation of an anisotropic liquid,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 29, 919 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Dynamics and Stability of Systems (1)

G. I. Blake, T. Mullin, and S. J. Tavener, “The Freedericksz transition as a bifurcation problem,” Dynamics and Stability of Systems 14, 299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

M.G. Clerc, T. Nagaya, A. Petrossian, S. Residori, and C.S. Riera, “First-order Fréedericksz transition and front propagation in a liquid crystal light valve with feedback,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Degree of polarization (curve a) and ellipticity (curve b) vs. the applied voltage V, the impinging light beam was left-handed circularly polarized.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Time behavior of both the degree of polarization (curve a) and the ellipticity (curve b), the applied voltage was kept fixed at 5.6 V RMS, the impinging light beam was left-handed circularly polarized.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time behavior of the degree of polarization P for two different values of the applied voltage: 6 V RMS (a), 7 V RMS (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Time behavior of the degree of polarization (curve a) and ellipticity (curve b) for a planar BL001 cell. The applied voltage was switched between 0 and 2.56V RMS. The oscillations of the ellipticity denote the reorientation dynamics at the OFF→ON and the ON→OFF transients respectively, no depolarization effects were observed.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Observations by orthoscopic optical microscopy of the Fréedericksz transition in a homeotropic cell at different applied voltage: a) in absence of field; b) 5.4 V RMS c) 9 V RMS just after the Fréedericksz transition d) 9 V RMS when the defect-antidefect pattern is formed.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

a) Degree of polarization measured by the repetition of the same observation (12 V RMS). b) Average of the measures showed in a) together with the exponential fit of its long time behavior P = P 0 + A e t T . Fitted parameters: P0 =0.87, A=-0.47, T=5.0s.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

a) Δt (defined in the text) vs ε=V 2/V 2 TH -1 and the exponential fit (solid line) Δ t = Δ t 0 + A e ε ε 1 , fitted parameters: Δt0 =0.30s, A=9.2s, ε1 =0.11. b) The same for the domains size D = D + B e ε ε 2 , fitted parameters: D∞=1.03µm, B=5.4µm, ε2 =0.16.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Histograms of PMIN at different voltage.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Mean values of PMIN as function of the reduced voltage ε, together with the exponential fit (solid line) P min = P + P 0 e ε ε 3 , fitted parameters: P∞=0.16, P0 =2.2,ε3 =0.06.

Equations (4)

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Θ = 1 2 arctan ( S 2 S 1 ) ,
e = tan [ 1 2 arcsin ( S 3 ( S 1 2 + S 2 2 + S 3 2 ) 1 2 ) ] ,
P = k = 1 3 ( S K S 0 ) 2 .
τ 2 Δ t γ 1 D 2 K 33 π 2 ,

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