Abstract

A laboratory demonstration of an adaptive optics system using a point-diffraction interferometer and a continuous MEMs mirror is presented. The dynamic performance of the system was investigated experimentally using a holographic optical aberration generator. The system was tested both in conditions corresponding to weak phase only aberrations and for horizontal propagation through uniform turbulence giving scintillation and optical vortices. The system was shown to work well in weak turbulence and gave correction for the strong turbulence regime up to the highest scintillation strength tested, σ2/R=3.3.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  2. M. C. Roggemann and B. Welsh, Imaging through turbulence (CRC Press, 1996).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. D. L. Fried and J. L. Vaughn, "Branch cuts in the phase function," Appl. Opt. 31, 2865-2882 (1992).
  6. C. A. Primmerman, T. R. Price, R. A. Humphreys, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, and J. Herrmann, "Atmosphericcompensation experiments in strong-scintillation conditions," Appl. Opt. 34, 2081-2088 (1995).
  7. B. M. Levine, E. A. Martinsen, A. Wirth, A. Jankevics, M. Toledo-Quinones, F. Landers, and T. L. Bruno, "Horizontal line-of-sight turbulence over near-ground paths and implications for adaptive optics corrections in laser communications," Appl. Opt. 37, 4553-4560 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. J. D. Barchers and T. A. Rhoadarmer, "Evaluation of phase-shifting approaches for a point-diffraction interferometer with the mutual coherence function," Appl. Opt. 41, 7499-7509 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. D. Barchers, D. L. Fried, and D. J. Link, "Evaluation of the performance of a shearing interferometer in strong scintillation in the absence of additive measurement noise," Appl. Opt. 41, 3647-3684 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. E. W. Justh, P. S. Krishnaprasad, and M. A. Vorontsov, "Analysis of a high-resolution optical wave-front control system," Automatica 40, 1129-1141 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. L. Baker, E. A. Stappaerts, D. Gavel, S. C. Wilks, J. Tucker, D. A. Silva, J. Olsen, S. S. Olivier, P. E. Young, M.W. Kartz, L.M. Flath, P. Kruelevitch, J. Crawford, and O. Azucena, "High-speed horizontal-path atmospheric turbulence correction with a large-actuator-number microelectromechanical system spatial light modulator in an interferometric phase-conjugation engine," Opt. Lett. 29, 1781-1783 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Kern, P. E. Dimotakis, C. Martin, D. B. Lang, and R. N. Thessin, "Imaging through turbulence with a quadrature-phase optical interferometer," Appl. Opt. 44, 7424-7438 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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  18. C. R. Mercer and K. Creath, "Liquid-crystal point-diffraction interferometer," Opt. Lett. 19, 916-918 (1994).
  19. C. R. Mercer and K. Creath, "Liquid-crystal point-diffraction interferometer for wavefront measurements," Appl. Opt. 35, 1633-1642 (1996).
  20. P. M. Birch, J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, and A. Purvis, "Real-time optical aberration correction with a ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 37, 2164-2169 (1998).
  21. M. Langlois, R. Angel, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. Wildi, G. Love, and A. Naumov, "High Order, Reconstructor-Free Adaptive Optics For 6-8 meter class Telescopes," in Venice 2001: Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics (2001).
  22. G. D. Love, T. J. D. Oag, and A. K. Kirby, "Common path interferometric wavefront sensor for extreme adaptive optics," Opt. Express 13, 3491-3499 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Notaras and C. Paterson, "Point-diffraction interferometer for atmospheric adaptive optics in strong scintillation," Opt. Commun.(accepted2007).
  24. C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, and P. M. W. French, "Single-shot phase-stepped wide-field coherence-gated imaging," Opt. Express 11, 105-115 (2003).
  25. M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, "Dynamic wavefront generation for the characterization and testing of optical systems," Opt. Lett. 23, 1849-1851 (1998).
  26. W. H. Lee, "Computer-generated holograms; techniques and applications," in Prog. Opt., E. Wolf, ed., vol. XVI, pp. 121-232 (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978).
  27. K. Creath, "Phase-measurement interferometry techniques," in Prog. Opt., E.Wolf, ed., vol. XXVI, pp. 350-393 (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988).
  28. T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy, and M. N. Horenstein, "Microelectromechanical Deformable mirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83-89 (1999).
  29. C. Paterson, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror," Opt. Express 6, 175-185 (2000).
  30. A. Glindemann, R. G. Lane, and J. C. Dainty, "Simulation of time-evolving speckle patterns using Kolmogorov statistics," J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2381-2388 (1993).
  31. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

2007 (1)

J. Notaras and C. Paterson, "Point-diffraction interferometer for atmospheric adaptive optics in strong scintillation," Opt. Commun.(accepted2007).

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy, and M. N. Horenstein, "Microelectromechanical Deformable mirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83-89 (1999).

1998 (4)

1997 (1)

M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, and R. Q. Fugate, "Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes," Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437-505 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

A. Glindemann, R. G. Lane, and J. C. Dainty, "Simulation of time-evolving speckle patterns using Kolmogorov statistics," J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2381-2388 (1993).

1992 (1)

1975 (1)

R. N. Smartt and W. H. Steel, "Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 351-356 (1975).

Azucena, O.

Baker, K. L.

Barchers, J. D.

Barclay, H. T.

Beresnev, L. A.

Bifano, T. G.

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy, and M. N. Horenstein, "Microelectromechanical Deformable mirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83-89 (1999).

Birch, P. M.

Booth, M. J.

Bruno, T. L.

Carhart, G. W.

Crawford, J.

Creath, K.

Dainty, J. C.

C. Paterson, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror," Opt. Express 6, 175-185 (2000).

A. Glindemann, R. G. Lane, and J. C. Dainty, "Simulation of time-evolving speckle patterns using Kolmogorov statistics," J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2381-2388 (1993).

Dimotakis, P. E.

Dunsby, C.

Flath, L.M.

French, P. M. W.

Fried, D. L.

Fugate, R. Q.

M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, and R. Q. Fugate, "Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes," Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437-505 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D.

Glindemann, A.

A. Glindemann, R. G. Lane, and J. C. Dainty, "Simulation of time-evolving speckle patterns using Kolmogorov statistics," J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2381-2388 (1993).

Gourlay, J.

Gu, Y.

Herrmann, J.

Horenstein, M. N.

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy, and M. N. Horenstein, "Microelectromechanical Deformable mirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83-89 (1999).

Humphreys, R. A.

Jankevics, A.

Justh, E. W.

Kartz, M.W.

Kern, B.

Kirby, A. K.

Krishnamoorthy, R.

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy, and M. N. Horenstein, "Microelectromechanical Deformable mirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83-89 (1999).

Krishnaprasad, P. S.

Kruelevitch, P.

Landers, F.

Lane, R. G.

A. Glindemann, R. G. Lane, and J. C. Dainty, "Simulation of time-evolving speckle patterns using Kolmogorov statistics," J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2381-2388 (1993).

Lang, D. B.

Levine, B. M.

Link, D. J.

J. D. Barchers, D. L. Fried, and D. J. Link, "Evaluation of the performance of Hartmann sensors in strong scintillation," Appl. Opt. 41, 1012-1021 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Barchers, D. L. Fried, and D. J. Link, "Evaluation of the performance of a shearing interferometer in strong scintillation in the absence of additive measurement noise," Appl. Opt. 41, 3647-3684 (2002).

Love, G. D.

Martin, C.

Martinsen, E. A.

Mercer, C. R.

Munro, I.

Neil, M. A. A.

Notaras, J.

J. Notaras and C. Paterson, "Point-diffraction interferometer for atmospheric adaptive optics in strong scintillation," Opt. Commun.(accepted2007).

Oag, T. J. D.

Olivier, S. S.

Olsen, J.

Paterson, C.

J. Notaras and C. Paterson, "Point-diffraction interferometer for atmospheric adaptive optics in strong scintillation," Opt. Commun.(accepted2007).

C. Paterson, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror," Opt. Express 6, 175-185 (2000).

Perreault, J.

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy, and M. N. Horenstein, "Microelectromechanical Deformable mirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83-89 (1999).

Price, T. R.

Primmerman, C. A.

Purvis, A.

Rhoadarmer, T. A.

Roggemann, M. C.

M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, and R. Q. Fugate, "Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes," Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437-505 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Silva, D. A.

Smartt, R. N.

R. N. Smartt and W. H. Steel, "Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 351-356 (1975).

Stappaerts, E. A.

Steel, W. H.

R. N. Smartt and W. H. Steel, "Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 351-356 (1975).

Thessin, R. N.

Toledo-Quinones, M.

Tucker, J.

Vaughn, J. L.

Vorontsov, M. A.

Welsh, B. M.

M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, and R. Q. Fugate, "Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes," Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437-505 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilks, S. C.

Wilson, T.

Wirth, A.

Young, P. E.

Zollars, B. G.

Appl. Opt. (9)

J. D. Barchers, D. L. Fried, and D. J. Link, "Evaluation of the performance of a shearing interferometer in strong scintillation in the absence of additive measurement noise," Appl. Opt. 41, 3647-3684 (2002).

D. L. Fried and J. L. Vaughn, "Branch cuts in the phase function," Appl. Opt. 31, 2865-2882 (1992).

B. M. Levine, E. A. Martinsen, A. Wirth, A. Jankevics, M. Toledo-Quinones, F. Landers, and T. L. Bruno, "Horizontal line-of-sight turbulence over near-ground paths and implications for adaptive optics corrections in laser communications," Appl. Opt. 37, 4553-4560 (1998).

C. A. Primmerman, T. R. Price, R. A. Humphreys, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, and J. Herrmann, "Atmosphericcompensation experiments in strong-scintillation conditions," Appl. Opt. 34, 2081-2088 (1995).

C. R. Mercer and K. Creath, "Liquid-crystal point-diffraction interferometer for wavefront measurements," Appl. Opt. 35, 1633-1642 (1996).

P. M. Birch, J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, and A. Purvis, "Real-time optical aberration correction with a ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 37, 2164-2169 (1998).

J. D. Barchers, D. L. Fried, and D. J. Link, "Evaluation of the performance of Hartmann sensors in strong scintillation," Appl. Opt. 41, 1012-1021 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Barchers and T. A. Rhoadarmer, "Evaluation of phase-shifting approaches for a point-diffraction interferometer with the mutual coherence function," Appl. Opt. 41, 7499-7509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Kern, P. E. Dimotakis, C. Martin, D. B. Lang, and R. N. Thessin, "Imaging through turbulence with a quadrature-phase optical interferometer," Appl. Opt. 44, 7424-7438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Automatica (1)

E. W. Justh, P. S. Krishnaprasad, and M. A. Vorontsov, "Analysis of a high-resolution optical wave-front control system," Automatica 40, 1129-1141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy, and M. N. Horenstein, "Microelectromechanical Deformable mirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83-89 (1999).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Glindemann, R. G. Lane, and J. C. Dainty, "Simulation of time-evolving speckle patterns using Kolmogorov statistics," J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2381-2388 (1993).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. N. Smartt and W. H. Steel, "Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 351-356 (1975).

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Notaras and C. Paterson, "Point-diffraction interferometer for atmospheric adaptive optics in strong scintillation," Opt. Commun.(accepted2007).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, and R. Q. Fugate, "Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes," Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437-505 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

W. H. Lee, "Computer-generated holograms; techniques and applications," in Prog. Opt., E. Wolf, ed., vol. XVI, pp. 121-232 (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978).

K. Creath, "Phase-measurement interferometry techniques," in Prog. Opt., E.Wolf, ed., vol. XXVI, pp. 350-393 (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988).

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

M. C. Roggemann and B. Welsh, Imaging through turbulence (CRC Press, 1996).

J.W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes, Oxford series in optical and imaging sciences, 1st ed., (Oxford University Press, 1998).

M. Langlois, R. Angel, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. Wildi, G. Love, and A. Naumov, "High Order, Reconstructor-Free Adaptive Optics For 6-8 meter class Telescopes," in Venice 2001: Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics (2001).

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