Abstract

We show an improved DPSK receiver design which can increase useful dispersion tolerance by up to a factor of two. The increased dispersion tolerance is achieved through optimization of the optical filter at the receiver and the delay of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In this paper we fully explain the concept, quantify the gain and provide an explanation for the operation of the receiver.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A H. Gnauck and P. J Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol23, 115–130 (2005). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/50/30066/01377439.pdf
    [Crossref]
  2. B. Mikkelsen, P. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron Lett.42, 1363–1364 (2006). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/2220/4027802/04027831.pdf?tp=&isnumber=&arnumber=4027831
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Free spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Express15, 6817 (2007). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=134975
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. Hsieh, V. Ai, x. Chien, A. Liu, H. Gnauck, and X. Wei, “Athermal demodulator for 42.7-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signal,” in Proc. ECOC 2005 Glasgow, UK, Paper Th1.5.6, 2005. http://www.optoplex.com/PDF/Athermal_DPSK_Demodulator.pdf
  5. D. Penninckx, H. Bissessur, P. Brindel, E. Gohin, and F. Bakhti, “Optical differential phase shift keying (DPSK) direct detection considered as a duobinary signal,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2001, Amsterdam, 456–457, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7749/21330/00989713.pdf
  6. A. J. Price and N. Le Mercier, “Reduced bandwidth optical digital intensity modulation with improved chromatic dispersion tolerance,” Electron. Lett. 31, 58–59 (1995), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel1/2220/8346/00364286.pdf?arnumber=364286
    [Crossref]
  7. X. Wei, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, J. Leuthold, and P. J. Winzer, “40 Gb/s Duobinary and Modified Duobinary Transmitter Based on an Optical Delay Interferometer,” in Proc. ECOC 2005, Glasgow, U.K., 2005, Paper Th1.5.6.

1995 (1)

A. J. Price and N. Le Mercier, “Reduced bandwidth optical digital intensity modulation with improved chromatic dispersion tolerance,” Electron. Lett. 31, 58–59 (1995), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel1/2220/8346/00364286.pdf?arnumber=364286
[Crossref]

Ai, V.

C. Hsieh, V. Ai, x. Chien, A. Liu, H. Gnauck, and X. Wei, “Athermal demodulator for 42.7-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signal,” in Proc. ECOC 2005 Glasgow, UK, Paper Th1.5.6, 2005. http://www.optoplex.com/PDF/Athermal_DPSK_Demodulator.pdf

Bakhti, F.

D. Penninckx, H. Bissessur, P. Brindel, E. Gohin, and F. Bakhti, “Optical differential phase shift keying (DPSK) direct detection considered as a duobinary signal,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2001, Amsterdam, 456–457, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7749/21330/00989713.pdf

Bissessur, H.

D. Penninckx, H. Bissessur, P. Brindel, E. Gohin, and F. Bakhti, “Optical differential phase shift keying (DPSK) direct detection considered as a duobinary signal,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2001, Amsterdam, 456–457, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7749/21330/00989713.pdf

Brindel, P.

D. Penninckx, H. Bissessur, P. Brindel, E. Gohin, and F. Bakhti, “Optical differential phase shift keying (DPSK) direct detection considered as a duobinary signal,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2001, Amsterdam, 456–457, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7749/21330/00989713.pdf

Chandrasekhar, S.

X. Wei, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, J. Leuthold, and P. J. Winzer, “40 Gb/s Duobinary and Modified Duobinary Transmitter Based on an Optical Delay Interferometer,” in Proc. ECOC 2005, Glasgow, U.K., 2005, Paper Th1.5.6.

Chien, x.

C. Hsieh, V. Ai, x. Chien, A. Liu, H. Gnauck, and X. Wei, “Athermal demodulator for 42.7-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signal,” in Proc. ECOC 2005 Glasgow, UK, Paper Th1.5.6, 2005. http://www.optoplex.com/PDF/Athermal_DPSK_Demodulator.pdf

Christen, L.

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Free spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Express15, 6817 (2007). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=134975
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gnauck, A H.

A H. Gnauck and P. J Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol23, 115–130 (2005). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/50/30066/01377439.pdf
[Crossref]

Gnauck, A. H.

X. Wei, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, J. Leuthold, and P. J. Winzer, “40 Gb/s Duobinary and Modified Duobinary Transmitter Based on an Optical Delay Interferometer,” in Proc. ECOC 2005, Glasgow, U.K., 2005, Paper Th1.5.6.

Gnauck, H.

C. Hsieh, V. Ai, x. Chien, A. Liu, H. Gnauck, and X. Wei, “Athermal demodulator for 42.7-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signal,” in Proc. ECOC 2005 Glasgow, UK, Paper Th1.5.6, 2005. http://www.optoplex.com/PDF/Athermal_DPSK_Demodulator.pdf

Gohin, E.

D. Penninckx, H. Bissessur, P. Brindel, E. Gohin, and F. Bakhti, “Optical differential phase shift keying (DPSK) direct detection considered as a duobinary signal,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2001, Amsterdam, 456–457, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7749/21330/00989713.pdf

Hsieh, C.

C. Hsieh, V. Ai, x. Chien, A. Liu, H. Gnauck, and X. Wei, “Athermal demodulator for 42.7-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signal,” in Proc. ECOC 2005 Glasgow, UK, Paper Th1.5.6, 2005. http://www.optoplex.com/PDF/Athermal_DPSK_Demodulator.pdf

Kashyap, R.

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Free spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Express15, 6817 (2007). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=134975
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Mercier, N.

A. J. Price and N. Le Mercier, “Reduced bandwidth optical digital intensity modulation with improved chromatic dispersion tolerance,” Electron. Lett. 31, 58–59 (1995), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel1/2220/8346/00364286.pdf?arnumber=364286
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

X. Wei, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, J. Leuthold, and P. J. Winzer, “40 Gb/s Duobinary and Modified Duobinary Transmitter Based on an Optical Delay Interferometer,” in Proc. ECOC 2005, Glasgow, U.K., 2005, Paper Th1.5.6.

Liu, A.

C. Hsieh, V. Ai, x. Chien, A. Liu, H. Gnauck, and X. Wei, “Athermal demodulator for 42.7-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signal,” in Proc. ECOC 2005 Glasgow, UK, Paper Th1.5.6, 2005. http://www.optoplex.com/PDF/Athermal_DPSK_Demodulator.pdf

Liu, F.

B. Mikkelsen, P. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron Lett.42, 1363–1364 (2006). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/2220/4027802/04027831.pdf?tp=&isnumber=&arnumber=4027831
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Wei, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, J. Leuthold, and P. J. Winzer, “40 Gb/s Duobinary and Modified Duobinary Transmitter Based on an Optical Delay Interferometer,” in Proc. ECOC 2005, Glasgow, U.K., 2005, Paper Th1.5.6.

Lizé, Y. K.

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Free spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Express15, 6817 (2007). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=134975
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mamyshev, P.

B. Mikkelsen, P. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron Lett.42, 1363–1364 (2006). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/2220/4027802/04027831.pdf?tp=&isnumber=&arnumber=4027831
[Crossref]

Mikkelsen, B.

B. Mikkelsen, P. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron Lett.42, 1363–1364 (2006). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/2220/4027802/04027831.pdf?tp=&isnumber=&arnumber=4027831
[Crossref]

Nuccio, S.

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Free spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Express15, 6817 (2007). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=134975
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Penninckx, D.

D. Penninckx, H. Bissessur, P. Brindel, E. Gohin, and F. Bakhti, “Optical differential phase shift keying (DPSK) direct detection considered as a duobinary signal,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2001, Amsterdam, 456–457, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7749/21330/00989713.pdf

Price, A. J.

A. J. Price and N. Le Mercier, “Reduced bandwidth optical digital intensity modulation with improved chromatic dispersion tolerance,” Electron. Lett. 31, 58–59 (1995), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel1/2220/8346/00364286.pdf?arnumber=364286
[Crossref]

Rasmussen, P.

B. Mikkelsen, P. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron Lett.42, 1363–1364 (2006). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/2220/4027802/04027831.pdf?tp=&isnumber=&arnumber=4027831
[Crossref]

Raybon, G.

X. Wei, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, J. Leuthold, and P. J. Winzer, “40 Gb/s Duobinary and Modified Duobinary Transmitter Based on an Optical Delay Interferometer,” in Proc. ECOC 2005, Glasgow, U.K., 2005, Paper Th1.5.6.

Wei, X.

X. Wei, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, J. Leuthold, and P. J. Winzer, “40 Gb/s Duobinary and Modified Duobinary Transmitter Based on an Optical Delay Interferometer,” in Proc. ECOC 2005, Glasgow, U.K., 2005, Paper Th1.5.6.

C. Hsieh, V. Ai, x. Chien, A. Liu, H. Gnauck, and X. Wei, “Athermal demodulator for 42.7-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signal,” in Proc. ECOC 2005 Glasgow, UK, Paper Th1.5.6, 2005. http://www.optoplex.com/PDF/Athermal_DPSK_Demodulator.pdf

Willner, A. E.

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Free spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Express15, 6817 (2007). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=134975
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winzer, P. J

A H. Gnauck and P. J Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol23, 115–130 (2005). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/50/30066/01377439.pdf
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

X. Wei, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, J. Leuthold, and P. J. Winzer, “40 Gb/s Duobinary and Modified Duobinary Transmitter Based on an Optical Delay Interferometer,” in Proc. ECOC 2005, Glasgow, U.K., 2005, Paper Th1.5.6.

Wu, T.

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Free spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Express15, 6817 (2007). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=134975
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Free spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Express15, 6817 (2007). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=134975
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.-Y.

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Free spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Express15, 6817 (2007). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=134975
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. J. Price and N. Le Mercier, “Reduced bandwidth optical digital intensity modulation with improved chromatic dispersion tolerance,” Electron. Lett. 31, 58–59 (1995), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel1/2220/8346/00364286.pdf?arnumber=364286
[Crossref]

Other (6)

X. Wei, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, J. Leuthold, and P. J. Winzer, “40 Gb/s Duobinary and Modified Duobinary Transmitter Based on an Optical Delay Interferometer,” in Proc. ECOC 2005, Glasgow, U.K., 2005, Paper Th1.5.6.

A H. Gnauck and P. J Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol23, 115–130 (2005). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/50/30066/01377439.pdf
[Crossref]

B. Mikkelsen, P. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, “Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity,” Electron Lett.42, 1363–1364 (2006). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/2220/4027802/04027831.pdf?tp=&isnumber=&arnumber=4027831
[Crossref]

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Free spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Express15, 6817 (2007). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=134975
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hsieh, V. Ai, x. Chien, A. Liu, H. Gnauck, and X. Wei, “Athermal demodulator for 42.7-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signal,” in Proc. ECOC 2005 Glasgow, UK, Paper Th1.5.6, 2005. http://www.optoplex.com/PDF/Athermal_DPSK_Demodulator.pdf

D. Penninckx, H. Bissessur, P. Brindel, E. Gohin, and F. Bakhti, “Optical differential phase shift keying (DPSK) direct detection considered as a duobinary signal,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2001, Amsterdam, 456–457, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7749/21330/00989713.pdf

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The system modelled in these simulations. The filter shape and bandwidth were varied as well as the delay in the MZI

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Q-value as a function of dispersion for the receiver in Fig. 1 and 42.7GB/s transmission. The dotted lines are for a 1 bit delay and a 50GHz filter bandwidth and the solid lines for optimized delay and filter bandwidth the % refer to the RZ mark-to-space ratio.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Q-value plotted against filter bandwidth and normalized delay in the MZI for a 50%-RZ signal with 0ps/nm dispersion (left) and 100ps/nm dispersion (right).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Filter bandwidth and MZI delay as function dispersion. MZI delay is given with the solid lines and is related to the axis on the right; filter bandwidth is the dashed line and is related to the axis on the left. Both 50% RZ and 67% RZ results are given.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Eye diagrams for the 50%- RZ DPSK signal after 100ps/nm of dispersion. The top one is for a 1 bit delay and 50GHz filter, the one on the bottom has a 0.67 bit delay and a 36GHz filter.

Fig 6.
Fig 6.

Q penalty at the receiver as a function of MZI delay. The solid line represents the PDPSK with no dispersion the short dashed line is the same with dispersion and the horizontal line represents a 3dB penalty.

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