Abstract

The sensitivity of attenuation bands corresponding to the 2nd order coupling to cladding modes by a fibre optic long period grating (LPG) to the deposition of nanostructured coatings is investigated and compared with that of the 1st order coupling. The experimental observations support previously reported theoretical descriptions of LPGs with nanoscale coatings.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. N D Rees, S W James, R P Tatam, and G J Ashwell, "Optical Fiber Long Period Gratings With Langmuir-Blodgett Thin Film Overlays," Opt. Lett. 9, 686-688, 2002.
  2. I Del Villar, M Achaerandio, I R Matias and F J Arregui "Deposition of overlays by electrostatic self-assembly in long-period fibre gratings," Opt. Lett. 30, 720-722, 2005.
  3. A Cusano, P Pilla, L Contessa, A Iadicicco, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, G Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, Art. No. 234105, 2005.
  4. S W James and R P Tatam, "Fibre Optic Sensors with Nano-Structured Coatings," J. Opt. A: Pure and Applied Optics,  8, S340, 2006.
  5. I Del Villar, IR Matias, FJ Arregui "Influence on cladding mode distribution of overlay deposition on long-period fiber gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 23, 651-658, 2006.
  6. I Del Villar, IR Matias, FJ Arregui, M Achaerandio "Nanodeposition of materials with complex refractive index in long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4192-4199, 2005.
  7. A Cusano, A Iadicicco P Pilla, L Contessa, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, "Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity," Opt. Lett 30, 2536-2538, 2005.
  8. I Ishaq, S W James, G J Ashwell, R P Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays", Sens. Actuators B: Chemical,  107, pp738-741, 2005.
  9. J M Corres, I R Matias, I del Villar I, F J Arregui "Design of pH sensors in long-period fiber gratings using polymeric nanocoatings,"IEEE Sens. J. 7,455-463, 2007.
  10. J Keith, L C Hess, W U Spendel, J A Cox, G E Pacey, "The investigation of the behavior of a long period grating sensor with a copper sensitive coating fabricated by layer-by-layer electrostatic adsorption," Tatanta 70,818-822, 2006.
  11. M Konstantaki, S Pissadakis, S Pispas, N Madamopoulos, N A Vainos "Optical fiber long-period grating humidity sensor with poly(ethylene oxide)/cobalt chloride coating," Appl. Opt. 45, 4567-4571, 2006
  12. A Cusano, A Iadicicco, P Pilla, L Contessa, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, G Guerra, "Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity opto-chemical sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1776-1786, 2006.
  13. G E Pacey, S D Puckett, L Cheng, S Khatib-Shahidi, J A Cox "Detection of DNA damaging agents using layer-by-layer assembly," Anal. Chem. ACTA 533, 135-139, 2005.
  14. I Del Villar, J M Corres, M Achaerandio, F J Arregui, I R Matias, "Spectral evolution with incremental nanocoating of long period fibre gratings," Opt. Express,  14, 11972-11981, 2006.
  15. S W James and R P Tatam, "Optical Fibre Long Period Grating Sensors: Characteristics and Application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61, 2003.
  16. T Allsop, L Zhang, D J Webb, I Bennion "Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using first and second-order diffraction from a long-period grating," Opt. Commun. 211,103-108, 2002.
  17. V Bhatia, "Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing," Opt. Express,  4, 457-466, 1999.
  18. H J Patrick, A D Kersey, F Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightwave Technol. 161606-1612, 1998.
  19. K Skjonnemand PhD Thesis Cranfield University 2000.
  20. X Shu, X Zhu, S Jiang, W Shi and D Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long period fibre grating to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581, 1999.
  21. V Grubsky and J Feinberg, "Long period gratings with variable coupling for real time sensing applications," Opt. Lett. 25, 203-205, 2000.
  22. Y G Han, B H Lee, W T Han, U C Paek, Y Chung, "Resonance peak shift and dual peak separation of long period fibre gratings for sensing applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 699 - 7012001.

2007

J M Corres, I R Matias, I del Villar I, F J Arregui "Design of pH sensors in long-period fiber gratings using polymeric nanocoatings,"IEEE Sens. J. 7,455-463, 2007.

2006

J Keith, L C Hess, W U Spendel, J A Cox, G E Pacey, "The investigation of the behavior of a long period grating sensor with a copper sensitive coating fabricated by layer-by-layer electrostatic adsorption," Tatanta 70,818-822, 2006.

M Konstantaki, S Pissadakis, S Pispas, N Madamopoulos, N A Vainos "Optical fiber long-period grating humidity sensor with poly(ethylene oxide)/cobalt chloride coating," Appl. Opt. 45, 4567-4571, 2006

A Cusano, A Iadicicco, P Pilla, L Contessa, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, G Guerra, "Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity opto-chemical sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1776-1786, 2006.

S W James and R P Tatam, "Fibre Optic Sensors with Nano-Structured Coatings," J. Opt. A: Pure and Applied Optics,  8, S340, 2006.

I Del Villar, IR Matias, FJ Arregui "Influence on cladding mode distribution of overlay deposition on long-period fiber gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 23, 651-658, 2006.

I Del Villar, J M Corres, M Achaerandio, F J Arregui, I R Matias, "Spectral evolution with incremental nanocoating of long period fibre gratings," Opt. Express,  14, 11972-11981, 2006.

2005

I Del Villar, M Achaerandio, I R Matias and F J Arregui "Deposition of overlays by electrostatic self-assembly in long-period fibre gratings," Opt. Lett. 30, 720-722, 2005.

I Del Villar, IR Matias, FJ Arregui, M Achaerandio "Nanodeposition of materials with complex refractive index in long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4192-4199, 2005.

A Cusano, A Iadicicco P Pilla, L Contessa, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, "Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity," Opt. Lett 30, 2536-2538, 2005.

I Ishaq, S W James, G J Ashwell, R P Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays", Sens. Actuators B: Chemical,  107, pp738-741, 2005.

G E Pacey, S D Puckett, L Cheng, S Khatib-Shahidi, J A Cox "Detection of DNA damaging agents using layer-by-layer assembly," Anal. Chem. ACTA 533, 135-139, 2005.

2003

S W James and R P Tatam, "Optical Fibre Long Period Grating Sensors: Characteristics and Application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61, 2003.

2002

T Allsop, L Zhang, D J Webb, I Bennion "Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using first and second-order diffraction from a long-period grating," Opt. Commun. 211,103-108, 2002.

N D Rees, S W James, R P Tatam, and G J Ashwell, "Optical Fiber Long Period Gratings With Langmuir-Blodgett Thin Film Overlays," Opt. Lett. 9, 686-688, 2002.

2001

Y G Han, B H Lee, W T Han, U C Paek, Y Chung, "Resonance peak shift and dual peak separation of long period fibre gratings for sensing applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 699 - 7012001.

2000

1999

X Shu, X Zhu, S Jiang, W Shi and D Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long period fibre grating to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581, 1999.

V Bhatia, "Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing," Opt. Express,  4, 457-466, 1999.

1998

Achaerandio, M

Allsop, T

T Allsop, L Zhang, D J Webb, I Bennion "Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using first and second-order diffraction from a long-period grating," Opt. Commun. 211,103-108, 2002.

Arregui, F J

Arregui, FJ

I Del Villar, IR Matias, FJ Arregui "Influence on cladding mode distribution of overlay deposition on long-period fiber gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 23, 651-658, 2006.

I Del Villar, IR Matias, FJ Arregui, M Achaerandio "Nanodeposition of materials with complex refractive index in long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4192-4199, 2005.

Ashwell, G J

I Ishaq, S W James, G J Ashwell, R P Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays", Sens. Actuators B: Chemical,  107, pp738-741, 2005.

N D Rees, S W James, R P Tatam, and G J Ashwell, "Optical Fiber Long Period Gratings With Langmuir-Blodgett Thin Film Overlays," Opt. Lett. 9, 686-688, 2002.

Bennion, I

T Allsop, L Zhang, D J Webb, I Bennion "Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using first and second-order diffraction from a long-period grating," Opt. Commun. 211,103-108, 2002.

Bhatia, V

Bucholtz, F

Campopiano, S

Cheng, L

G E Pacey, S D Puckett, L Cheng, S Khatib-Shahidi, J A Cox "Detection of DNA damaging agents using layer-by-layer assembly," Anal. Chem. ACTA 533, 135-139, 2005.

Chung, Y

Y G Han, B H Lee, W T Han, U C Paek, Y Chung, "Resonance peak shift and dual peak separation of long period fibre gratings for sensing applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 699 - 7012001.

Contessa, L

Corres, J M

J M Corres, I R Matias, I del Villar I, F J Arregui "Design of pH sensors in long-period fiber gratings using polymeric nanocoatings,"IEEE Sens. J. 7,455-463, 2007.

I Del Villar, J M Corres, M Achaerandio, F J Arregui, I R Matias, "Spectral evolution with incremental nanocoating of long period fibre gratings," Opt. Express,  14, 11972-11981, 2006.

Cox, J A

J Keith, L C Hess, W U Spendel, J A Cox, G E Pacey, "The investigation of the behavior of a long period grating sensor with a copper sensitive coating fabricated by layer-by-layer electrostatic adsorption," Tatanta 70,818-822, 2006.

G E Pacey, S D Puckett, L Cheng, S Khatib-Shahidi, J A Cox "Detection of DNA damaging agents using layer-by-layer assembly," Anal. Chem. ACTA 533, 135-139, 2005.

Cusano, A

A Cusano, A Iadicicco, P Pilla, L Contessa, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, G Guerra, "Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity opto-chemical sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1776-1786, 2006.

A Cusano, A Iadicicco P Pilla, L Contessa, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, "Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity," Opt. Lett 30, 2536-2538, 2005.

Cutolo, A

Del Villar, I

Feinberg, J

Giordano, M

Grubsky, V

Guerra, G

Han, W T

Y G Han, B H Lee, W T Han, U C Paek, Y Chung, "Resonance peak shift and dual peak separation of long period fibre gratings for sensing applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 699 - 7012001.

Han, Y G

Y G Han, B H Lee, W T Han, U C Paek, Y Chung, "Resonance peak shift and dual peak separation of long period fibre gratings for sensing applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 699 - 7012001.

Hess, L C

J Keith, L C Hess, W U Spendel, J A Cox, G E Pacey, "The investigation of the behavior of a long period grating sensor with a copper sensitive coating fabricated by layer-by-layer electrostatic adsorption," Tatanta 70,818-822, 2006.

Huang, D

X Shu, X Zhu, S Jiang, W Shi and D Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long period fibre grating to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581, 1999.

Iadicicco, A

Ishaq, I

I Ishaq, S W James, G J Ashwell, R P Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays", Sens. Actuators B: Chemical,  107, pp738-741, 2005.

James, S W

S W James and R P Tatam, "Fibre Optic Sensors with Nano-Structured Coatings," J. Opt. A: Pure and Applied Optics,  8, S340, 2006.

I Ishaq, S W James, G J Ashwell, R P Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays", Sens. Actuators B: Chemical,  107, pp738-741, 2005.

S W James and R P Tatam, "Optical Fibre Long Period Grating Sensors: Characteristics and Application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61, 2003.

N D Rees, S W James, R P Tatam, and G J Ashwell, "Optical Fiber Long Period Gratings With Langmuir-Blodgett Thin Film Overlays," Opt. Lett. 9, 686-688, 2002.

Jiang, S

X Shu, X Zhu, S Jiang, W Shi and D Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long period fibre grating to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581, 1999.

Keith, J

J Keith, L C Hess, W U Spendel, J A Cox, G E Pacey, "The investigation of the behavior of a long period grating sensor with a copper sensitive coating fabricated by layer-by-layer electrostatic adsorption," Tatanta 70,818-822, 2006.

Kersey, A D

Khatib-Shahidi, S

G E Pacey, S D Puckett, L Cheng, S Khatib-Shahidi, J A Cox "Detection of DNA damaging agents using layer-by-layer assembly," Anal. Chem. ACTA 533, 135-139, 2005.

Konstantaki, M

Lee, B H

Y G Han, B H Lee, W T Han, U C Paek, Y Chung, "Resonance peak shift and dual peak separation of long period fibre gratings for sensing applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 699 - 7012001.

Madamopoulos, N

Matias, I R

Matias, IR

I Del Villar, IR Matias, FJ Arregui "Influence on cladding mode distribution of overlay deposition on long-period fiber gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 23, 651-658, 2006.

I Del Villar, IR Matias, FJ Arregui, M Achaerandio "Nanodeposition of materials with complex refractive index in long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4192-4199, 2005.

Pacey, G E

J Keith, L C Hess, W U Spendel, J A Cox, G E Pacey, "The investigation of the behavior of a long period grating sensor with a copper sensitive coating fabricated by layer-by-layer electrostatic adsorption," Tatanta 70,818-822, 2006.

G E Pacey, S D Puckett, L Cheng, S Khatib-Shahidi, J A Cox "Detection of DNA damaging agents using layer-by-layer assembly," Anal. Chem. ACTA 533, 135-139, 2005.

Paek, U C

Y G Han, B H Lee, W T Han, U C Paek, Y Chung, "Resonance peak shift and dual peak separation of long period fibre gratings for sensing applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 699 - 7012001.

Patrick, H J

Pilla, P

Pispas, S

Pissadakis, S

Puckett, S D

G E Pacey, S D Puckett, L Cheng, S Khatib-Shahidi, J A Cox "Detection of DNA damaging agents using layer-by-layer assembly," Anal. Chem. ACTA 533, 135-139, 2005.

Rees, N D

N D Rees, S W James, R P Tatam, and G J Ashwell, "Optical Fiber Long Period Gratings With Langmuir-Blodgett Thin Film Overlays," Opt. Lett. 9, 686-688, 2002.

Shi, W

X Shu, X Zhu, S Jiang, W Shi and D Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long period fibre grating to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581, 1999.

Shu, X

X Shu, X Zhu, S Jiang, W Shi and D Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long period fibre grating to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581, 1999.

Spendel, W U

J Keith, L C Hess, W U Spendel, J A Cox, G E Pacey, "The investigation of the behavior of a long period grating sensor with a copper sensitive coating fabricated by layer-by-layer electrostatic adsorption," Tatanta 70,818-822, 2006.

Tatam, R P

S W James and R P Tatam, "Fibre Optic Sensors with Nano-Structured Coatings," J. Opt. A: Pure and Applied Optics,  8, S340, 2006.

I Ishaq, S W James, G J Ashwell, R P Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays", Sens. Actuators B: Chemical,  107, pp738-741, 2005.

S W James and R P Tatam, "Optical Fibre Long Period Grating Sensors: Characteristics and Application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61, 2003.

N D Rees, S W James, R P Tatam, and G J Ashwell, "Optical Fiber Long Period Gratings With Langmuir-Blodgett Thin Film Overlays," Opt. Lett. 9, 686-688, 2002.

Vainos, N A

Webb, D J

T Allsop, L Zhang, D J Webb, I Bennion "Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using first and second-order diffraction from a long-period grating," Opt. Commun. 211,103-108, 2002.

Zhang, L

T Allsop, L Zhang, D J Webb, I Bennion "Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using first and second-order diffraction from a long-period grating," Opt. Commun. 211,103-108, 2002.

Zhu, X

X Shu, X Zhu, S Jiang, W Shi and D Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long period fibre grating to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581, 1999.

Anal. Chem. ACTA

G E Pacey, S D Puckett, L Cheng, S Khatib-Shahidi, J A Cox "Detection of DNA damaging agents using layer-by-layer assembly," Anal. Chem. ACTA 533, 135-139, 2005.

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

X Shu, X Zhu, S Jiang, W Shi and D Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long period fibre grating to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581, 1999.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y G Han, B H Lee, W T Han, U C Paek, Y Chung, "Resonance peak shift and dual peak separation of long period fibre gratings for sensing applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 699 - 7012001.

IEEE Sens. J.

J M Corres, I R Matias, I del Villar I, F J Arregui "Design of pH sensors in long-period fiber gratings using polymeric nanocoatings,"IEEE Sens. J. 7,455-463, 2007.

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. A: Pure and Applied Optics

S W James and R P Tatam, "Fibre Optic Sensors with Nano-Structured Coatings," J. Opt. A: Pure and Applied Optics,  8, S340, 2006.

J. Opt. Soc. Am A

I Del Villar, IR Matias, FJ Arregui "Influence on cladding mode distribution of overlay deposition on long-period fiber gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 23, 651-658, 2006.

Meas. Sci. Technol.

S W James and R P Tatam, "Optical Fibre Long Period Grating Sensors: Characteristics and Application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61, 2003.

Opt. Commun.

T Allsop, L Zhang, D J Webb, I Bennion "Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using first and second-order diffraction from a long-period grating," Opt. Commun. 211,103-108, 2002.

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett

A Cusano, A Iadicicco P Pilla, L Contessa, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, "Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity," Opt. Lett 30, 2536-2538, 2005.

Opt. Lett.

Sens. Actuators B: Chemical

I Ishaq, S W James, G J Ashwell, R P Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays", Sens. Actuators B: Chemical,  107, pp738-741, 2005.

Tatanta

J Keith, L C Hess, W U Spendel, J A Cox, G E Pacey, "The investigation of the behavior of a long period grating sensor with a copper sensitive coating fabricated by layer-by-layer electrostatic adsorption," Tatanta 70,818-822, 2006.

Other

A Cusano, P Pilla, L Contessa, A Iadicicco, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, G Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, Art. No. 234105, 2005.

K Skjonnemand PhD Thesis Cranfield University 2000.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The transmission spectrum of a long period grating, of length 40 mm and of period 400 μm fabricated in Fibrecore SM750, a single mode optical fibre with cut-off wavelength 700 nm. The labels indicate the cladding modes to which coupling occur.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Evolution of the optical spectrum of an LPG in response to an increase in the overlay thickness, for a coating of refractive index 1.57. The LPG was fabricated in a photosensitive optical fibre with cut off wavelength 650nm. The gray scale represents the measured transmission, with white corresponding to 100%, and black to 0%. The attenuation bands are labeled according to the attenuation bands to which coupling occurs, and the LP notation has been adopted to aid the discussion of the process provided in section 2.1

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The relationship between the grating period and the wavelength at which coupling occurs to a set of cladding modes, assuming that the LPG was fabricated in an optical fibre of cut off wavelength 670 nm. (a) 1st order coupling and (b) 2nd order coupling. The numbers refer to the order of the cladding mode, LP0x.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission spectrum response to the deposition of a coating of tricosenoic acid, (a) recorded with the LPG below the water subphase and (b) recorded with the LPG above the water subphase. In Fig. 4(a), a selection of the attenuation bands are labeled according to the corresponding cladding modes to aid the discussion in section 4.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Evolution of the transmission spectra of the 1st order coupling attenuation bands recorded with the LPG under the water subphase, recorded for coating thicknesses that correspond to the 1st mode- transition region.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The response of the 1st order coupling features of LPG transmission spectrum to the deposition of a coating of ω- tricosenoic acid. T1, T2 and T3 indicate the first three transition regions. The spectra were recorded with the LPG above the water subphase

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The relationship between the grating period and the wavelength at which 2nd order coupling occurs to the 13th cladding mode (equivalent to HE1,26) when the fibre is assumed to be immersed in air (dashed lines) and in a material of refractive index 1.43 (solid lines).

Equations (2)

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λ ( x ) = ( n core n clad ( x ) ) Λ N ; x = 2,4,6 ..
Δ β = 2 π λ ( n core n clad ( x ) )

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