Abstract

We describe the integration of optically pumped silicon nanocrystals (Si-ncs) embedded in SiO2 with low loss silicon nitride slab waveguides. An emission waveguide containing Si-ncs with a broad band emission centered at 850 nm, together with a low loss transmission silicon nitride waveguide forms a two section device. The waveguides are fabricated via the deposition of SiOx and silicon nitride using ECR-PECVD. Incorporation of hydrogen through annealing, while beneficial to emission from the Si-ncs, is found to increase material absorption in silicon nitride. This is reconciled by annealing at low temperature. This work shows clearly the potential for this material system as a means for the integration of optical emission and waveguiding using a wholly VLSI compatible processing technology. We further suggest that immediate applications exist in particular in the field of evanescent sensing.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

R. G. Elliman, M. Forcales, A. R. Wilkinson, and N. J. Smith, “Waveguiding properties of Er-implanted silicon-rich oxides,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 257, 11–14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Khriachtchev, D. Navarro-Urrios, L. Pavesi, C. J. Oton, N. E. Capuj, and S. Novikov, “Spectroscopy of silica layers containing Si nanocrystals: Experimental evidence of optical birefringence,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 044310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, R. Jones, H. Park, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent racetrack laser and photodetector,” Opt. Express 15, 2315–2322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

C. K. Wong, H. Wong, C. W. Kok, and M. Chan, “Silicon oxynitride prepared by chemical vapor deposition as optical waveguide materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 288, 171–175 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Wilkinson and R. G. Elliman, “Maximixing light emission from silicon nanocrystals - The role of hydrogen,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res B 242, 303–306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Comedi, O. H. Y. Zalloum, E. A. Irving, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “H-induced effects in luminescent silicon nanostructures obtained from plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition grown SiyO1-y:H(y>1/3) thin films annealed in (Ar+5% H2),” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 817–820 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (7)

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Garcia, J. Arbiol, J. R. Morante, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Scheid, and G. Sarrabayrouse, “Low-loss rib waveguides containing Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognalto, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Gardner and M. L. Brongersma, “Microring and microdisk optical resonators using silicon nanocrystals and erbium prepared using silicon technology,” Opt. Mater. 27, 804–811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Ostatnicky, J. Valenta, I. Pelant, K. Luterova, R. G. Elliman, S. Cheylan, and B. Honerlage, “Photoluminescence from an active planar optical waveguide made of silicon nanocrystals: dominance of leaky substrate modes in dissipative structures,” Opt. Mater. 27, 781–786 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A Continuous-Wave Raman Silicon Laser,” Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, J. H. Shin, and N. Park, “Optical gain at 1.5 μm in nanocrystal Si-sensitized Er-doped silica saveguide using top-pumping 470 nm LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 19–25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, J. H. Shin, and N. Park, “Performance analysis of naocluster-Si sentized Er-doped waveguide amplifier using top-pumped 470 nm LED,” Opt. Express 13, 9881–9889 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M Girardini, G. Pucker, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, and L. Pavesi, “Comparison among various Si3N4 waveguide geometries grown within a CMOS fabrication pilot line,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1734– 1740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229, 337–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Tan, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “Study of the optical properties of SiOxNy thin films by effective medium theories,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22, 1115–1119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Lockwood and L. Pavesi, “Silicon Fundamentals for Photonics Applications,” Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 1–50 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

R. T. Neal, M. D. C. Charlton, G. J. Parker, C. E. Finlayson, M. C. Netti, and J. J. Baumberg, “Ultrabroadband transmission measurements on waveguides of silicon-rich silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4598–4600 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Khriachtchev, M. Rasanen, and S. Novikov, “Efficient wavelength-selectrive optical waveguideing in a silica layer containing Si nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3018–3020 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Ruan, P. M. Fauchet, L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, and L. Pavesi, “Stimulated emission in nanocrystalline silicon superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5479–5481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Bona, R. Germann, and B. J. Offrein, “SiON high-refractive-index waveguide and planar lighwave circuits,” IBM J. Res. & Dev. 47, 239–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. Valenta, I. Pelant, and J. Linnros, “Waveguiding effects in the measurement of optical gain in a layer of Si nanocrystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 81, 1396–1398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Hofmann, G. Voirin, P. Niedermann, and A. Manz, “Three-dimensional microfluidic confinement for efficient sample delivery to biosensor surfaces. Application to immunoassays on planar optical waveguides,” Anal. Chem. 74, 5243–5250 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, “Remote opto-chemical sensing with extreme sensitivity: design, fabrication and performance of a pigtailed integrated optical phas-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer system,” Sens. Actuators B-Chem. 61, 100–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Haes, B. Demeulenaere, R. Baets, D. Lenstra, T. D. Visser, and H. Block, “Difference between TE and TM modal gain in amplifying waveguides: analysis and assessment of two perturbation approaches,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 29, 263–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1977 (1)

W. Stutius and W. Streifer, “Silicon nitride films on silicon for optical waveguides,” Appl. Optics 16, 3218–3222 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Arbiol, J.

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Garcia, J. Arbiol, J. R. Morante, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Scheid, and G. Sarrabayrouse, “Low-loss rib waveguides containing Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

J. Haes, B. Demeulenaere, R. Baets, D. Lenstra, T. D. Visser, and H. Block, “Difference between TE and TM modal gain in amplifying waveguides: analysis and assessment of two perturbation approaches,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 29, 263–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J. J.

R. T. Neal, M. D. C. Charlton, G. J. Parker, C. E. Finlayson, M. C. Netti, and J. J. Baumberg, “Ultrabroadband transmission measurements on waveguides of silicon-rich silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4598–4600 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bellutti, P.

Bettotti, P.

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229, 337–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Block, H.

J. Haes, B. Demeulenaere, R. Baets, D. Lenstra, T. D. Visser, and H. Block, “Difference between TE and TM modal gain in amplifying waveguides: analysis and assessment of two perturbation approaches,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 29, 263–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bona, G. L.

G. L. Bona, R. Germann, and B. J. Offrein, “SiON high-refractive-index waveguide and planar lighwave circuits,” IBM J. Res. & Dev. 47, 239–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Brongersma, M. L.

D. S. Gardner and M. L. Brongersma, “Microring and microdisk optical resonators using silicon nanocrystals and erbium prepared using silicon technology,” Opt. Mater. 27, 804–811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Calder, I. D.

T. W. MacElwee, S. E. Hill, S. Campbell, D. Ducharme, B. B. Rioux, I. D. Calder, M. Flynn, J. Wojcik, S. Gujrathi, and P. Mascher, “Bright green visible electroluminescence from rare earth doped silicon rich SiOx,” in 2006 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp.216–218.
[CrossRef]

Campbell, S.

T. W. MacElwee, S. E. Hill, S. Campbell, D. Ducharme, B. B. Rioux, I. D. Calder, M. Flynn, J. Wojcik, S. Gujrathi, and P. Mascher, “Bright green visible electroluminescence from rare earth doped silicon rich SiOx,” in 2006 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp.216–218.
[CrossRef]

Capuj, N. E.

L. Khriachtchev, D. Navarro-Urrios, L. Pavesi, C. J. Oton, N. E. Capuj, and S. Novikov, “Spectroscopy of silica layers containing Si nanocrystals: Experimental evidence of optical birefringence,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 044310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carrada, M.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognalto, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cazzanelli, M.

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229, 337–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ruan, P. M. Fauchet, L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, and L. Pavesi, “Stimulated emission in nanocrystalline silicon superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5479–5481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chan, M.

C. K. Wong, H. Wong, C. W. Kok, and M. Chan, “Silicon oxynitride prepared by chemical vapor deposition as optical waveguide materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 288, 171–175 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, M. D. C.

R. T. Neal, M. D. C. Charlton, G. J. Parker, C. E. Finlayson, M. C. Netti, and J. J. Baumberg, “Ultrabroadband transmission measurements on waveguides of silicon-rich silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4598–4600 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheylan, S.

T. Ostatnicky, J. Valenta, I. Pelant, K. Luterova, R. G. Elliman, S. Cheylan, and B. Honerlage, “Photoluminescence from an active planar optical waveguide made of silicon nanocrystals: dominance of leaky substrate modes in dissipative structures,” Opt. Mater. 27, 781–786 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chilwell, J.

Cognalto, L.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognalto, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

Comedi, D.

D. Comedi, O. H. Y. Zalloum, E. A. Irving, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “H-induced effects in luminescent silicon nanostructures obtained from plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition grown SiyO1-y:H(y>1/3) thin films annealed in (Ar+5% H2),” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 817–820 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crivellari, M.

Daldosso, N.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognalto, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Garcia, J. Arbiol, J. R. Morante, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Scheid, and G. Sarrabayrouse, “Low-loss rib waveguides containing Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M Girardini, G. Pucker, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, and L. Pavesi, “Comparison among various Si3N4 waveguide geometries grown within a CMOS fabrication pilot line,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1734– 1740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Demeulenaere, B.

J. Haes, B. Demeulenaere, R. Baets, D. Lenstra, T. D. Visser, and H. Block, “Difference between TE and TM modal gain in amplifying waveguides: analysis and assessment of two perturbation approaches,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 29, 263–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ducharme, D.

T. W. MacElwee, S. E. Hill, S. Campbell, D. Ducharme, B. B. Rioux, I. D. Calder, M. Flynn, J. Wojcik, S. Gujrathi, and P. Mascher, “Bright green visible electroluminescence from rare earth doped silicon rich SiOx,” in 2006 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp.216–218.
[CrossRef]

Elliman, R. G.

R. G. Elliman, M. Forcales, A. R. Wilkinson, and N. J. Smith, “Waveguiding properties of Er-implanted silicon-rich oxides,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 257, 11–14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Wilkinson and R. G. Elliman, “Maximixing light emission from silicon nanocrystals - The role of hydrogen,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res B 242, 303–306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Ostatnicky, J. Valenta, I. Pelant, K. Luterova, R. G. Elliman, S. Cheylan, and B. Honerlage, “Photoluminescence from an active planar optical waveguide made of silicon nanocrystals: dominance of leaky substrate modes in dissipative structures,” Opt. Mater. 27, 781–786 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A Continuous-Wave Raman Silicon Laser,” Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, A. W.

Fauchet, P. M.

J. Ruan, P. M. Fauchet, L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, and L. Pavesi, “Stimulated emission in nanocrystalline silicon superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5479–5481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Finlayson, C. E.

R. T. Neal, M. D. C. Charlton, G. J. Parker, C. E. Finlayson, M. C. Netti, and J. J. Baumberg, “Ultrabroadband transmission measurements on waveguides of silicon-rich silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4598–4600 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flynn, M.

T. W. MacElwee, S. E. Hill, S. Campbell, D. Ducharme, B. B. Rioux, I. D. Calder, M. Flynn, J. Wojcik, S. Gujrathi, and P. Mascher, “Bright green visible electroluminescence from rare earth doped silicon rich SiOx,” in 2006 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp.216–218.
[CrossRef]

Forcales, M.

R. G. Elliman, M. Forcales, A. R. Wilkinson, and N. J. Smith, “Waveguiding properties of Er-implanted silicon-rich oxides,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 257, 11–14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franzo, G.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, C.

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Garcia, J. Arbiol, J. R. Morante, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Scheid, and G. Sarrabayrouse, “Low-loss rib waveguides containing Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognalto, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, D. S.

D. S. Gardner and M. L. Brongersma, “Microring and microdisk optical resonators using silicon nanocrystals and erbium prepared using silicon technology,” Opt. Mater. 27, 804–811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garrido, B.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognalto, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Garcia, J. Arbiol, J. R. Morante, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Scheid, and G. Sarrabayrouse, “Low-loss rib waveguides containing Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Germann, R.

G. L. Bona, R. Germann, and B. J. Offrein, “SiON high-refractive-index waveguide and planar lighwave circuits,” IBM J. Res. & Dev. 47, 239–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Girardini, M

Gourbilleau, F.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognalto, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gujrathi, S.

T. W. MacElwee, S. E. Hill, S. Campbell, D. Ducharme, B. B. Rioux, I. D. Calder, M. Flynn, J. Wojcik, S. Gujrathi, and P. Mascher, “Bright green visible electroluminescence from rare earth doped silicon rich SiOx,” in 2006 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp.216–218.
[CrossRef]

Haes, J.

J. Haes, B. Demeulenaere, R. Baets, D. Lenstra, T. D. Visser, and H. Block, “Difference between TE and TM modal gain in amplifying waveguides: analysis and assessment of two perturbation approaches,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 29, 263–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A Continuous-Wave Raman Silicon Laser,” Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haruna, M.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill1985), Chapt. 8.

Heideman, R. G.

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, “Remote opto-chemical sensing with extreme sensitivity: design, fabrication and performance of a pigtailed integrated optical phas-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer system,” Sens. Actuators B-Chem. 61, 100–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. E.

T. W. MacElwee, S. E. Hill, S. Campbell, D. Ducharme, B. B. Rioux, I. D. Calder, M. Flynn, J. Wojcik, S. Gujrathi, and P. Mascher, “Bright green visible electroluminescence from rare earth doped silicon rich SiOx,” in 2006 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp.216–218.
[CrossRef]

Hodgkinson, I.

Hofmann, O.

O. Hofmann, G. Voirin, P. Niedermann, and A. Manz, “Three-dimensional microfluidic confinement for efficient sample delivery to biosensor surfaces. Application to immunoassays on planar optical waveguides,” Anal. Chem. 74, 5243–5250 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honerlage, B.

T. Ostatnicky, J. Valenta, I. Pelant, K. Luterova, R. G. Elliman, S. Cheylan, and B. Honerlage, “Photoluminescence from an active planar optical waveguide made of silicon nanocrystals: dominance of leaky substrate modes in dissipative structures,” Opt. Mater. 27, 781–786 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Irving, E. A.

D. Comedi, O. H. Y. Zalloum, E. A. Irving, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “H-induced effects in luminescent silicon nanostructures obtained from plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition grown SiyO1-y:H(y>1/3) thin films annealed in (Ar+5% H2),” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 817–820 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

Khriachtchev, L.

L. Khriachtchev, D. Navarro-Urrios, L. Pavesi, C. J. Oton, N. E. Capuj, and S. Novikov, “Spectroscopy of silica layers containing Si nanocrystals: Experimental evidence of optical birefringence,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 044310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Khriachtchev, M. Rasanen, and S. Novikov, “Efficient wavelength-selectrive optical waveguideing in a silica layer containing Si nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3018–3020 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

G. T Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics-An introduction (Wiley, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Kok, C. W.

C. K. Wong, H. Wong, C. W. Kok, and M. Chan, “Silicon oxynitride prepared by chemical vapor deposition as optical waveguide materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 288, 171–175 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, “Remote opto-chemical sensing with extreme sensitivity: design, fabrication and performance of a pigtailed integrated optical phas-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer system,” Sens. Actuators B-Chem. 61, 100–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

Lee, J.

Lenstra, D.

J. Haes, B. Demeulenaere, R. Baets, D. Lenstra, T. D. Visser, and H. Block, “Difference between TE and TM modal gain in amplifying waveguides: analysis and assessment of two perturbation approaches,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 29, 263–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Linnros, J.

J. Valenta, I. Pelant, and J. Linnros, “Waveguiding effects in the measurement of optical gain in a layer of Si nanocrystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 81, 1396–1398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A Continuous-Wave Raman Silicon Laser,” Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lockwood, D. J.

D. J. Lockwood and L. Pavesi, “Silicon Fundamentals for Photonics Applications,” Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 1–50 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lui, A.

Luterova, K.

T. Ostatnicky, J. Valenta, I. Pelant, K. Luterova, R. G. Elliman, S. Cheylan, and B. Honerlage, “Photoluminescence from an active planar optical waveguide made of silicon nanocrystals: dominance of leaky substrate modes in dissipative structures,” Opt. Mater. 27, 781–786 (2005).
[CrossRef]

MacElwee, T. W.

T. W. MacElwee, S. E. Hill, S. Campbell, D. Ducharme, B. B. Rioux, I. D. Calder, M. Flynn, J. Wojcik, S. Gujrathi, and P. Mascher, “Bright green visible electroluminescence from rare earth doped silicon rich SiOx,” in 2006 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp.216–218.
[CrossRef]

Manz, A.

O. Hofmann, G. Voirin, P. Niedermann, and A. Manz, “Three-dimensional microfluidic confinement for efficient sample delivery to biosensor surfaces. Application to immunoassays on planar optical waveguides,” Anal. Chem. 74, 5243–5250 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mascher, P.

D. Comedi, O. H. Y. Zalloum, E. A. Irving, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “H-induced effects in luminescent silicon nanostructures obtained from plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition grown SiyO1-y:H(y>1/3) thin films annealed in (Ar+5% H2),” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 817–820 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Tan, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “Study of the optical properties of SiOxNy thin films by effective medium theories,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22, 1115–1119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. W. MacElwee, S. E. Hill, S. Campbell, D. Ducharme, B. B. Rioux, I. D. Calder, M. Flynn, J. Wojcik, S. Gujrathi, and P. Mascher, “Bright green visible electroluminescence from rare earth doped silicon rich SiOx,” in 2006 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp.216–218.
[CrossRef]

Mazzoleni, C.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melchiorri, M.

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Garcia, J. Arbiol, J. R. Morante, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Scheid, and G. Sarrabayrouse, “Low-loss rib waveguides containing Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognalto, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M Girardini, G. Pucker, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, and L. Pavesi, “Comparison among various Si3N4 waveguide geometries grown within a CMOS fabrication pilot line,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1734– 1740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morante, J. R.

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Garcia, J. Arbiol, J. R. Morante, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Scheid, and G. Sarrabayrouse, “Low-loss rib waveguides containing Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Navarro-Urrios, D.

L. Khriachtchev, D. Navarro-Urrios, L. Pavesi, C. J. Oton, N. E. Capuj, and S. Novikov, “Spectroscopy of silica layers containing Si nanocrystals: Experimental evidence of optical birefringence,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 044310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognalto, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neal, R. T.

R. T. Neal, M. D. C. Charlton, G. J. Parker, C. E. Finlayson, M. C. Netti, and J. J. Baumberg, “Ultrabroadband transmission measurements on waveguides of silicon-rich silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4598–4600 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Negro, L. Dal

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229, 337–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ruan, P. M. Fauchet, L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, and L. Pavesi, “Stimulated emission in nanocrystalline silicon superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5479–5481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Netti, M. C.

R. T. Neal, M. D. C. Charlton, G. J. Parker, C. E. Finlayson, M. C. Netti, and J. J. Baumberg, “Ultrabroadband transmission measurements on waveguides of silicon-rich silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4598–4600 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Niedermann, P.

O. Hofmann, G. Voirin, P. Niedermann, and A. Manz, “Three-dimensional microfluidic confinement for efficient sample delivery to biosensor surfaces. Application to immunoassays on planar optical waveguides,” Anal. Chem. 74, 5243–5250 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishihara, H.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill1985), Chapt. 8.

Novikov, S.

L. Khriachtchev, D. Navarro-Urrios, L. Pavesi, C. J. Oton, N. E. Capuj, and S. Novikov, “Spectroscopy of silica layers containing Si nanocrystals: Experimental evidence of optical birefringence,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 044310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Khriachtchev, M. Rasanen, and S. Novikov, “Efficient wavelength-selectrive optical waveguideing in a silica layer containing Si nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3018–3020 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Offrein, B. J.

G. L. Bona, R. Germann, and B. J. Offrein, “SiON high-refractive-index waveguide and planar lighwave circuits,” IBM J. Res. & Dev. 47, 239–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ostatnicky, T.

T. Ostatnicky, J. Valenta, I. Pelant, K. Luterova, R. G. Elliman, S. Cheylan, and B. Honerlage, “Photoluminescence from an active planar optical waveguide made of silicon nanocrystals: dominance of leaky substrate modes in dissipative structures,” Opt. Mater. 27, 781–786 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oton, C. J.

L. Khriachtchev, D. Navarro-Urrios, L. Pavesi, C. J. Oton, N. E. Capuj, and S. Novikov, “Spectroscopy of silica layers containing Si nanocrystals: Experimental evidence of optical birefringence,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 044310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pacifici, D.

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229, 337–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A Continuous-Wave Raman Silicon Laser,” Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Park, N.

Parker, G. J.

R. T. Neal, M. D. C. Charlton, G. J. Parker, C. E. Finlayson, M. C. Netti, and J. J. Baumberg, “Ultrabroadband transmission measurements on waveguides of silicon-rich silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4598–4600 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

L. Khriachtchev, D. Navarro-Urrios, L. Pavesi, C. J. Oton, N. E. Capuj, and S. Novikov, “Spectroscopy of silica layers containing Si nanocrystals: Experimental evidence of optical birefringence,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 044310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognalto, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Garcia, J. Arbiol, J. R. Morante, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Scheid, and G. Sarrabayrouse, “Low-loss rib waveguides containing Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Lockwood and L. Pavesi, “Silicon Fundamentals for Photonics Applications,” Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 1–50 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229, 337–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M Girardini, G. Pucker, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, and L. Pavesi, “Comparison among various Si3N4 waveguide geometries grown within a CMOS fabrication pilot line,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1734– 1740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ruan, P. M. Fauchet, L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, and L. Pavesi, “Stimulated emission in nanocrystalline silicon superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5479–5481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelant, I.

T. Ostatnicky, J. Valenta, I. Pelant, K. Luterova, R. G. Elliman, S. Cheylan, and B. Honerlage, “Photoluminescence from an active planar optical waveguide made of silicon nanocrystals: dominance of leaky substrate modes in dissipative structures,” Opt. Mater. 27, 781–786 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, I. Pelant, and J. Linnros, “Waveguiding effects in the measurement of optical gain in a layer of Si nanocrystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 81, 1396–1398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrino, P.

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Garcia, J. Arbiol, J. R. Morante, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Scheid, and G. Sarrabayrouse, “Low-loss rib waveguides containing Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognalto, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pucker, G.

Raday, O.

Rasanen, M.

L. Khriachtchev, M. Rasanen, and S. Novikov, “Efficient wavelength-selectrive optical waveguideing in a silica layer containing Si nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3018–3020 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T

G. T Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics-An introduction (Wiley, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Riboli, F.

Rioux, B. B.

T. W. MacElwee, S. E. Hill, S. Campbell, D. Ducharme, B. B. Rioux, I. D. Calder, M. Flynn, J. Wojcik, S. Gujrathi, and P. Mascher, “Bright green visible electroluminescence from rare earth doped silicon rich SiOx,” in 2006 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp.216–218.
[CrossRef]

Rizk, R.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognalto, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A Continuous-Wave Raman Silicon Laser,” Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruan, J.

J. Ruan, P. M. Fauchet, L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, and L. Pavesi, “Stimulated emission in nanocrystalline silicon superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5479–5481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarrabayrouse, G.

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Garcia, J. Arbiol, J. R. Morante, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Scheid, and G. Sarrabayrouse, “Low-loss rib waveguides containing Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scheid, E.

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Garcia, J. Arbiol, J. R. Morante, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Scheid, and G. Sarrabayrouse, “Low-loss rib waveguides containing Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J. H.

Smith, N. J.

R. G. Elliman, M. Forcales, A. R. Wilkinson, and N. J. Smith, “Waveguiding properties of Er-implanted silicon-rich oxides,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 257, 11–14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Streifer, W.

W. Stutius and W. Streifer, “Silicon nitride films on silicon for optical waveguides,” Appl. Optics 16, 3218–3222 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Stutius, W.

W. Stutius and W. Streifer, “Silicon nitride films on silicon for optical waveguides,” Appl. Optics 16, 3218–3222 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill1985), Chapt. 8.

Tan, X.

X. Tan, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “Study of the optical properties of SiOxNy thin films by effective medium theories,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22, 1115–1119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Valenta, J.

T. Ostatnicky, J. Valenta, I. Pelant, K. Luterova, R. G. Elliman, S. Cheylan, and B. Honerlage, “Photoluminescence from an active planar optical waveguide made of silicon nanocrystals: dominance of leaky substrate modes in dissipative structures,” Opt. Mater. 27, 781–786 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, I. Pelant, and J. Linnros, “Waveguiding effects in the measurement of optical gain in a layer of Si nanocrystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 81, 1396–1398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Visser, T. D.

J. Haes, B. Demeulenaere, R. Baets, D. Lenstra, T. D. Visser, and H. Block, “Difference between TE and TM modal gain in amplifying waveguides: analysis and assessment of two perturbation approaches,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 29, 263–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Voirin, G.

O. Hofmann, G. Voirin, P. Niedermann, and A. Manz, “Three-dimensional microfluidic confinement for efficient sample delivery to biosensor surfaces. Application to immunoassays on planar optical waveguides,” Anal. Chem. 74, 5243–5250 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, A. R.

R. G. Elliman, M. Forcales, A. R. Wilkinson, and N. J. Smith, “Waveguiding properties of Er-implanted silicon-rich oxides,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 257, 11–14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Wilkinson and R. G. Elliman, “Maximixing light emission from silicon nanocrystals - The role of hydrogen,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res B 242, 303–306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wojcik, J.

D. Comedi, O. H. Y. Zalloum, E. A. Irving, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “H-induced effects in luminescent silicon nanostructures obtained from plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition grown SiyO1-y:H(y>1/3) thin films annealed in (Ar+5% H2),” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 817–820 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Tan, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “Study of the optical properties of SiOxNy thin films by effective medium theories,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22, 1115–1119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. W. MacElwee, S. E. Hill, S. Campbell, D. Ducharme, B. B. Rioux, I. D. Calder, M. Flynn, J. Wojcik, S. Gujrathi, and P. Mascher, “Bright green visible electroluminescence from rare earth doped silicon rich SiOx,” in 2006 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp.216–218.
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. K.

C. K. Wong, H. Wong, C. W. Kok, and M. Chan, “Silicon oxynitride prepared by chemical vapor deposition as optical waveguide materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 288, 171–175 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, H.

C. K. Wong, H. Wong, C. W. Kok, and M. Chan, “Silicon oxynitride prepared by chemical vapor deposition as optical waveguide materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 288, 171–175 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zalloum, O. H. Y.

D. Comedi, O. H. Y. Zalloum, E. A. Irving, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “H-induced effects in luminescent silicon nanostructures obtained from plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition grown SiyO1-y:H(y>1/3) thin films annealed in (Ar+5% H2),” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 817–820 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

O. Hofmann, G. Voirin, P. Niedermann, and A. Manz, “Three-dimensional microfluidic confinement for efficient sample delivery to biosensor surfaces. Application to immunoassays on planar optical waveguides,” Anal. Chem. 74, 5243–5250 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

App. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Valenta, I. Pelant, and J. Linnros, “Waveguiding effects in the measurement of optical gain in a layer of Si nanocrystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 81, 1396–1398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Optics (1)

W. Stutius and W. Streifer, “Silicon nitride films on silicon for optical waveguides,” Appl. Optics 16, 3218–3222 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

R. T. Neal, M. D. C. Charlton, G. J. Parker, C. E. Finlayson, M. C. Netti, and J. J. Baumberg, “Ultrabroadband transmission measurements on waveguides of silicon-rich silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4598–4600 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognalto, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Khriachtchev, M. Rasanen, and S. Novikov, “Efficient wavelength-selectrive optical waveguideing in a silica layer containing Si nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3018–3020 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Ruan, P. M. Fauchet, L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, and L. Pavesi, “Stimulated emission in nanocrystalline silicon superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5479–5481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. & Dev. (1)

G. L. Bona, R. Germann, and B. J. Offrein, “SiON high-refractive-index waveguide and planar lighwave circuits,” IBM J. Res. & Dev. 47, 239–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Garcia, J. Arbiol, J. R. Morante, M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Scheid, and G. Sarrabayrouse, “Low-loss rib waveguides containing Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Khriachtchev, D. Navarro-Urrios, L. Pavesi, C. J. Oton, N. E. Capuj, and S. Novikov, “Spectroscopy of silica layers containing Si nanocrystals: Experimental evidence of optical birefringence,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 044310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

C. K. Wong, H. Wong, C. W. Kok, and M. Chan, “Silicon oxynitride prepared by chemical vapor deposition as optical waveguide materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 288, 171–175 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

D. Comedi, O. H. Y. Zalloum, E. A. Irving, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “H-induced effects in luminescent silicon nanostructures obtained from plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition grown SiyO1-y:H(y>1/3) thin films annealed in (Ar+5% H2),” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 817–820 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Tan, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “Study of the optical properties of SiOxNy thin films by effective medium theories,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22, 1115–1119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A Continuous-Wave Raman Silicon Laser,” Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res B (1)

A. R. Wilkinson and R. G. Elliman, “Maximixing light emission from silicon nanocrystals - The role of hydrogen,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res B 242, 303–306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

R. G. Elliman, M. Forcales, A. R. Wilkinson, and N. J. Smith, “Waveguiding properties of Er-implanted silicon-rich oxides,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 257, 11–14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229, 337–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. (2)

T. Ostatnicky, J. Valenta, I. Pelant, K. Luterova, R. G. Elliman, S. Cheylan, and B. Honerlage, “Photoluminescence from an active planar optical waveguide made of silicon nanocrystals: dominance of leaky substrate modes in dissipative structures,” Opt. Mater. 27, 781–786 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Gardner and M. L. Brongersma, “Microring and microdisk optical resonators using silicon nanocrystals and erbium prepared using silicon technology,” Opt. Mater. 27, 804–811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum. Electron. (1)

J. Haes, B. Demeulenaere, R. Baets, D. Lenstra, T. D. Visser, and H. Block, “Difference between TE and TM modal gain in amplifying waveguides: analysis and assessment of two perturbation approaches,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 29, 263–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B-Chem. (1)

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, “Remote opto-chemical sensing with extreme sensitivity: design, fabrication and performance of a pigtailed integrated optical phas-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer system,” Sens. Actuators B-Chem. 61, 100–127 (1999).
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D. J. Lockwood and L. Pavesi, “Silicon Fundamentals for Photonics Applications,” Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 1–50 (2004).
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G. T Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics-An introduction (Wiley, 2004).
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T. W. MacElwee, S. E. Hill, S. Campbell, D. Ducharme, B. B. Rioux, I. D. Calder, M. Flynn, J. Wojcik, S. Gujrathi, and P. Mascher, “Bright green visible electroluminescence from rare earth doped silicon rich SiOx,” in 2006 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp.216–218.
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H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill1985), Chapt. 8.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a two-sectioned optically pumped Si-nc emitter integrated with a low loss silicon nitride waveguide. Two devices are fabricated. One has an emitting region length and transmitting region length of 7 mm and 26 mm respectively, and is 19 mm wide. The other has an emitting and transmitting region length of 16 mm each, and is 10 mm wide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The top figures show schematics of the experimental setup for the streak measurement of the surface scattered light for a two-sectioned device, a), and for a silicon nitride core waveguide, b). a) An external 850 nm diode laser is prism coupled to the emission region of the waveguide. The surface scattered light from the mode is detected with a fiber bundle scanned to the right. b) Streak measurement of a silicon nitride core waveguide. The Si-nc core waveguide is also characterized in this configuration. The bottom figures show schematics of the experimental setup for SES measurements of the two-sectioned device taken from the right facet, c), and left facet, d). c) A 405 nm pump laser is scanned to the left across the emission region while edge emission is monitored from the right facet. d) SES measurement of the edge emission from the left facet. Here, the pump laser is scanned to the right starting at the facet. The Si-nc core waveguide is also characterized in this configuration.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Loss measurements of a SiO2/Si-nc/air waveguide made using the streak method with an 850 nm source (left) and the SES method (right). Both TE and TM polarizations are shown. The SES (streak) method measures linear fits of 29 (34) dB/cm for TE polarization and 27 (28) dB/cm for TM polarization.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Streak measurements at 850 nm showing loss of identically deposited but differently annealed SiO2/silicon nitride/air waveguides. The silicon nitride layer is 300 nm thick, with a refractive index of 1.9. Only TE coupled results are shown since TM gives similar results. For clarity, 11 and 2 dB/cm slopes are also shown.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Streak measurement of a two sectioned chip (left). Light is prism coupled to the emitting region on the left of the chip and propagates to the right, as per Fig. 2 a). A dashed line shows the transition in the two section chip. SES measurement of an identically deposited and annealed chip (right). Light is collected from the right facet after propagation through a 26 mm transmission region as the laser is scanned to the left, as per Fig 2 c) (note the x-axis in the two graphs are opposite directions).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Edge and surface emission spectra from a two-sectioned waveguide. (Left) Edge spectra collected out the left facet, in likeness to Fig 2 d). Each curve is from emission excited 3 mm further from the collection facet. The dot-dashed curve shows surface emission for comparison. The dashed curve shows surface emission from a 100 nm thick single layer Si-nc film. All curves are normalized to the spectral peak. (Right) Edge spectra of PL excited at the right most part of the emission region and collected out the right facet after propagation through a 16 mm transmitting region, in likness to Fig 2 c). The thin black curve is from laser excitation, while the thicker blue curve is from LED excitation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Waveguide Mode Properties

Equations (1)

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α= i 1 N eff n i Γ i α i

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