Abstract

High-efficiency THz generation in quasi-phase matched (QPM) optically contacted GaAs (OC-GaAs) with near-Brewster angle pumping is studied numerically. The effective nonlinear coefficients deff for different incident angles and polarization directions are investigated. Compared with the normal incidence case, reflection loss of the pump energy at OC-GaAs interfaces can be reduced by propagating the pump at a near-Brewster angle (66.92°). The effect of the air-gap spacings between adjacent OC-GaAs layers to the number of optimal QPM periods and the efficiency of THz generation are calculated. In our study, the number of optimal QPM periods of OC-GaAs is increased significantly from 12 in the normal incidence configuration to 25 in the near-Brewster angle pumped configuration, while the efficiency of THz generation is enhanced by more than 16 times.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, and V. G. Kozlov, "Coherent detection of multi-cycle terahertz pulses generated in periodically inverted GaAs structures," Proc. SPIE 6455, 64550G (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, and V. G. Kozlov, "Generation of multicycle terahertz pulses via optical rectification in periodically inverted GaAs structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Imeshev, M. E. Fermann, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Highpower source of THz radiation based on orientation-patterned GaAs pumped by a fiber laser," Opt. Express 14, 4439-4444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

K. L. Vodopyanov, O. Levi, P. S. Kuo, T. J. Pinguet, J. S. Harris, and M. M. Fejer, "Optical parametric oscillation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Opt. Lett. 29, 1912-1914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Chiang, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, C. W. Lau, B. C. Wong, Y. C. Huang, J. T. Shy, Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and P. H. Tsao, "Pulsed optical parametric generation, amplification, and oscillation in monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate crystals," IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 40, 791-799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, "Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator," Electron. Lett. 40, 124-126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

Q. Chen, M. Tani, Z. Jiang, and X. C. Zhang, "Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am B 18, 823-831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

B. Wyncke and F. Brehat, "Calculation of the effective second-order non-linear coefficients along the phase matching directions in acentric orthorhombic biaxial crystals," J. Phys. B. 22, 363-376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

A. Szilagyi, A. Hordvik, and H. Schlossberg, "A quasi-phase-matching technique for efficient optical mixing and frequency doubling," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2025-2032 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bliss, D.

K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Imeshev, M. E. Fermann, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Highpower source of THz radiation based on orientation-patterned GaAs pumped by a fiber laser," Opt. Express 14, 4439-4444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brehat, F.

B. Wyncke and F. Brehat, "Calculation of the effective second-order non-linear coefficients along the phase matching directions in acentric orthorhombic biaxial crystals," J. Phys. B. 22, 363-376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, M. Tani, Z. Jiang, and X. C. Zhang, "Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am B 18, 823-831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

A. C. Chiang, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, C. W. Lau, B. C. Wong, Y. C. Huang, J. T. Shy, Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and P. H. Tsao, "Pulsed optical parametric generation, amplification, and oscillation in monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate crystals," IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 40, 791-799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, A. C.

A. C. Chiang, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, C. W. Lau, B. C. Wong, Y. C. Huang, J. T. Shy, Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and P. H. Tsao, "Pulsed optical parametric generation, amplification, and oscillation in monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate crystals," IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 40, 791-799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, P.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, "Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator," Electron. Lett. 40, 124-126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, C.

Fejer, M. M.

Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, and V. G. Kozlov, "Coherent detection of multi-cycle terahertz pulses generated in periodically inverted GaAs structures," Proc. SPIE 6455, 64550G (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, and V. G. Kozlov, "Generation of multicycle terahertz pulses via optical rectification in periodically inverted GaAs structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Imeshev, M. E. Fermann, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Highpower source of THz radiation based on orientation-patterned GaAs pumped by a fiber laser," Opt. Express 14, 4439-4444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Vodopyanov, O. Levi, P. S. Kuo, T. J. Pinguet, J. S. Harris, and M. M. Fejer, "Optical parametric oscillation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Opt. Lett. 29, 1912-1914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fermann, M. E.

Grischkowsky, D.

Harris, J. S.

Hein, G.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, "Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator," Electron. Lett. 40, 124-126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hordvik, A.

A. Szilagyi, A. Hordvik, and H. Schlossberg, "A quasi-phase-matching technique for efficient optical mixing and frequency doubling," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2025-2032 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. C.

A. C. Chiang, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, C. W. Lau, B. C. Wong, Y. C. Huang, J. T. Shy, Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and P. H. Tsao, "Pulsed optical parametric generation, amplification, and oscillation in monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate crystals," IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 40, 791-799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hurlbut, W. C.

Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, and V. G. Kozlov, "Coherent detection of multi-cycle terahertz pulses generated in periodically inverted GaAs structures," Proc. SPIE 6455, 64550G (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, and V. G. Kozlov, "Generation of multicycle terahertz pulses via optical rectification in periodically inverted GaAs structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Imeshev, G.

Jiang, Z.

Q. Chen, M. Tani, Z. Jiang, and X. C. Zhang, "Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am B 18, 823-831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, "Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator," Electron. Lett. 40, 124-126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, "Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator," Electron. Lett. 40, 124-126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. G.

Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, and V. G. Kozlov, "Coherent detection of multi-cycle terahertz pulses generated in periodically inverted GaAs structures," Proc. SPIE 6455, 64550G (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, and V. G. Kozlov, "Generation of multicycle terahertz pulses via optical rectification in periodically inverted GaAs structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, P. S.

Lan, Y. P.

A. C. Chiang, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, C. W. Lau, B. C. Wong, Y. C. Huang, J. T. Shy, Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and P. H. Tsao, "Pulsed optical parametric generation, amplification, and oscillation in monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate crystals," IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 40, 791-799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lau, C. W.

A. C. Chiang, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, C. W. Lau, B. C. Wong, Y. C. Huang, J. T. Shy, Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and P. H. Tsao, "Pulsed optical parametric generation, amplification, and oscillation in monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate crystals," IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 40, 791-799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, and V. G. Kozlov, "Coherent detection of multi-cycle terahertz pulses generated in periodically inverted GaAs structures," Proc. SPIE 6455, 64550G (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, and V. G. Kozlov, "Generation of multicycle terahertz pulses via optical rectification in periodically inverted GaAs structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levi, O.

Lin, Y. Y.

A. C. Chiang, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, C. W. Lau, B. C. Wong, Y. C. Huang, J. T. Shy, Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and P. H. Tsao, "Pulsed optical parametric generation, amplification, and oscillation in monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate crystals," IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 40, 791-799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Lynch, C.

K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Imeshev, M. E. Fermann, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Highpower source of THz radiation based on orientation-patterned GaAs pumped by a fiber laser," Opt. Express 14, 4439-4444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierz, K.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, "Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator," Electron. Lett. 40, 124-126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pinguet, T. J.

Schlossberg, H.

A. Szilagyi, A. Hordvik, and H. Schlossberg, "A quasi-phase-matching technique for efficient optical mixing and frequency doubling," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2025-2032 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shy, J. T.

A. C. Chiang, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, C. W. Lau, B. C. Wong, Y. C. Huang, J. T. Shy, Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and P. H. Tsao, "Pulsed optical parametric generation, amplification, and oscillation in monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate crystals," IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 40, 791-799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Szilagyi, A.

A. Szilagyi, A. Hordvik, and H. Schlossberg, "A quasi-phase-matching technique for efficient optical mixing and frequency doubling," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2025-2032 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

Q. Chen, M. Tani, Z. Jiang, and X. C. Zhang, "Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am B 18, 823-831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, P. H.

A. C. Chiang, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, C. W. Lau, B. C. Wong, Y. C. Huang, J. T. Shy, Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and P. H. Tsao, "Pulsed optical parametric generation, amplification, and oscillation in monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate crystals," IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 40, 791-799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, and V. G. Kozlov, "Coherent detection of multi-cycle terahertz pulses generated in periodically inverted GaAs structures," Proc. SPIE 6455, 64550G (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, and V. G. Kozlov, "Generation of multicycle terahertz pulses via optical rectification in periodically inverted GaAs structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Imeshev, M. E. Fermann, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Highpower source of THz radiation based on orientation-patterned GaAs pumped by a fiber laser," Opt. Express 14, 4439-4444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Vodopyanov, O. Levi, P. S. Kuo, T. J. Pinguet, J. S. Harris, and M. M. Fejer, "Optical parametric oscillation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Opt. Lett. 29, 1912-1914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

A. C. Chiang, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, C. W. Lau, B. C. Wong, Y. C. Huang, J. T. Shy, Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and P. H. Tsao, "Pulsed optical parametric generation, amplification, and oscillation in monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate crystals," IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 40, 791-799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wong, B. C.

A. C. Chiang, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, C. W. Lau, B. C. Wong, Y. C. Huang, J. T. Shy, Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and P. H. Tsao, "Pulsed optical parametric generation, amplification, and oscillation in monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate crystals," IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 40, 791-799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wyncke, B.

B. Wyncke and F. Brehat, "Calculation of the effective second-order non-linear coefficients along the phase matching directions in acentric orthorhombic biaxial crystals," J. Phys. B. 22, 363-376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Imeshev, M. E. Fermann, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Highpower source of THz radiation based on orientation-patterned GaAs pumped by a fiber laser," Opt. Express 14, 4439-4444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, X. C.

Q. Chen, M. Tani, Z. Jiang, and X. C. Zhang, "Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am B 18, 823-831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, and V. G. Kozlov, "Generation of multicycle terahertz pulses via optical rectification in periodically inverted GaAs structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, "Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator," Electron. Lett. 40, 124-126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. (1)

A. C. Chiang, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, C. W. Lau, B. C. Wong, Y. C. Huang, J. T. Shy, Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and P. H. Tsao, "Pulsed optical parametric generation, amplification, and oscillation in monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate crystals," IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 40, 791-799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Szilagyi, A. Hordvik, and H. Schlossberg, "A quasi-phase-matching technique for efficient optical mixing and frequency doubling," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2025-2032 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am B (1)

Q. Chen, M. Tani, Z. Jiang, and X. C. Zhang, "Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am B 18, 823-831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Propagation and (b) polarization configurations for THz generation in a near-Brewster angle pumped (110) QPM OC-GaAs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Maximum deff and its corresponding polarization direction θro (refer to Fig. 1(b)) as a function of θi . (b) Transmittance of the TM-polarized pump and refraction angles of the pump (θr ) and the THz (θTHz ) waves for different incidence angle θi .

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmittances of the pump wave with normal (dashed curve) and near-Brewster angle (solid curve) incidences for different air-gap spacings.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Efficiencies of the (a) TE- and (b) TM-polarized THz generation for different number of QPM periods and air-gap spacings.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(Color online) (a) Efficiencies of the THz generation vs. number of QPM periods with the near-Brewster angle (solid curves) and the normal incidence (dashed curves) cases, where the blue, cyan, and magenta curves are for the cases of D/λp = 0, D/λp = 0.25, and D/λp = 0.025, respectively. (b) Zoom of the low-efficiency region of Fig. 5(a) to show the details of the normal incidence case.

Equations (6)

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E x = E 1 cos 2 θ r sin 2 θ ro sin [ tan 1 ( tan θ r cos θ ro ) π 4 ] ,
E y = E 1 cos 2 θ r sin 2 θ ro cos [ tan 1 ( tan θ r cos θ ro ) π 4 ] ,
E z = E cos ( θ r ) sin ( θ ro ) ,
E ω p z + α ω p E ω p = j κ p E ω S E ω THz e j Δ kz ,
E ω s z + α ω s E ω s = j κ s E ω p E ω THz * e j Δ kz ,
E ω THz z + α ω THz E ω THz = j κ THz E ω p E ω s * e j Δ kz ,

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