Abstract

We describe a compact adaptive optical system using a spatial light modulator (SLM) as a single element to both measure and compensate optical aberrations. We used a low-cost, off-the-shelf twisted nematic liquid-crystal display (TNLCD) optimally configured to achieve maximum phase modulation with near constant transmittance. The TNLCD acts both as the microlens array of a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and as the aberration compensation element. This adaptive setup is easy to implement and offers great versatility.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford University Press, New York1998).
  2. R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, “Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).
  3. E. Dalimier and C. Dainty, “Comparative analysis of deformable mirrors for ocular adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 13, 4275–4285 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-4275.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. F. Vargas-Martin, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Correction of the aberrations in the human eye with a liquid crystal spatial light modulator: limits to performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2552–2562 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. D. Love, “Wave-front correction and production of Zernike modes with a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1517–1524 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics with a programmable phase modulator: applications in the human eye,” Opt. Express 12, 4059–4071 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. L. Seifert, J. Liesener, and H.J. Tiziani, “The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Commun. 216, 313–319 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, L.S. Ong, Z.P. Fang, and A.K. Asundi, “Efficient implementation of a spatial light modulator as a diffractive optical microlens array in a digital Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Appl. Opt. 45, 90–94 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. H.J. Tiziani, T. Haist, J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, and L. Seifert, “Application of SLMs for optical metrology,” in Spatial Light Modulators: Technology and Applications, Uzi Efron (Ed.), Proc. SPIE 4457, 72–81 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  10. V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines, and S. Bará, “Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12014037 (2007)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. W. H. Southwell, “Wave-front estimation from wave-front slope measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 998–1006 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  12. V. Duran, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and Z. Jaroszewicz: “Equivalent retarder-rotator approach to on-state twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113101 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. V. Durán, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and M. Fernández-Alonso, “Phase-only modulation with a twisted nematic liquid crystal display by means of equi-azimuth polarization states,” Opt. Express 14, 5607–5616 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. Bará, T. Mancebo, and E. Moreno-Barriuso, “Positioning tolerances for phase plates compensating aberrations of the human eye,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3413–3420 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Bará, and T. Mancebo, “Phase-plates for wave-aberration compensation in the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 25, 236–238 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. Rodríguez, R. Navarro, J. Arines, and S. Bará, “A New Calibration Set of Phase Plates for Ocular Aberrometers,” J. Refract. Surg.,  22, 275–284 (2006).
    [PubMed]

2007 (1)

V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines, and S. Bará, “Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12014037 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

L. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, L.S. Ong, Z.P. Fang, and A.K. Asundi, “Efficient implementation of a spatial light modulator as a diffractive optical microlens array in a digital Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Appl. Opt. 45, 90–94 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Duran, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and Z. Jaroszewicz: “Equivalent retarder-rotator approach to on-state twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113101 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. Durán, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and M. Fernández-Alonso, “Phase-only modulation with a twisted nematic liquid crystal display by means of equi-azimuth polarization states,” Opt. Express 14, 5607–5616 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rodríguez, R. Navarro, J. Arines, and S. Bará, “A New Calibration Set of Phase Plates for Ocular Aberrometers,” J. Refract. Surg.,  22, 275–284 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, and H.J. Tiziani, “The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Commun. 216, 313–319 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

H.J. Tiziani, T. Haist, J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, and L. Seifert, “Application of SLMs for optical metrology,” in Spatial Light Modulators: Technology and Applications, Uzi Efron (Ed.), Proc. SPIE 4457, 72–81 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1980 (1)

1971 (1)

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, “Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

Arines, J.

V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines, and S. Bará, “Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12014037 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rodríguez, R. Navarro, J. Arines, and S. Bará, “A New Calibration Set of Phase Plates for Ocular Aberrometers,” J. Refract. Surg.,  22, 275–284 (2006).
[PubMed]

Artal, P.

Asundi, A.K.

Bai, N.

Bará, S.

V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines, and S. Bará, “Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12014037 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rodríguez, R. Navarro, J. Arines, and S. Bará, “A New Calibration Set of Phase Plates for Ocular Aberrometers,” J. Refract. Surg.,  22, 275–284 (2006).
[PubMed]

R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Bará, and T. Mancebo, “Phase-plates for wave-aberration compensation in the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 25, 236–238 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Bará, T. Mancebo, and E. Moreno-Barriuso, “Positioning tolerances for phase plates compensating aberrations of the human eye,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3413–3420 (2000).
[Crossref]

Climent, V.

V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines, and S. Bará, “Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12014037 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dainty, C.

Dalimier, E.

Duran, V.

V. Duran, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and Z. Jaroszewicz: “Equivalent retarder-rotator approach to on-state twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Durán, V.

V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines, and S. Bará, “Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12014037 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Durán, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and M. Fernández-Alonso, “Phase-only modulation with a twisted nematic liquid crystal display by means of equi-azimuth polarization states,” Opt. Express 14, 5607–5616 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Z.P.

Fernández, E. J.

Fernández-Alonso, M.

Haist, T.

H.J. Tiziani, T. Haist, J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, and L. Seifert, “Application of SLMs for optical metrology,” in Spatial Light Modulators: Technology and Applications, Uzi Efron (Ed.), Proc. SPIE 4457, 72–81 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford University Press, New York1998).

Jaroszewicz, Z.

V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines, and S. Bará, “Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12014037 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Duran, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and Z. Jaroszewicz: “Equivalent retarder-rotator approach to on-state twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lancis, J.

V. Duran, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and Z. Jaroszewicz: “Equivalent retarder-rotator approach to on-state twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113101 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. Durán, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and M. Fernández-Alonso, “Phase-only modulation with a twisted nematic liquid crystal display by means of equi-azimuth polarization states,” Opt. Express 14, 5607–5616 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Liesener, J.

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, and H.J. Tiziani, “The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Commun. 216, 313–319 (2003).
[Crossref]

H.J. Tiziani, T. Haist, J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, and L. Seifert, “Application of SLMs for optical metrology,” in Spatial Light Modulators: Technology and Applications, Uzi Efron (Ed.), Proc. SPIE 4457, 72–81 (2001).
[Crossref]

Love, G. D.

Mancebo, T.

Manzanera, S.

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

Navarro, R.

P. Rodríguez, R. Navarro, J. Arines, and S. Bará, “A New Calibration Set of Phase Plates for Ocular Aberrometers,” J. Refract. Surg.,  22, 275–284 (2006).
[PubMed]

R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Bará, and T. Mancebo, “Phase-plates for wave-aberration compensation in the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 25, 236–238 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ong, L.S.

Platt, B. C.

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, “Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

Prieto, P. M.

Reicherter, M.

H.J. Tiziani, T. Haist, J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, and L. Seifert, “Application of SLMs for optical metrology,” in Spatial Light Modulators: Technology and Applications, Uzi Efron (Ed.), Proc. SPIE 4457, 72–81 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rodríguez, P.

P. Rodríguez, R. Navarro, J. Arines, and S. Bará, “A New Calibration Set of Phase Plates for Ocular Aberrometers,” J. Refract. Surg.,  22, 275–284 (2006).
[PubMed]

Seifert, L.

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, and H.J. Tiziani, “The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Commun. 216, 313–319 (2003).
[Crossref]

H.J. Tiziani, T. Haist, J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, and L. Seifert, “Application of SLMs for optical metrology,” in Spatial Light Modulators: Technology and Applications, Uzi Efron (Ed.), Proc. SPIE 4457, 72–81 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shack, R. V.

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, “Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

Southwell, W. H.

Tajahuerce, E.

V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines, and S. Bará, “Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12014037 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Duran, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and Z. Jaroszewicz: “Equivalent retarder-rotator approach to on-state twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113101 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. Durán, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and M. Fernández-Alonso, “Phase-only modulation with a twisted nematic liquid crystal display by means of equi-azimuth polarization states,” Opt. Express 14, 5607–5616 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tiziani, H.J.

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, and H.J. Tiziani, “The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Commun. 216, 313–319 (2003).
[Crossref]

H.J. Tiziani, T. Haist, J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, and L. Seifert, “Application of SLMs for optical metrology,” in Spatial Light Modulators: Technology and Applications, Uzi Efron (Ed.), Proc. SPIE 4457, 72–81 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vargas-Martin, F.

Zhao, L.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Duran, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and Z. Jaroszewicz: “Equivalent retarder-rotator approach to on-state twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines, and S. Bará, “Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12014037 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

W. H. Southwell, “Wave-front estimation from wave-front slope measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 998–1006 (1980).
[Crossref]

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, “Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

P. Rodríguez, R. Navarro, J. Arines, and S. Bará, “A New Calibration Set of Phase Plates for Ocular Aberrometers,” J. Refract. Surg.,  22, 275–284 (2006).
[PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Seifert, J. Liesener, and H.J. Tiziani, “The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Commun. 216, 313–319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H.J. Tiziani, T. Haist, J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, and L. Seifert, “Application of SLMs for optical metrology,” in Spatial Light Modulators: Technology and Applications, Uzi Efron (Ed.), Proc. SPIE 4457, 72–81 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford University Press, New York1998).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (4019 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1857 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Block diagram of the single SLM adaptive setup (see text for details).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for achieving phase-only modulation of a TNLCD. P: polarizer; QWP: a quarter-wave plate. In the above diagram, the x-axis coincides with the input molecular director of the liquid crystal cell. P1 and P2 are, respectively, the orientation of the polarizer and the analyzer. L1 and L2 are the angles of the slow axis of the quarter-wave plates with respect to x-axis.

Fig.3.
Fig.3.

Single SLM adaptive demonstration setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Grayscale representation of the four-level TNLCD patterns: (left) for generating a 9 × 9 diffractive microlens array; (right) for compensating the aberration produced by an artificial eye.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

CCD images obtained at three consecutive time intervals in a typical demonstration run. Video file (4 MB) [Media 1]

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

A real time video of the performance of the system when compensating continuously varying amounts of defocus. Video file (1.9 MB) [Media 2]

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