Abstract

We demonstrate a fundamentally mode-locked fiber laser with a repetition frequency in excess of 2 GHz at a central wavelength of 1.535 μm. Co-doped ytterbium-erbium fiber provides the gain medium for the laser, affording high gain per unit length, while a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SAM) provides the pulse shaping mechanism in a standing wave cavity. Results are shown confirming cw mode-locking for 1GHz and 2GHz repetition frequency systems. The response of the frequency comb output to pump power variations is shown to follow a single pole response. The timing jitter of a 540 MHz repetition-rate laser has been suppressed to below 100 fs through phase-lead compensated feedback to the pump power. Alternatively, a single comb line of a 850 MHz repetition-rate laser has been phase-locked to a narrow linewidth cw laser with an in-loop phase jitter of 0.06 rad2. The laser design is compatible with low-noise oscillator applications.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (4)

I. Coddington,W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, Q. Q. C.W. Oates, K. S. Feder, J.W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, "Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian fceo phase excursions," Appl. Phys. B 86, 219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Zeller, T. Sudmeyer, K. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Passively modelocked 77 GHz Er:Yb:glass laser," Electron. Lett. 43, 32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Moenster, U. Griebner, W. Richter, and G. Steinmeyer, "Resonant saturable absorber mirrors for dispersion control in ultrafast lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (8)

G. Spühler, L. Krainer, E. Innerhofer, R. P. K. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Soliton mode-locked Er:Yb:glass laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 263 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kubina, P. Adel, F. Adler, G. Grosche, T. W. H¨ansch, R. Holzwarth, A. Leitenstorfer, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, "Long term comparison of two fiber based frequency comb systems," Opt. Express 13, 904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schlatter, B. Rudin, S. C. Zeller, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, "Nearly quantum-noise-limited timing jitter from miniature Er:Yb:glass lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, "Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes," Opt. Express 13, 8025 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schliesser, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, and D. van der Weide, "Frequency-comb infrared spectrometer for rapid, remote chemical sensing," Opt. Express 13, 9029 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Washburn, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, "Response dynamics of the frequency comb output from a femtosecond fiber laser," Opt. Express 13, 10622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jiang, W. Hu, and Q. Zeng, "Improved gain performance of high concentration Er3+/-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifier," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, K. Hsu, T. Kotake, H. Yaguchi, D. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, and S. Set, "5-GHz pulsed fiber Fabry-Perot laser mode-locked using carbon nanotubes," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

2003 (2)

J. Schlager, B. Callicoatt, R. Mirin, N. Sanford, D. Jones, and J. Ye, "Passively mode-locked glass waveguide with 14-fs timing jitter," Opt. Lett. 28, 2411 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sahu, Y. Jeong, D. Richardson, and J. Nilsson, "A 103 W erbium-ytterbium co-doped large-core fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 227, 159 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

Y. Hu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, "Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+ - and Yb3+-Er3+-doped phosphate glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Opt. Phys. 17, 833 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Schibli, E. Thoen, F. K¨artner, and E. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B 70, S41 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C . Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F . Morier-Genoud, M.  Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Opt. Phys. 16, 46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

F. K¨artner, J. der Au, and U. Keller, "Mode-locking with slow and fast saturable absorbers-what’s the difference?" IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Vienne, J. Caplen, L. Dong, J. Minelly, J. Nilsson, and D. Payne, "Fabrication and characterization of Yb3+:Er3+ phosphosilicate fibers for lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. Kutz, J. Cunningham, W. Jan, M. Koch, and W. Knox, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. Telle, "Stabilization and modulation schemes of laser diodes for applied spectroscopy." Spectrochimica Acta Review 15, 301 (1993).

1992 (1)

S. Grubb,W. Humer, R. Cannon, S. Vendetta, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, M. Keur, J. Kwasegroch, T. Munks, and D. Anthon, "24.6 dBm output power Er/Yb codoped optical amplifier pumped by diode-pumped Nd:YLE laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 1275 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Townsend, W. Barnes, K. Jedrzejewski, and S. Grubb, "Yb3+ sensitised Er3+ doped silica optical fibre with ultrahigh transfer efficiency and gain," Electron. Lett. 27, 1958 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. Hanna, R. Percival, I. Perry, R. Smart, and A. Tropper, "Efficient operation of an Yb-sensitised Er fibre laser pumped in 0.8μm region," Electron. Lett. 24, 1068 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Moser, M.

C . Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F . Morier-Genoud, M.  Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Opt. Phys. 16, 46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adel, P.

Adler, F.

Anthon, D.

S. Grubb,W. Humer, R. Cannon, S. Vendetta, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, M. Keur, J. Kwasegroch, T. Munks, and D. Anthon, "24.6 dBm output power Er/Yb codoped optical amplifier pumped by diode-pumped Nd:YLE laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 1275 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W.

J. Townsend, W. Barnes, K. Jedrzejewski, and S. Grubb, "Yb3+ sensitised Er3+ doped silica optical fibre with ultrahigh transfer efficiency and gain," Electron. Lett. 27, 1958 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

B. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. Kutz, J. Cunningham, W. Jan, M. Koch, and W. Knox, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

I. Coddington,W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, Q. Q. C.W. Oates, K. S. Feder, J.W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brehm, M.

Callicoatt, B.

Cannon, R.

S. Grubb,W. Humer, R. Cannon, S. Vendetta, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, M. Keur, J. Kwasegroch, T. Munks, and D. Anthon, "24.6 dBm output power Er/Yb codoped optical amplifier pumped by diode-pumped Nd:YLE laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 1275 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Caplen, J.

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington,W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, Q. Q. C.W. Oates, K. S. Feder, J.W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Fiber-laser frequency combs with sub-hertz relative linewidths," Opt. Lett. 31, 3046 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collings, B.

B. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. Kutz, J. Cunningham, W. Jan, M. Koch, and W. Knox, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Coq, Y. L.

I. Coddington,W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, Q. Q. C.W. Oates, K. S. Feder, J.W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S.

B. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. Kutz, J. Cunningham, W. Jan, M. Koch, and W. Knox, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

B. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. Kutz, J. Cunningham, W. Jan, M. Koch, and W. Knox, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

I. Coddington,W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, Q. Q. C.W. Oates, K. S. Feder, J.W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

Fallnich, C.

N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, "Frequency stabilization of mode-locked erbium fiber lasers using pump power control," Appl. Phys. B 78, 321 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feder, K. S.

I. Coddington,W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, Q. Q. C.W. Oates, K. S. Feder, J.W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Fiber-laser frequency combs with sub-hertz relative linewidths," Opt. Lett. 31, 3046 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

Fermann, M. E.

Gohle, C.

Griebner, U.

M. Moenster, U. Griebner, W. Richter, and G. Steinmeyer, "Resonant saturable absorber mirrors for dispersion control in ultrafast lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grosche, G.

Grubb, S.

S. Grubb,W. Humer, R. Cannon, S. Vendetta, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, M. Keur, J. Kwasegroch, T. Munks, and D. Anthon, "24.6 dBm output power Er/Yb codoped optical amplifier pumped by diode-pumped Nd:YLE laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 1275 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Townsend, W. Barnes, K. Jedrzejewski, and S. Grubb, "Yb3+ sensitised Er3+ doped silica optical fibre with ultrahigh transfer efficiency and gain," Electron. Lett. 27, 1958 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D.

D. Hanna, R. Percival, I. Perry, R. Smart, and A. Tropper, "Efficient operation of an Yb-sensitised Er fibre laser pumped in 0.8μm region," Electron. Lett. 24, 1068 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Haverkamp, N.

A. Schlatter, B. Rudin, S. C. Zeller, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, "Nearly quantum-noise-limited timing jitter from miniature Er:Yb:glass lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, "Frequency stabilization of mode-locked erbium fiber lasers using pump power control," Appl. Phys. B 78, 321 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

Hong, F.-L.

Honkanen, S.

Y. Hu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hönninger, C

C . Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F . Morier-Genoud, M.  Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Opt. Phys. 16, 46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K.

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, K. Hsu, T. Kotake, H. Yaguchi, D. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, and S. Set, "5-GHz pulsed fiber Fabry-Perot laser mode-locked using carbon nanotubes," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

C. Jiang, W. Hu, and Q. Zeng, "Improved gain performance of high concentration Er3+/-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifier," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Y. Hu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Humer, W.

S. Grubb,W. Humer, R. Cannon, S. Vendetta, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, M. Keur, J. Kwasegroch, T. Munks, and D. Anthon, "24.6 dBm output power Er/Yb codoped optical amplifier pumped by diode-pumped Nd:YLE laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 1275 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hundertmark, H.

N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, "Frequency stabilization of mode-locked erbium fiber lasers using pump power control," Appl. Phys. B 78, 321 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, B.-C.

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, "Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+ - and Yb3+-Er3+-doped phosphate glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Opt. Phys. 17, 833 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

Innerhofer, E.

Inoue, Y.

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, K. Hsu, T. Kotake, H. Yaguchi, D. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, and S. Set, "5-GHz pulsed fiber Fabry-Perot laser mode-locked using carbon nanotubes," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Itoga, E.

Jablonski, M.

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, K. Hsu, T. Kotake, H. Yaguchi, D. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, and S. Set, "5-GHz pulsed fiber Fabry-Perot laser mode-locked using carbon nanotubes," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W.

B. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. Kutz, J. Cunningham, W. Jan, M. Koch, and W. Knox, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jedrzejewski, K.

J. Townsend, W. Barnes, K. Jedrzejewski, and S. Grubb, "Yb3+ sensitised Er3+ doped silica optical fibre with ultrahigh transfer efficiency and gain," Electron. Lett. 27, 1958 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y.

J. Sahu, Y. Jeong, D. Richardson, and J. Nilsson, "A 103 W erbium-ytterbium co-doped large-core fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 227, 159 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, C.

C. Jiang, W. Hu, and Q. Zeng, "Improved gain performance of high concentration Er3+/-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifier," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

Y. Hu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, "Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+ - and Yb3+-Er3+-doped phosphate glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Opt. Phys. 17, 833 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Jones, D.

Kataura, H.

Kazaoui, S.

Keilmann, F.

Keller, U.

S. Zeller, T. Sudmeyer, K. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Passively modelocked 77 GHz Er:Yb:glass laser," Electron. Lett. 43, 32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Spühler, L. Krainer, E. Innerhofer, R. P. K. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Soliton mode-locked Er:Yb:glass laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 263 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schlatter, B. Rudin, S. C. Zeller, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, "Nearly quantum-noise-limited timing jitter from miniature Er:Yb:glass lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C . Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F . Morier-Genoud, M.  Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Opt. Phys. 16, 46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keur, M.

S. Grubb,W. Humer, R. Cannon, S. Vendetta, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, M. Keur, J. Kwasegroch, T. Munks, and D. Anthon, "24.6 dBm output power Er/Yb codoped optical amplifier pumped by diode-pumped Nd:YLE laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 1275 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W.

B. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. Kutz, J. Cunningham, W. Jan, M. Koch, and W. Knox, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

B. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. Kutz, J. Cunningham, W. Jan, M. Koch, and W. Knox, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kotake, T.

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, K. Hsu, T. Kotake, H. Yaguchi, D. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, and S. Set, "5-GHz pulsed fiber Fabry-Perot laser mode-locked using carbon nanotubes," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krainer, L.

Kubina, P.

Kutz, J.

B. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. Kutz, J. Cunningham, W. Jan, M. Koch, and W. Knox, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kwasegroch, J.

S. Grubb,W. Humer, R. Cannon, S. Vendetta, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, M. Keur, J. Kwasegroch, T. Munks, and D. Anthon, "24.6 dBm output power Er/Yb codoped optical amplifier pumped by diode-pumped Nd:YLE laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 1275 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

Leaird, D.

Leilabady, P.

S. Grubb,W. Humer, R. Cannon, S. Vendetta, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, M. Keur, J. Kwasegroch, T. Munks, and D. Anthon, "24.6 dBm output power Er/Yb codoped optical amplifier pumped by diode-pumped Nd:YLE laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 1275 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

Lipphardt, B.

Lorini, L.

I. Coddington,W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, Q. Q. C.W. Oates, K. S. Feder, J.W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

Y. Hu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luo, T.

Y. Hu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, "Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+ - and Yb3+-Er3+-doped phosphate glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Opt. Phys. 17, 833 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, H.

McFerran, J. J.

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, "Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian fceo phase excursions," Appl. Phys. B 86, 219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Fiber-laser frequency combs with sub-hertz relative linewidths," Opt. Lett. 31, 3046 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKinney, J.

Minami, N.

Minelly, J.

Minoshima, K.

Mirin, R.

Miyashita, K.

Moenster, M.

M. Moenster, U. Griebner, W. Richter, and G. Steinmeyer, "Resonant saturable absorber mirrors for dispersion control in ultrafast lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F

C . Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F . Morier-Genoud, M.  Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Opt. Phys. 16, 46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morrell, M.

Y. Hu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moutzouris, K.

Munks, T.

S. Grubb,W. Humer, R. Cannon, S. Vendetta, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, M. Keur, J. Kwasegroch, T. Munks, and D. Anthon, "24.6 dBm output power Er/Yb codoped optical amplifier pumped by diode-pumped Nd:YLE laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 1275 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington,W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, Q. Q. C.W. Oates, K. S. Feder, J.W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, "Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian fceo phase excursions," Appl. Phys. B 86, 219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Fiber-laser frequency combs with sub-hertz relative linewidths," Opt. Lett. 31, 3046 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Swann and N. R. Newbury, "Frequency-resolved coherent lidar using a femtosecond fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 31, 826 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Washburn, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, "Response dynamics of the frequency comb output from a femtosecond fiber laser," Opt. Express 13, 10622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicholson, J. W.

Nicholson, J.W.

I. Coddington,W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, Q. Q. C.W. Oates, K. S. Feder, J.W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

J. Sahu, Y. Jeong, D. Richardson, and J. Nilsson, "A 103 W erbium-ytterbium co-doped large-core fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 227, 159 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Vienne, J. Caplen, L. Dong, J. Minelly, J. Nilsson, and D. Payne, "Fabrication and characterization of Yb3+:Er3+ phosphosilicate fibers for lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oates, Q. Q. C.W.

I. Coddington,W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, Q. Q. C.W. Oates, K. S. Feder, J.W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Onae, A.

Paschotta, R.

A. Schlatter, B. Rudin, S. C. Zeller, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, "Nearly quantum-noise-limited timing jitter from miniature Er:Yb:glass lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C . Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F . Morier-Genoud, M.  Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Opt. Phys. 16, 46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D.

Percival, R.

D. Hanna, R. Percival, I. Perry, R. Smart, and A. Tropper, "Efficient operation of an Yb-sensitised Er fibre laser pumped in 0.8μm region," Electron. Lett. 24, 1068 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Perry, I.

D. Hanna, R. Percival, I. Perry, R. Smart, and A. Tropper, "Efficient operation of an Yb-sensitised Er fibre laser pumped in 0.8μm region," Electron. Lett. 24, 1068 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Hu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, "Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+ - and Yb3+-Er3+-doped phosphate glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Opt. Phys. 17, 833 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D.

J. Sahu, Y. Jeong, D. Richardson, and J. Nilsson, "A 103 W erbium-ytterbium co-doped large-core fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 227, 159 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richter, W.

M. Moenster, U. Griebner, W. Richter, and G. Steinmeyer, "Resonant saturable absorber mirrors for dispersion control in ultrafast lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rudin, B.

Sahu, J.

J. Sahu, Y. Jeong, D. Richardson, and J. Nilsson, "A 103 W erbium-ytterbium co-doped large-core fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 227, 159 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sakakibara, Y.

Sanford, N.

Schibli, T.

Schibli, T. R.

Schiller, S.

Schlager, J.

Schlatter, A.

Schliesser, A.

Schnatz, H.

Seneschal, K.

Y. Hu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Set, S.

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, K. Hsu, T. Kotake, H. Yaguchi, D. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, and S. Set, "5-GHz pulsed fiber Fabry-Perot laser mode-locked using carbon nanotubes," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smart, R.

D. Hanna, R. Percival, I. Perry, R. Smart, and A. Tropper, "Efficient operation of an Yb-sensitised Er fibre laser pumped in 0.8μm region," Electron. Lett. 24, 1068 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

Y. Hu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, K. Seneschal, M. Morrell, F. Smektala, S. Honkanen, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Performance of high-concentration Er3+-Yb3+-codoped phosphate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sorbello, G.

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, "Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+ - and Yb3+-Er3+-doped phosphate glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Opt. Phys. 17, 833 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spuhler, G. J.

Spühler, G.

Steinmeyer, G.

M. Moenster, U. Griebner, W. Richter, and G. Steinmeyer, "Resonant saturable absorber mirrors for dispersion control in ultrafast lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sudmeyer, T.

S. Zeller, T. Sudmeyer, K. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Passively modelocked 77 GHz Er:Yb:glass laser," Electron. Lett. 43, 32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington,W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, Q. Q. C.W. Oates, K. S. Feder, J.W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter," Nature Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, "Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian fceo phase excursions," Appl. Phys. B 86, 219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Fiber-laser frequency combs with sub-hertz relative linewidths," Opt. Lett. 31, 3046 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Swann and N. R. Newbury, "Frequency-resolved coherent lidar using a femtosecond fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 31, 826 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Washburn, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, "Response dynamics of the frequency comb output from a femtosecond fiber laser," Opt. Express 13, 10622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweeney, K.

S. Grubb,W. Humer, R. Cannon, S. Vendetta, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, M. Keur, J. Kwasegroch, T. Munks, and D. Anthon, "24.6 dBm output power Er/Yb codoped optical amplifier pumped by diode-pumped Nd:YLE laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 1275 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, D.

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, K. Hsu, T. Kotake, H. Yaguchi, D. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, and S. Set, "5-GHz pulsed fiber Fabry-Perot laser mode-locked using carbon nanotubes," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 750 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tauser, F.

Telle, H.

H. Telle, "Stabilization and modulation schemes of laser diodes for applied spectroscopy." Spectrochimica Acta Review 15, 301 (1993).

Telle, H. R.

A. Schlatter, B. Rudin, S. C. Zeller, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, "Nearly quantum-noise-limited timing jitter from miniature Er:Yb:glass lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1536 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, "Frequency stabilization of mode-locked erbium fiber lasers using pump power control," Appl. Phys. B 78, 321 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E.

T. Schibli, E. Thoen, F. K¨artner, and E. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B 70, S41 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tokumoto, M.

Townsend, J.

J. Townsend, W. Barnes, K. Jedrzejewski, and S. Grubb, "Yb3+ sensitised Er3+ doped silica optical fibre with ultrahigh transfer efficiency and gain," Electron. Lett. 27, 1958 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A.

D. Hanna, R. Percival, I. Perry, R. Smart, and A. Tropper, "Efficient operation of an Yb-sensitised Er fibre laser pumped in 0.8μm region," Electron. Lett. 24, 1068 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, S.

B. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. Kutz, J. Cunningham, W. Jan, M. Koch, and W. Knox, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van der Weide, D.

Vendetta, S.

S. Grubb,W. Humer, R. Cannon, S. Vendetta, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, M. Keur, J. Kwasegroch, T. Munks, and D. Anthon, "24.6 dBm output power Er/Yb codoped optical amplifier pumped by diode-pumped Nd:YLE laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 1275 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vienne, G.

Washburn, B. R.

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, "Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian fceo phase excursions," Appl. Phys. B 86, 219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Washburn, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, "Response dynamics of the frequency comb output from a femtosecond fiber laser," Opt. Express 13, 10622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, J.

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, "Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+ - and Yb3+-Er3+-doped phosphate glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Opt. Phys. 17, 833 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layout of two Yb-Er fiber lasers used in this work. They both form cw mode-locked lasers. SAM, (semiconductor) saturable absorber mirror; SWF, short wavelength pass filter; PC, polarization controller; OC, output coupler; L1 and L2, lenses with focal length = 11mm; L3, lens with focal length = 4.5mm. Solid lines represent fiber, and dotted lines, air paths.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measurements of the 1.01 GHz Yb-Er fiber laser. (a) Microwave spectrum with multiple harmonics of f r. (b) Field spectrum of f r with a 10MHz span and res. bandwidth = 10kHz. (c) Pulse train (d) Optical spectrum: the green trace is a Gaussian fit to the linear profile of the measured red trace beneath, while blue trace shows the spectrum on a logarithmic scale.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measurements of the Yb-Er fiber laser with f r near 2 GHz (using the ΔR = 0.11 SAM). (a) Microwave spectrum with multiple harmonics of f r. (b) Similar to (a), but showing sidebands that are a manifestation of slightly elliptically polarized light. (c) Field spectrum of f r with a 50 MHz span and RBW = 100 kHz. (d) f r at RBW = 300 Hz (e) Optical spectrum: the green trace is a Gaussian fit to the linear profile of the measured red trace beneath.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Response function of the MLL’s output intensity with respect to the current modulation of the pump laser. (b) One-sided phase spectral densities of the 2×f r=1.07 GHz signal of a cw mode-locked Yb-Er laser. Trace (i), open loop; (ii), closed out-of-loop; and (iii), measurement system noise floor. The right axis shows the corresponding timing jitter spectral density.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Field spectrum of a phase-stabilized optical beat signal, RBW= 300 Hz (b) One-sided phase spectral density of the 627 MHz beat signal when (i) unstabilized and (ii) phase-locked. The right axis shows the corresponding timing jitter spectral density.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Semiconductor saturable absorber characteristics.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Fiber length combinations and net group delay dispersion for different cavities.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Parameter description and values for the Yb-Er mode-locked laser.

Equations (1)

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τ P , FSA = 1.76 ( 2 g π 2 Δ v g 2 R ) 1 2

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