Abstract

We demonstrate a scheme for tunable shaping of a soliton spectrum. Specifically, we show a local enhancement of 6 dB in the pulse spectrum by propagating the pulse through a fiber containing micro-bends generated by a flexural acoustic wave - an acoustic long-period grating (LPG) - followed by nonlinear propagation through uniform fiber. The location of the enhancement peak can be tuned by external control of the acoustic frequency of the LPG. We discuss the potential application of this scheme to tunable supercontinuum sources.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Xu, D.H. Reitze and R.S. Windeler, "Controlling nonlinear processes in microstructured fibers using shaped pulses", Opt. Express 12,4731-4741 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, and A. D. Yablon, "Supercontinuum generation in ultraviolet-irradiated fibers," Opt. Lett. 15, 2363-2365 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li and T. Brown, "Supercontinuum generation in a fiber grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600-4602 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Kim, S. A. Diddams, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson and K. S. Feder, "Improved stabilization of a 1.3 μm femtosecond optical frequency comb by use of a spectrally tailored continuum from a nonlinear fiber grating," Opt. Lett. 31, 277-279 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of meters and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283-287 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Li, F. C. Salisbury, Z. Zhu, T. G. Brown, P. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder and R. S. Windeler, "Interaction of supercontinuum and Raman solitons with microstructure fiber gratings," Opt. Express 13, 998-1007 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D.-I. Yeom, J. A. Bolger, G. D. Marshall, D. R. Austin, B. T. Kuhlmey, M. J. Withford, C. M. de Sterke and B. J. Eggleton, "Tunable spectral enhancement of fiber supercontinuum," Opt. Lett. 32, 1644-1646 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H.S. Kim, S.H. Yun, I.K. Kwang and B.Y. Kim, "All-fiber acousto-optic tunable notch filter with electronically controllable spectral profile," Opt. Lett. 22, 1476-1478 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. R. Austin, J. A. Bolger, C. M. de Sterke, B. J. Eggleton and T.G. Brown, "Narrowband supercontinuum control using phase shaping," Opt. Express 14, 13142-13150 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Praekelt, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion and T. Baumert, "Filling a spectral hole via self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121113-121115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D.R. Austin, J. A. Bolger, C. M. de Sterke, D.-I. Yeom, T. G. Brown and B. J. Eggleton, "Narrow-band spectral enhancement of a self-phase modulated pulse," paper JTuB4 in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics (CLEO), Baltimore, May 2007.
  12. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 1995).
  13. J.K. Lucek and K.J. Blow, "Soliton self-frequency shift in telecommunications fiber," Phys. Rev. A 45,6666-6674 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J.N. Kutz, B.J. Eggleton, J.B. Stark and R.E. Slusher, "Nonlinear pulse propagation in long-period fiber gratings: theory and experiment," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 3, 31232-31245 (1997).
  15. P. S. Westbrook and J. W. Nicholson, "Perturbative approach to continuum generation in a fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Express 14, 7610-7616 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. Morioka, K. Uchiyama, S. Kawanishi, S. Suzuki and M. Saruwatari, "Multiwavelength picosecond pulse source with low jitter and high optical frequency stability based on 200 nm supercontinuum filtering", Electron. Lett. 31, 1064-1066 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2007

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of meters and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D.-I. Yeom, J. A. Bolger, G. D. Marshall, D. R. Austin, B. T. Kuhlmey, M. J. Withford, C. M. de Sterke and B. J. Eggleton, "Tunable spectral enhancement of fiber supercontinuum," Opt. Lett. 32, 1644-1646 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

Y. Li, F. C. Salisbury, Z. Zhu, T. G. Brown, P. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder and R. S. Windeler, "Interaction of supercontinuum and Raman solitons with microstructure fiber gratings," Opt. Express 13, 998-1007 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Praekelt, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion and T. Baumert, "Filling a spectral hole via self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121113-121115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, and A. D. Yablon, "Supercontinuum generation in ultraviolet-irradiated fibers," Opt. Lett. 15, 2363-2365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li and T. Brown, "Supercontinuum generation in a fiber grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600-4602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, D.H. Reitze and R.S. Windeler, "Controlling nonlinear processes in microstructured fibers using shaped pulses", Opt. Express 12,4731-4741 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

H.S. Kim, S.H. Yun, I.K. Kwang and B.Y. Kim, "All-fiber acousto-optic tunable notch filter with electronically controllable spectral profile," Opt. Lett. 22, 1476-1478 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.N. Kutz, B.J. Eggleton, J.B. Stark and R.E. Slusher, "Nonlinear pulse propagation in long-period fiber gratings: theory and experiment," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 3, 31232-31245 (1997).

1995

T. Morioka, K. Uchiyama, S. Kawanishi, S. Suzuki and M. Saruwatari, "Multiwavelength picosecond pulse source with low jitter and high optical frequency stability based on 200 nm supercontinuum filtering", Electron. Lett. 31, 1064-1066 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

J.K. Lucek and K.J. Blow, "Soliton self-frequency shift in telecommunications fiber," Phys. Rev. A 45,6666-6674 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assion, A.

A. Praekelt, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion and T. Baumert, "Filling a spectral hole via self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121113-121115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Austin, D. R.

Baumert, T.

A. Praekelt, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion and T. Baumert, "Filling a spectral hole via self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121113-121115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of meters and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K.J.

J.K. Lucek and K.J. Blow, "Soliton self-frequency shift in telecommunications fiber," Phys. Rev. A 45,6666-6674 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolger, J. A.

Brown, T.

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li and T. Brown, "Supercontinuum generation in a fiber grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600-4602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. G.

Brown, T.G.

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of meters and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

Diddams, S. A.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of meters and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, S. A. Diddams, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson and K. S. Feder, "Improved stabilization of a 1.3 μm femtosecond optical frequency comb by use of a spectrally tailored continuum from a nonlinear fiber grating," Opt. Lett. 31, 277-279 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggleton, B. J.

Eggleton, B.J.

J.N. Kutz, B.J. Eggleton, J.B. Stark and R.E. Slusher, "Nonlinear pulse propagation in long-period fiber gratings: theory and experiment," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 3, 31232-31245 (1997).

Feder, K. S.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of meters and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, S. A. Diddams, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson and K. S. Feder, "Improved stabilization of a 1.3 μm femtosecond optical frequency comb by use of a spectrally tailored continuum from a nonlinear fiber grating," Opt. Lett. 31, 277-279 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, F. C. Salisbury, Z. Zhu, T. G. Brown, P. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder and R. S. Windeler, "Interaction of supercontinuum and Raman solitons with microstructure fiber gratings," Opt. Express 13, 998-1007 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, and A. D. Yablon, "Supercontinuum generation in ultraviolet-irradiated fibers," Opt. Lett. 15, 2363-2365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li and T. Brown, "Supercontinuum generation in a fiber grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600-4602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, S.

T. Morioka, K. Uchiyama, S. Kawanishi, S. Suzuki and M. Saruwatari, "Multiwavelength picosecond pulse source with low jitter and high optical frequency stability based on 200 nm supercontinuum filtering", Electron. Lett. 31, 1064-1066 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.Y.

Kim, H.S.

Kim, K.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Kutz, J.N.

J.N. Kutz, B.J. Eggleton, J.B. Stark and R.E. Slusher, "Nonlinear pulse propagation in long-period fiber gratings: theory and experiment," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 3, 31232-31245 (1997).

Kwang, I.K.

Le Coq, Y.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of meters and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lorini, L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of meters and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lucek, J.K.

J.K. Lucek and K.J. Blow, "Soliton self-frequency shift in telecommunications fiber," Phys. Rev. A 45,6666-6674 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, G. D.

Morioka, T.

T. Morioka, K. Uchiyama, S. Kawanishi, S. Suzuki and M. Saruwatari, "Multiwavelength picosecond pulse source with low jitter and high optical frequency stability based on 200 nm supercontinuum filtering", Electron. Lett. 31, 1064-1066 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of meters and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of meters and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, S. A. Diddams, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson and K. S. Feder, "Improved stabilization of a 1.3 μm femtosecond optical frequency comb by use of a spectrally tailored continuum from a nonlinear fiber grating," Opt. Lett. 31, 277-279 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Westbrook and J. W. Nicholson, "Perturbative approach to continuum generation in a fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Express 14, 7610-7616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, and A. D. Yablon, "Supercontinuum generation in ultraviolet-irradiated fibers," Opt. Lett. 15, 2363-2365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li and T. Brown, "Supercontinuum generation in a fiber grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600-4602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of meters and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Praekelt, A.

A. Praekelt, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion and T. Baumert, "Filling a spectral hole via self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121113-121115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quraishi, Q.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of meters and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reitze, D.H.

Salisbury, F. C.

Sarpe-Tudoran, C.

A. Praekelt, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion and T. Baumert, "Filling a spectral hole via self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121113-121115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saruwatari, M.

T. Morioka, K. Uchiyama, S. Kawanishi, S. Suzuki and M. Saruwatari, "Multiwavelength picosecond pulse source with low jitter and high optical frequency stability based on 200 nm supercontinuum filtering", Electron. Lett. 31, 1064-1066 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R.E.

J.N. Kutz, B.J. Eggleton, J.B. Stark and R.E. Slusher, "Nonlinear pulse propagation in long-period fiber gratings: theory and experiment," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 3, 31232-31245 (1997).

Stark, J.B.

J.N. Kutz, B.J. Eggleton, J.B. Stark and R.E. Slusher, "Nonlinear pulse propagation in long-period fiber gratings: theory and experiment," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 3, 31232-31245 (1997).

Suzuki, S.

T. Morioka, K. Uchiyama, S. Kawanishi, S. Suzuki and M. Saruwatari, "Multiwavelength picosecond pulse source with low jitter and high optical frequency stability based on 200 nm supercontinuum filtering", Electron. Lett. 31, 1064-1066 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of meters and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, K.

T. Morioka, K. Uchiyama, S. Kawanishi, S. Suzuki and M. Saruwatari, "Multiwavelength picosecond pulse source with low jitter and high optical frequency stability based on 200 nm supercontinuum filtering", Electron. Lett. 31, 1064-1066 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P. S.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of meters and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, S. A. Diddams, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson and K. S. Feder, "Improved stabilization of a 1.3 μm femtosecond optical frequency comb by use of a spectrally tailored continuum from a nonlinear fiber grating," Opt. Lett. 31, 277-279 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Westbrook and J. W. Nicholson, "Perturbative approach to continuum generation in a fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Express 14, 7610-7616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, F. C. Salisbury, Z. Zhu, T. G. Brown, P. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder and R. S. Windeler, "Interaction of supercontinuum and Raman solitons with microstructure fiber gratings," Opt. Express 13, 998-1007 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, and A. D. Yablon, "Supercontinuum generation in ultraviolet-irradiated fibers," Opt. Lett. 15, 2363-2365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li and T. Brown, "Supercontinuum generation in a fiber grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600-4602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Windeler, R.S.

Withford, M. J.

Wollenhaupt, M.

A. Praekelt, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion and T. Baumert, "Filling a spectral hole via self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121113-121115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

Yablon, A. D.

J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, and A. D. Yablon, "Supercontinuum generation in ultraviolet-irradiated fibers," Opt. Lett. 15, 2363-2365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, D.-I.

Yun, S.H.

Zhu, Z.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, Y. Li and T. Brown, "Supercontinuum generation in a fiber grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4600-4602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Praekelt, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion and T. Baumert, "Filling a spectral hole via self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121113-121115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

T. Morioka, K. Uchiyama, S. Kawanishi, S. Suzuki and M. Saruwatari, "Multiwavelength picosecond pulse source with low jitter and high optical frequency stability based on 200 nm supercontinuum filtering", Electron. Lett. 31, 1064-1066 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics

J.N. Kutz, B.J. Eggleton, J.B. Stark and R.E. Slusher, "Nonlinear pulse propagation in long-period fiber gratings: theory and experiment," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 3, 31232-31245 (1997).

Nature Photonics

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of meters and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

J.K. Lucek and K.J. Blow, "Soliton self-frequency shift in telecommunications fiber," Phys. Rev. A 45,6666-6674 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D.R. Austin, J. A. Bolger, C. M. de Sterke, D.-I. Yeom, T. G. Brown and B. J. Eggleton, "Narrow-band spectral enhancement of a self-phase modulated pulse," paper JTuB4 in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics (CLEO), Baltimore, May 2007.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 1995).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) A pulse modified by either a phase or an amplitude filter can be represented as a superposition of pulses with different initial phases. (b). A pulse propagating in uniform fiber encounters an LPG, which imposes the filter response indicated in (c), where the filter transmission is indicated as a blue curve, and the phase is indicated as a dashed red curve. During further propagation the phase and loss response transform the pulse spectrum. The diagrams in (d) are slices through the spectral intensity of the pulse at various stages during propagation, showing a distinctive periodic spectral profile (one period is illustrated).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental layout: SMF = single mode fiber; LPG=long-period grating; OSA=optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectra at output of 7 m of fiber (a) when power is attenuated before LPG; (b) with no LPG present (red dashed curve); and when high laser power passes through LPG (black solid curve). (c) Simulated spectral response directly after the LPG; (d) Result of simulation showing spectrum of pulse after propagation through a LPG and 7 m of SMF fiber.

Fig 4.
Fig 4.

Evolution of LPG enhancement along fiber length for LPG at 1618 nm. (a) Experimental data showing spectral evolution. Top: colour surface plot, bottom: spectral slices at positions as marked. (b) Simulated evolution of spectrum. Top: colour surface plot, bottom: spectral slices at positions as marked.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured spectra, plotted on linear scale, at output of 2 m of fiber after LPG as RF frequency is varied, as marked on individual curves: (a) at low power (wave is attenuated before LPG); (b) At high power. The grey curve in each figure shows the spectrum with no RF power applied.

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